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INTERNATIONAL EDITION— Not for Sale in the U.S.A. 




Irregular Verbs: An Alphabetical Reference List 



note: Verbs followed by a bullet (•) are defined at the end of the list on the inside back cover. 



Simple 


„. 

Simple 


i asi 


„. 

Simple 


Simple 


i ast 


Form 


Past 


Participle 


Form 


Past 


Participle 


arise 


arose 


arisen 


fly 


flew 


flown 


awake 


awoke 


awoken 


forbid 


forbade 


forbidden 


be 


was, were 


been 


forecast* 


forecast 


forecast 


bear 


bore 


borne/born 


forget 


forgot 


forgotten 


beat 


beat 


beaten/beat 


forgive 


forgave 


forgiven 


become 


became 


become 


forsake* 


forsook 


forsaken 


begin 


began 


begun 


freeze 


froze 


frozen 


bend 


bent 


bent 


get 


got 


gotten/got* 


bet* 


bet 


bet 


give 


gave 


given 


bid* 


bid 


bid 


go 


went 


gone 


bind* 


bound 


bound 


grind* 


ground 


ground 


bite 


bit 


bitten 


grow 


grew 


grown 


bleed 


bled 


bled 


hang** 


hung 


hung 


blow 


blew 


blown 


have 


had 


had 


break 


broke 


broken 


hear 


heard 


heard 


breed* 


bred 


bred 


hide 


hid 


hidden 


bring 


brought 


brought 


hit 


hit 


hit 


broadcast* 


broadcast 


broadcast 


hold 


held 


held 


build 


built 


built 


hurt 


hurt 


hurt 


burn 


burned/burnt 


burned/burnt 


keep 


kept 


kept 


burst* 


burst 


burst 


kneel 


kneeled/knelt 


kneeled/knelt 


buy 


bought 


bought 


know 


knew 


known 


cast* 


cast 


cast 


lay 


laid 


laid 


catch 


caught 


caught 


lead 


led 


led 


choose 


chose 


chosen 


lean 


leaned/leant 


leaned/leant 


cling* 


clung 


clung 


leap 


leaped/leapt 


leaped/leapt 


come 


came 


come 


learn 


learned/learnt 


learned/learnt 


cost 


cost 


cost 


leave 


left 


left 


creep* 


crept 


crept 


lend 


lent 


lent 


cut 


cut 


cut 


let 


let 


let 


deal* 


dealt 


dealt 


lie 


lay 


lain 


dig 


dug 


dug 


light 


lighted/lit 


lighted/lit 


do 


did 


done 


lose 


lost 


lost 


draw 


drew 


drawn 


make 


made 


made 


dream 


dreamed/dreamt 


dreamed/dreamt 


mean 


meant 


meant 


drink 


drank 


drunk 


meet 


met 


met 


drive 


drove 


driven 


mislay 


mislaid 


mislaid 


eat 


ate 


eaten 


mistake 


mistook 


mistaken 


fall 


fell 


fallen 


pay 


paid 


paid 


feed 


fed 


fed 


prove 


proved 


proven/proved 


feel 


felt 


felt 


put 


put 


put 


fight 


fought 


fought 


quit*** 


quit 


quit 


find 


found 


found 


read 


read 


read 


fit 


fit/fitted 


fit/fitted 


rid 


rid 


rid 


flee* 


fled 


fled 


ride 


rode 


ridden 


fling* 


flung 


flung 


ring 


rang 


rung 



*In British English: get-got-got. In American English: get-got-gottenlgot. 
**Hang is a regular verb when it means to kill someone with a rope around his/her neck. 

COMPARE: / hung my clothes in the closet. Tliey hanged the murderer by the neck until he was dead. 
**Also possible in British English: quit-quitted-quitted. 



(continued on the inside back cover) 



UNDERSTANDING AND USING 



FOURTH EDITION 



with ANSWER KEY 



Betty S. Azar 
Stacy A. Hagen 



Understanding and Using English Grammar, Fourth Edition 
with Answer Key 



Copyright © 2009, 2002, 1989, 1981 by Betty Schrampfer Azar 
All rights reserved. 

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by 
any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of the 
publisher. 

Azar Associates: Shelley Hartle, Editor, and Sue Van Etten, Manager 
Pearson Education, 10 Bank Street, White Plains, NY 10606 

Staff credits: The people who made up the Understanding and Using English Grammar Fourth Edition 
team, representing editorial, production, design, and manufacturing, are Janice Baillie, Dave Dickey, Ann 
France, Amy McCormick, Robert Ruvo, and Ruth Voetmann. 

Text composition: S4Carlisle Publishing Services 
Text font: 10/12.5 Plantin 

Illustrations: Don Martinetti, pages 2, 3, 4, 5, 14, 16, 17, 18, 23, 26, 27, 31, 36, 37, 47, 50, 51, 65, 72, 73, 81, 
84, 88, 91, 99, 103, 107, 109, 115, 119, 120, 121, 123, 127, 131, 135, 139, 143, 145, 148, 152, 161, 169, 
183, 185, 188, 190, 194, 201, 213, 220, 223, 232, 236, 238, 247, 255, 256, 259, 260 (top), 275, 278, 280, 
286, 287, 292, 301, 303, 308, 316, 319, 321, 328, 340, 342, 347, 353, 355, 357, 362, 371, 373, 389, 396, 
408, 413, 420, 424, 425, 432, 441, 446; Chris Pavely, pages 8, 41, 43, 45, 47, 54, 56, 60, 68, 70, 71, 74, 75, 
77, 79, 86, 98, 100, 113, 116, 138, 142, 146, 153, 158, 170, 174, 175, 178, 181, 196, 198, 206, 211, 228, 
235, 251, 257, 260 (bottom), 265, 272, 284, 289, 293, 309, 315, 331, 345, 349, 360, 363, 367, 378, 385, 
393, 394, 403, 414, 422, 428; KrisWiltse, pages 17, 19, 28, 29 

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data 

Azar, Betty Schrampfer, 1941- 

Understanding and using English grammar. — 4th ed. / Betty S. Azar, 
Stacy A. Hagen. 
p. cm. 

ISBN-13: 978-0-13-233333-7 (with audio) 

ISBN- 10: 0-13-233333-3 (with audio) 

ISBN-13: 978-0-13-233331-3 (with audio and answer key) 

ISBN- 10: 0-13-233331-7 (with audio and answer key) 

[etc.] 

1. English language—Textbooks for foreign speakers. 2. English 
language— Grammar— Problems, exercises, etc. I. Hagen, Stacy A., 1956- 
II. Title. 

PE1128.A97 2009 

428.2'4-dc22 2008050357 
Printed in the United States of America 
ISBN 13: 978-0-13-233331-3 
ISBN 10: 0-13-233331-7 

123456789 10 — CRK — 14 13 12 11 10 09 

ISBN 13: 978-0-13-246450-5 (International Edition) 
ISBN 10: 0-13-246450-0 (International Edition) 
123456789 10 — CRK — 14 13 12 11 10 09 



For Larry 

B.S.A. 



For Andy and Julianna 

S.H. 




Preface to the Fourth Edition xi 

Acknowledgments xiii 

Chapter 1 OVERVIEW OF VERB TENSES 1 

1-1 The simple tenses 2 

1-2 The progressive tenses 3 

1-3 The perfect tenses 4 

1-4 The perfect progressive tenses 5 

1-5 Summary chart of verb tenses 6 

1- 6 Spelling of -ing and -ed forms 10 

Chapter 2 PRESENT AND PAST; SIMPLE AND PROGRESSIVE 13 

2- 1 Simple present 14 

2-2 Present progressive 14 

2-3 Non-progressive verbs 16 

2-4 Regular and irregular verbs 20 

2-5 Irregular verb list 20 

2-6 Regular verbs: pronunciation of -ed endings 27 

2-7 Simple past 29 

2-8 Past progressive 29 

2-9 Using progressive verbs with always 33 

2- 10 Using expressions of place with progressive verbs 34 

Chapter 3 PERFECT AND PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSES 36 

3- 1 Present perfect 38 

3-2 Have and has in spoken English 42 

3-3 Present perfect vs. simple past 43 

3-4 Present perfect progressive 46 

3-5 Past perfect 50 

3-6 Had in spoken English 53 

3- 7 Past perfect progressive 55 

Chapter 4 FUTURE TIME 60 

4- 1 Simple future: voill and be going to 61 

4-2 Will vs. be going to 63 

4-3 Expressing the future in time clauses 67 

4-4 Using the present progressive and the simple present to 

express future time 69 



CONTENTS V 



4-5 Future progressive 71 

4-6 Future perfect and future perfect progressive 73 

Chapter 5 REVIEW OF VERB TENSES 76 

Chapter 6 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT 84 

6-1 Final -s/-es: use, pronunciation, and spelling 85 

6-2 Basic subject-verb agreement 87 

6-3 Subject-verb agreement: using expressions of quantity 89 

6-4 Subject-verb agreement: using there + be 91 

6- 5 Subject-verb agreement: some irregularities 93 

Chapter 7 NOUNS 100 

7- 1 Regular and irregular plural nouns 101 

7-2 Possessive nouns 105 

7-3 Nouns as adjectives 107 

7-4 Count and noncount nouns 109 

7-5 Noncount nouns 110 

7-6 Some common noncount nouns 110 

7-7 Basic article usage 114 

7-8 General guidelines for article usage 118 

7-9 Expressions of quantity used with count and noncount nouns 122 

7-10 Using a few and few; a little and little 126 

7-11 Singular expressions of quantity: one, each, every 129 

7- 12 Using of in expressions of quantity 131 

Chapter 8 PRONOUNS 135 

8- 1 Personal pronouns 136 

8-2 Personal pronouns: agreement with generic nouns and 

indefinite pronouns 140 

8-3 Personal pronouns: agreement with collective nouns 142 

8-4 Reflexive pronouns 143 

8-5 Using you, one, and they as impersonal pronouns 147 

8-6 Forms of other 148 

8- 7 Common expressions with other 152 

Chapter 9 MODALS, PART 1 1 57 

9- 1 Basic modal introduction 157 

9-2 Polite requests with "I" as the subject 158 

9-3 Polite requests with "you" as the subject 159 

9-4 Polite requests with would you mind 160 

9-5 Expressing necessity: must, have to, have got to 164 

9-6 Lack of necessity and prohibition: have to and must in the negative .... 1 65 

9-7 Advisability: should, ought to, had better 167 

9-8 The past form of should 170 

9-9 Obligation: be supposed to 173 

9-10 Unfulfilled intentions: was/were going to 176 

9-11 Making suggestions: let's, why don't, shall I/we 177 

9-12 Making suggestions: could vs. should 178 



Vi CONTENTS 



Chapter 1 0 MODALS, PART 2 1 80 

10-1 Degrees of certainty: present time 180 

10-2 Degrees of certainty: present time negative 183 

10-3 Degrees of certainty: past time 186 

10-4 Degrees of certainty: future time 189 

10-5 Progressive forms of modals 193 

10-6 Ability: can and could 198 

10-7 Using would to express a repeated action in the past 200 

10-8 Expressing preference: would rather 201 

10-9 Combining modals with phrasal modals 202 

10- 10 Summary chart of modals and similar expressions 204 

Chapter 11 THE PASSIVE 211 

11- 1 Active vs. passive 211 

11-2 Tense forms of the passive 213 

11-3 Using the passive 214 

11-4 The passive form of modals and phrasal modals 220 

11-5 Non-progressive passive 227 

11-6 Common non-progressive passive verbs + prepositions 229 

11-7 The passive with get 233 

11- 8 Participial adjectives 236 

Chapter 12 NOUN CLAUSES 242 

12- 1 Introduction 242 

12-2 Noun clauses beginning with a question word 244 

1 2-3 Noun clauses beginning with whether or if 249 

12-4 Question words followed by infinitives 252 

12-5 Noun clauses beginning with that 253 

12-6 Quoted speech 258 

12-7 Reported speech: verb forms in noun clauses 261 

12- 8 Using -ewer words 268 

Chapter 13 ADJECTIVE CLAUSES 270 

13- 1 Adjective clause pronouns used as the subject 270 

13-2 Adjective clause pronouns used as the object of a verb 273 

13-3 Adjective clause pronouns used as the object of a preposition 274 

13-4 Using whose 277 

13-5 Using where in adjective clauses 279 

13-6 Using when in adjective clauses 280 

13-7 Using adjective clauses to modify pronouns 283 

13-8 Punctuating adjective clauses 285 

13-9 Using expressions of quantity in adjective clauses 290 

13-10 Using which to modify a whole sentence 291 

13- 11 Reducing adjective clauses to adjective phrases 294 

Chapter 14 GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES, PART 1 301 

14- 1 Gerunds: introduction 301 

14-2 Using gerunds as the objects of prepositions 302 

14-3 Common verbs followed by gerunds 307 



CONTENTS VM 



14-4 Go + gerund 309 

14-5 Special expressions followed by -ing 310 

14-6 Common verbs followed by infinitives 313 

14-7 Common verbs followed by either infinitives or gerunds 317 

14-8 It + infinitive; gerunds and infinitives as subjects 322 

14-9 Reference list of verbs followed by gerunds 324 

14- 10 Reference list of verbs followed by infinitives 325 

Chapter 15 GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES, PART 2 331 

15- 1 Infinitive of purpose: in order to 331 

15-2 Adjectives followed by infinitives 333 

15-3 Using infinitives with too and enough 335 

15-4 Passive infinitives and gerunds 338 

15-5 Using gerunds or passive infinitives following need 339 

15-6 Using verbs of perception 341 

15-7 Using the simple form after let and help 343 

15- 8 Using causative verbs: make, have, get 344 

Chapter 16 COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS 352 

16- 1 Parallel structure 352 

16-2 Parallel structure: using commas 354 

16-3 Paired conjunctions: both . . . and; not only . . . but also; 

either . . . or; neither . . . nor 358 

1 6- 4 Separating independent clauses with periods; connecting with 

and and but 361 

Chapter 17 ADVERB CLAUSES 365 

17- 1 Introduction 365 

17-2 Using adverb clauses to show time relationships 368 

17-3 Using adverb clauses to show cause and effect 373 

17-4 Expressing contrast (unexpected result): using even though 374 

17-5 Showing direct contrast: while 376 

17-6 Expressing conditions in adverb clauses: //-clauses 377 

17-7 Shortened //-clauses 378 

17-8 Adverb clauses of condition: using whether or not and even if 379 

17-9 Adverb clauses of condition: using in case 381 

17-10 Adverb clauses of condition: using unless 382 

17- 11 Adverb clauses of condition: using only if 383 

Chapter 1 8 REDUCTION OF ADVERB CLAUSES TO MODIFYING 

ADVERBIAL PHRASES 387 

18- 1 Introduction 387 

18-2 Changing time clauses to modifying adverbial phrases 388 

18-3 Expressing the idea of "during the same time" in modifying 

adverbial phrases 389 

18-4 Expressing cause and effect in modifying adverbial phrases 390 

18-5 Using upon + -ing in modifying adverbial phrases 393 



viii CONTENTS 



Chapter 19 CONNECTIVES THAT EXPRESS CAUSE AND EFFECT, CONTRAST, 

AND CONDITION 397 

19-1 Using because of and due to 397 

19-2 Cause and effect: using therefore, consequently, and so 399 

19-3 Summary of patterns and punctuation 400 

19-4 Other ways of expressing cause and effect: such , . , that 

and so . . . that 402 

19-5 Expressing purpose: using so that 404 

19-6 Showing contrast (unexpected result) 406 

19-7 Showing direct contrast 408 

19-8 Expressing conditions: using otherwise and or (else) 410 

19- 9 Summary of connectives: cause and effect, contrast, and condition 411 

Chapter 20 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES AND WISHES 416 

20- 1 Overview of basic verb forms used in conditional sentences 416 

20-2 True in the present or future 417 

20-3 Untrue (contrary to fact) in the present or future 419 

20-4 Untrue (contrary to fact) in the past 421 

20-5 Using progressive verb forms in conditional sentences 427 

20-6 Using "mixed time" in conditional sentences 428 

20-7 Omitting if 429 

20-8 Implied conditions 430 

20-9 Verb forms following wish 434 

20-10 Using would to make wishes about the future 436 

Appendix SUPPLEMENTARY GRAMMAR CHARTS 439 

Unit A: Basic Grammar Terminology 439 

A-l Subjects, verbs, and objects 439 

A-2 Adjectives 439 

A-3 Adverbs 440 

A-4 Prepositions and prepositional phrases 440 

A-5 The verb be 441 

A-6 Linking verbs 441 

Unit B: Questions 442 

B-l Forms of yes /no and information questions 442 

B-2 Question words 443 

B-3 Shortened yes/no questions 445 

B-4 Negative questions 445 

B-5 Tag questions 446 

Unit C: Contractions 447 

Unit D: Negatives 448 

D-l Using not and other negative words 448 

D-2 Avoiding double negatives 448 

D-3 Beginning a sentence with a negative word 448 

Unit E: Preposition Combinations 449 

E Preposition combinations with adjectives and verbs 449 



CONTENTS . ix 



Unit F: The Subjunctive 450 

F The subjunctive in noun clauses 450 

UnitG: Troublesome Verbs 450 

G Raiselrise, set/sit } lay/lie 450 

Listening Script 451 

Answer Key 465 

Index 517 

Audio CD Tracking List 530 



X CONTENTS 



Preface to the 
Fourth Edition 



Understanding and Using English Grammar is a developmental skills text for intermediate to 
advanced English language learners. It uses a grammar-based approach integrated with 
communicative methodologies to promote the development of all language skills in a variety of 
ways. Starting from a foundation of understanding form and meaning, students engage in 
meaningful communication about real actions, real things, and their own real lives in the 
classroom context. Understanding and Using English Grammar functions principally as a 
classroom teaching text but also serves as a comprehensive reference text for students and 
teachers. 

The eclectic approach and abundant variety of exercise material remain the same as in the 
earlier editions, but each new edition incorporates new ways and means. In particular: 

• WARM-UP EXERCISES FOR THE GRAMMAR CHARTS 

Newly created for the fourth edition, these innovative exercises precede the grammar charts 
and introduce the point(s) to be taught. They have been carefully crafted to help students 
discover the target grammar as they progress through each warm-up exercise. 

• LISTENING PRACTICE 

Numerous listening exercises help students interact with the spoken language in a variety 
of settings that range from the relaxed, casual speech of everyday conversation to the 
academic content of classroom lectures. An audio CD accompanies the student text, and a 
full audio script can be found in the back of the book. 

• ACADEMIC READINGS 

Students can read and respond to a wide selection of carefully crafted readings that focus 
on the target grammar structure. 

• EXPANDED SPEAKING ACTIVITIES 

Students have even more opportunities in this fourth edition to share their experiences, 
express their opinions, and relate the target grammar to their personal lives. The text often 
uses the students' own life experiences as context and regularly introduces topics of interest 
to stimulate the free expression of ideas in structured as well as open discussions. 

• CORPUS-INFORMED CONTENT 

Based on the findings of our corpus researcher, Gena Bennett, grammar content has been 
added, deleted, or modified to reflect the discourse patterns of spoken and written English. 



xi 



Understanding mid Using Englisli Grammar is accompanied by 

• A comprehensive Workbook, consisting of self-study exercises for independent work. 

• An all-new Teacher's Guide, with step-by-step teaching suggestions for each chart, notes 
to the teacher on key grammar structures, vocabulary lists, and expansion activities and 
PozverPoint presentations for key chapters. 

• An expanded Test Bank, with additional quizzes, chapter tests, and mid-term and final 
exams. 

• Test- Generator software that allows teachers to customize their own tests using quizzes 
and tests from the Test Bank. 

• Azar Interactive, a computer-based program keyed to the text, provides easily 
understood content, all-new exercises, readings, listening and speaking activities, and 
comprehensive tests. 

• PowerPoint presentations for key chapters. Based on real-world readings, these lessons 
are designed for use in the classroom as "beyond-the-book" activities. They can be found 
in the new Teacher's Guide or downloaded from AzarGrammar.com. 

• A Chartbook, a reference book consisting only of the grammar charts. 

• AzarGrammar.com. This Web site provides a variety of supplementary classroom 
materials and is a place where teachers can support each other by sharing their knowledge 
and experience. 

• Fun with Grammar, a teacher resource text by Suzanne Woodward with communicative 
activities correlated with the Azar-Hagen Grammar Series. It is available as a text or as a 
download on AzarGrammar.com. 

The Azar-Hagen Grammar Series consists of 

• Understanding and Using English Grannnar (blue cover), for upper-level students. 

• Fundamentals of English Grammar (black), for mid-level students. 

• Basic Englisli Grammar (red), for lower or beginning levels. 



Xii PREFACE 



Acknowledgments 



W 



A revision of this scope could not have been done without the skills of top-notch professionals. 
We began with a group of outstanding reviewers whose detailed comments guided our writing. 
We wish to express our gratitude for their thoughtful reviews. They areTonie Badillo, El Paso 
Community College; Edina Bagley, Nassau Community College; Michael Berman, 
Montgomery College; Elizabeth Bottcher, Columbia University; Eric Clinkscales,Teikyo 
Loretto Heights University; Cathy Costa, Edmonds Community College; Ms. Carlin Good, 
Columbia University; Deanna Cecil Ferreira, English Language Institute; Linda Gossard, DPT 
Business School ESL Program; Dr. Sheila Hakner, St. John's University; Martha Hall, New 
England School of English; Jennifer Hannon, Massachusetts Community College; Alyson 
Hanson, Gateway Community College; Joan Heiman, Community College of Denver; Steven 
Lasswell, Santa Barbara City College; Linda Leary, Albany Education; Louis Lucca, LaGuardia 
Community College; Kate Masterson, Boston Center for Adult Education; Phyllis McCollum, 
DPT Business School ESL Program; David Moody, El Paso Community College; Jan Peterson, 
Edmonds Community College; Antonina Rodgers, Northern Virginia Community College; 
Lenka Rohls, LaGuardia Community College; Rebecca Suarez,The University of Texas at El 
Paso; Ann Marie Tamayo, Queens Community College; and Kelly Roberts Weibel, Edmonds 
Community College. 

We would like to thank a terrific support team that allows us to do what we do with 
enjoyment and ease: Shelley Hartle, managing editor par excellence, who worked magic on 
every page; Amy McCormick, Azar product manager, who oversaw our project and handled our 
myriad requests with unfailing grace, humor, and skill; Ruth Voetmann, development editor, 
whose attention to detail helped polish each chart and exercise; Janice Baillie, expert production 
editor and copy editor; Sue Van Etten, our skilled and multi-talented business and Web site 
manager; Gena Bennett, corpus researcher, whose findings helped keep us abreast of the 
nuances and changes in spoken and written discourse; and Robert Ruvo, our invaluable 
production liaison at Pearson Education. 

Finally, we'd like to thank the dedicated leadership team from Pearson Education that guided 
this project: JoAnn Dresner, Anne Boynton-Trigg, Rhea Banker, and Sherry Preiss. 

For the new design of this fourth edition we were lucky to have had the combined talents of 
Michael Cimilluca from Lindsay Communications, Ann France from Pearson Education, and 
freelance artist KrisWiltse. 

Our appreciation also goes to illustrators Don Martinetti and Chris Pavely for their humor 
and inspired artwork. 

Finally, we would like to thank our families for their unflagging patience and encouragement 
throughout this extensive revision. Their insights and support are a continual source of 
inspiration. 

Betty S. Azar 
Stacy A. Hagen 



xiii 



Chapter 1 

Overview of Verb Tenses 




□ Exercise 1 . Let's talk: interviews and introductions. 

Interview a classmate, and then introduce this person to the rest of the class or to a small 
group of classmates. Use the given topics or topics of your own choosing. 



1. name 

2. spelling of name 

3. country of origin 

4. birthplace 

5. current residence 



6. reason for coming here 

7. length of time, both past and future, in this city/country 

8. field of study or work 

9. activities in free time 
10. comments on living here 



Exercise 2. Let's talk: preview of verb tenses. (Chapters l -> 5) 

Work with a partner. Take turns asking questions with zvhat + a form of do. Help each other 
decide which verb tense should be used. When you finish asking and answering the questions, 
discuss your use of verb forms with the rest of the class. 

Example: every morning 

Partner A: What do you do every morning? 

Partner B: I (go to classes / eat breakfast / etc.) every morning. What do you do every morning? 
Partner A: I (eat breakfast / do my homework / etc.). 



Partner A 


Partner B 


1. 


every day before you leave home 


1. 


last night 


2. 


since you got up this morning 


2. 


tomorrow 


3. 


right now 


3. 


for the past five minutes 


4. 


at (this exact time) yesterday 


4. 


at (this exact time) tomorrow 


5. 


by the time you got here today 


5. 


by the time you go to bed tonight 



□ Exercise 3. Warm-up. (Chart l-l) 

Do you agree or disagree with each sentence? Circle yes or no. Discuss the verbs in blue. 
What information do the verb tenses provide? 



1 . Warm air rises. 

2. I talk on the phone a lot. 

3. I sent an email today. 

4. I'm going to make a phone call today. 



yes 
yes 
yes 
yes 



no 
no 
no 
no 



1 



The Simple Tense 



This basic diagram will be used in all tense descriptions. 



now 



past 



future 



Tense Examples Meaning 



Simple Pres( 
X X X X x : 


jnt 

( X X X X X 


(a) It snows in 

(b) Tom watchi 


Al 

?s 

1 


aska. 

TV every day. 


In general, the simple present expresses 
events or situations that exist always, 
usually, habitually; they exist now, have 
existed in the past, and probably will exist 
in the future. 


Simple Past 
X 




(c) It snowed yesterday. 

(d) Tom watchedTV last night. 


At one particular time in the past, this 
happened. It began and ended in the past. 


Simple Futur 


e 

X 


(e) It will snow tomorrow. 

It is going to snow tomorrow. 

(f) Tom will watchTV tonight. 

Tom is going to watch TV tonight. 


At one particular time in the future, this will 
happen. 



J Exercise 4. Let's listen and talk. (Chart l-i) 




Listen to the sentences and write the words you hear. Are the sentences true for you? Choose 
yes or no. Share your answers with the class, adding information if you like. 



2 

Example: You will hear: I wore jeans to class yesterday 

You will write: I wore jeans to class yesterday. yes (no 

You might say: I didn't wear jeans to class yesterday 



I wore a skirt. 

1. I my own dinner last night. yes no 

2. I a textbook yesterday. yes no 

3. I on the internet every day. yes no 

4. I home tonight. yes no 

5. I a movie this weekend. yes no 



2 CHAPTER 1 



□ Exercise 5. Warm-up. (Chart 1-2) 

Answer the questions. 

1. What are you doing right now? Look around the room. What are your classmates doing 
right now? What is happening outside the classroom right now? 

2. Where were you at two o'clock this morning? What were you doing? 

3. Where will you be at two o'clock tomorrow? What will you be doing? 



1-2 The Progressive Tenses 




Form: be + -ing (present participle) 

Meaning: The progressive tenses* give the idea that an action is in progress during a particular time. The tenses say 
that an action begins before, is in progress during, and continues after another time or action. 


Present Pro 

o c 
9. c . 
o - 

-x: 


gressive 

1— n 


(a) Tom is sleeping right now. 
m 

^^^^^ 


It is now 1 1 :00. Tom went to sleep at 
10:00 tonight, and he is still asleep. His 
sleep began in the past, is in progress at 
the present time, and probably will 
continue. 


Past Progre 

o o 
o o 

d ~ 

x V — r 

NK 


ssive 


(b) Tom was sleeping when 1 arrived. 


Tom went to sleep at 10:00 last night. I 
arrived at 1 1 :00. He was still asleep. His 
sleep began before and was in progress 
at a particular time in the past. It 
continued after I arrived. 


Future Prog 


ressive 

o o 
o o 

d ^ 

r- 

\ / 
/ 


(c) Tom will be sleeping when we 
arrive. 


Tom will go to sleep at 10:00 tomorrow 
night. We will arrive at 1 1 :00. The action 
of sleeping will begin before we arrive, and 
it will be in progress at a particular time in 
the future. Probably his sleep will 
continue. 



*The progressive tenses are also called the "continuous" tenses: present continuous, past continuous, and future continuous. 



□ Exercise 6. Let's listen and talk. (Chart 1-2) 




Listen to the sentences and write the words you hear. Are the sentences true for you? Choose 
yes or no. Share your answers with the class, adding information if you like. 



1. 


At midnight last night, I 




yes 


no 


2. 


Right now T 


about grammar. 


yes 


no 


3. 


Tomorrow T 


in class at this time. 


yes 


no 


4. 


Tonight at 9:00, 1 


TV. 


yes 


no 


5. 


Last night at 9:00, 1 


TV. 


yes 


no 



Overview of Verb Tenses 3 



□ Exercise 7. Warm-up. (Chart 1-3) 

Answer the questions. 

1 . Have you eaten today? When did you eat? 

2. Had you eaten before you went to bed last night? 

3. Will you have eaten by the time you go to bed tonight? 



1-3 The Perfect Tenses 



Form: have + past participle 

Meaning: The perfect tenses all give the idea that one thing happens before another time or event. 



Present Per 

*~~ 

^ume.'j 


feet 


(a) Tom /7as already eafen. 


Tom finished eating sometime before now. 
The exact time is not important. 

1 


Past Perfec 

> 

4-1 'C 

a u. 

o n 

-X — X 


t 


(b) Tom /7ac/ already eaten when his 
friend arrived. 


First Tom finished eating. Later his friend 
arrived. Tom's eating was completely 
finished before another time in the past. 


Future Perf< 


3Ct 

o 
> 

*± 'C 
ca i-. 

— X — X— 


(c) Tom will already have eaten when 
his friend arrives. 


First Tom will finish eating. Later his friend 
will arrive. Tom's eating will be completely 
finished before another time in the future. 



□ Exercise 8. Let's listen and talk. (Chart 1-3) 

^ Listen to the sentences and write the words you hear. Are the sentences true for you? Choose 
yes or no. Share your answers with the class, adding information if you like. 



CD 1 
Track 4 



1 . I my homework already. yes no 

2. Before I went to bed last night, I all 

my homework. yes no 

3. By the time I finish this chapter, I 



several verb exercises. yes no 

4. I all the English verb tenses. yes no 

5. Before I began this class, I 



all the English verb tenses. yes no 



4 CHAPTER 1 



□ Exercise 9. Warm-up. (Chart 1-4) 

Answer the questions. 

1 . What are you doing right now? How long have you been (doing it)? 

2. What were you doing last night at nine o'clock? What time did you stop (doing it)? Why 
did you stop (doing it)? How long had you been (doing it) before you stopped? 

3. What are you going to be doing at nine o'clock tomorrow night? What time are you going 
to stop (doing it)? Why? How long will you have been (doing it) before you stop? 



1-4 The Perfect Progressive Tenses 



Form: have + been + -ing (present participle) 

Meaning: The perfect progressive tenses give the idea that one event is in progress immediately before, up to, until 
another time or event. The tenses are used to express the duration of the first event. 



Present Perfect 
Progressive 



2 hrs. 



(a) Tom has been studying for two 
hours. 




Event in progress: studying. 
When? Before now, up to now. 
How long? For two hours. 



Past Perfect 
Progressive 



2 hrs. 



(b) Tom had been studying for two 
hours before his friend came. 



Event in progress: studying. 

When? Before another event in the past. 

How long? For two hours. 



Future Perfect 
Progressive 



2 hrs 



(c) Tom will have been studying for two 
hours by the time his friend arrives. 



Event in progress: studying. 

When? Before another event in the future. 

How long? For two hours. 



□ Exercise 10. Looking at grammar. (Chart 1-4) 

Complete the sentences with your own words. 

1 . I'm in class right now. I arrived in class today and sat down at 

(time). Right now the time is . That means that I have been sitting 

in this seat for minutes. 

2. I had been sitting here for minutes before class started. 

3. By the time class finishes at , I will have been sitting here for 

minutes. 



Overview of Verb Tenses 5 



1-5 Summary Chart of Verb Tenses 



Simple Present 



Present Progressive 



xxxxxxxxxxx 



Tom studies every day. 



Tom is studying right now. 



Simple Past 



Past Progressive 



Tom studied last night. 




Tom was studying when they came. 



Simple Future 



Future Progressive 



Tom will study tomorrow. 

Tom is going to study tomorrow. 




Tom will be studying when they come. 

Tom is going to be studying when they come. 



□ Exercise 11. Looking at grammar. (Charts l-l > 1-5) 

Complete the sentences with a form of study and any words in parentheses. Then compare 
your completions with the sentences in Chart 1-5. 



1 . Tom is a student. He _ 

2. Tom is at his desk. He 



every day. 
_ right now. 



last night. 



3. Tom had some homework to do 3 so he 

4. Tom began studying at 7:00 last night. His friends came over around 7:30. Tom was still 

at his desk when they arrived. In other words, Tom 

last night when his friends came over. 

5. Tom tomorrow. 

6. Tom is going to begin studying at 7:00 tomorrow. His friends are going to come over at 
7:30. Tom when they arrive. 



6 CHAPTER 



Present Perfect 



Present Perfect Progressive 



-X — X 



Tom has already studied Chapter 1 . 



X )l 



Tom has been studying for two hours. 



Past Perfect 



Past Perfect Progressive 



-X ¥r 



Tom had already studied Chapter 1 before he 
began studying Chapter 2. 



* £ 



Tom had been studying for two hours before his 
friends came. 



Future Perfect 



Future Perfect Progressive 



-X ¥r 











1 

1 ►! 



Tom will already have studied Chapter 4 before 
he studies Chapter 5. 



Tom will have been studying for two hours by the 
time his roommate gets home. 



7. Tom is studying Chapter 2. He (already) 

Chapter 1. 

8. Last weekTom finished studying Chapter 1. This week he's studying Chapter 2. He 
(already) Chapter 1 when he started Chapter 2. 

9. Next weekTom will finish Chapters 4 and 5. Before Tom studies Chapter 5, he (already) 
Chapter 4. 

10. Today Tom began studying at 8:00. Now it is 10:00. Tom 

for two hours. 

11. Yesterday Tom began studying at 8:00. Tom's friends came over at 10:00. Before his 
friends came, Tom for two hours. 

12. It's 8:00. Tom's roommate gets home at 10:00. By the time Tom's roommate gets home, 
Tom for two hours. 



Overview of Verb Tenses 7 



□ Exercise 12. Let's talk. (Charts l l -> 1-5) 

In the following dialogues, many of the verbs are in italics * In pairs, in small groups, or as a 
class, discuss the meanings of the italicized verbs. What information do the verb tenses 
provide? 

1 . A: What do you do in the evening? 

B: I do my homework and watch a little TV. 
> The speakers are talking about daily habits. 

2. A: What did you do last night? 

B: I watched a movie on television. 

3. A: What are you doing} 

B: I am working on English grammar. 

4. A: I called you last night around 9:00, but no one answered. Where were you? 

B: I was home, but I was studying. I always turn my phone off when I want to study. 



5 . A: Have you ever seen a comet? 

B: I've seen shooting stars, but I've never seen a comet. 

6. A: Have you talked to Mrs. Chang yet? 
B: I will talk to her after lunch. 

7. A: Let's meet at the park after work today. 

B: Okay. I will be sitting on a bench near the Forest 
Avenue entrance. Look for me there. 




8. A: How long have you been working on this grammar exercise? 
B: About ten minutes. 

9. A: Did you like the food at Paul's Cafe? 

B: Yes. I had never eaten there before. Thanks for the recommendation. 

□ Exercise 13. Let's talk. (Charts l-i > 1-5) 

Answer the questions in complete sentences. If you work in pairs, alternate asking and 
answering the sets of questions. You may want to take notes and later share a few of the 
answers with the rest of the class. 

If you work in small groups, select a leader who will ask the questions and elicit two or three 
responses to each. You may wish to rotate the role of leader. 

If you work as a class, close your book and answer the teacher's questions. 

1. a. What do you do every day? 
b. What are you doing now? 

2. a. What did you do last week? 

b. What had you done before that? 

3. a. What will you do next week? 

b. What will you be doing at this time next week? 

c. What will you have done by this time next year? 



*\Vords that are "italicized" or "in italics" have slanted print. Regular print looks like this. Italic print looks like this. 



8 CHAPTER 1 



4. a. What were you doing at this time yesterday? 

b. What will you be doing at this time tomorrow? 

5. a. What have you done since you got up this morning? 

b. What are you doing right now? How long have you been doing that? 

6. a. What were you doing before you walked into the classroom today? 

How long had you been doing that? 
b. What will you be doing before our teacher walks into the classroom tomorrow? How 
long will you have been doing that? 

□ Exercise 14. What do I already know? (Appendix Charts B-l, B-2, and D-l) 

This exercise covers question and negative verb forms you will use in the following chapters. 
Check your understanding of these forms by correcting the errors in these sentences.* 

1 . Does Pedro walks to work every morning? 

2. What you are talking about? 

3. Did you finished your work? 

4. My friend doesn't liking her apartment. 

5 . Do you are working for this company? 

6. What time your plane did it arrive? 

7. How long have you are living in this city? 

8. Ali won't to be in class tomorrow. 

□ Exercise 15. Warm-up: listening. (Chart 1-6) 

^ You will be using many verbs in their -ing and -ed forms in the following chapters. Use this 
pretest to check your spelling. 



CD 1 
Track 5 



Example: You will hear: Listened. We listened to music. Listened. 
You will write: Wetened 

1. 6. 

2. 7. 

3. 8. 



4. 9. 

5. 10. 



*For information about forming questions and negatives, see these self-study charts in the Appendix: B-l (Forms of Yes/No 
and Information Questions), B-2 (Question Words), and D-l (Using Not and Other Negative Words). 



Overview of Verb Tenses 9 



1-6 Spelling of -ing and d Forms 



(1) VERBS THAT END 
IN A CONSONANT 
AND -e 


(a) hope hoping hoped 
date dating dated 
injure injuring injured 


-ing form: If the word ends in -e, drop the 
-e and add -ing* 

-ed form: If the word ends in a consonant 
and -e, just add -d. 


(2) VERBS THAT END 
IN A VOWEL AND 
A CONSONANT 


ONE-SYLLABLE VERBS 


1 vowel -> 2 consonants** 

2 vowels -> 1 consonant 


(b) stop stopping stopped 

iuu luuuiiiy iuuucu 

(c) rain raining rained 
fool fooling fooled 


TWO-SYLLABLE VERBS 


1st syllable stressed -> 1 consonant 
2nd syllable stressed -> 2 consonants 


(d) listen listening listened 
offer offering offered 

(e) begin beginning (began) 
prefer preferring preferred 


(3) VERBS THAT END 
IN TWO 
CONSONANTS 


(f) start starting started 
fold folding folded 
demand demanding demanded 


If the word ends in two consonants, just add 
the ending. 


(4) VERBS THAT END 
IN -y 


(g) enjoy enjoying enjoyed 
pray praying prayed 

(h) study studying studied 
try trying tried 
reply replying replied 


If -y is preceded by a vowel, keep 
the -y. 

If -y is preceded by a consonant: 
-ing form: keep the -y; add -ing. 
-ed form: change -y to -/; add -ed. 


(5) VERBS THAT END 

IN -is 


(i) die dying died 
lie lying lied 


-ing form: Change -/e to -y; add -ing. 
-ed form: Add -d. 



*Exception: If a verb ends in -ee, the final -e is not dropped: seeing, agreeing, freeing. 
**Exception: -tu and -x are not doubled: plow -+ ploived;fix -+ fixed. 

□ Exercise 16. Looking at spelling. (Chart 1-6) 

Write the correct forms of the given verbs. 



Part I. Write the -ing form of these verbs in the correct columns. 



/ date grade stay 

dine happen stop 

enjoy put win 



Drop the -e. 


Double the consonant. 


Just add -ing. 


datlna 



















10 CHAPTER 1 



Part II. Write the -ed form of these verbs in the correct columns. 

/answer listen open plan 

control offer permit prefer 



Do not double the consonant. 


Double the consonant. 


amwered 

















Exercise 17. Looking at spelling. (Chart 1-6) 

Practice spelling verb forms. 

Part I. Write the correct -ing form of the given verbs. 



1. hold ho\d\na 7. eat 

2. hide 8. pat 

3. run 9. lie 

4. ruin 10. begin 

5. come 11. earn 

6. write 12. fly 



Part II. Write the correct -ing and -ed forms of the given verbs. 

1. boil boiling, boiled 

2. plan 

3. rain 

4. tape 

5. tap 

6. enter 

7. prefer 

8. translate 

9. die 

10. employ 



Overview of Verb Tenses 1 1 



1 1 . bury 

12. admit 

13. visit 

14. wait 



□ Exercise 18. Listening. (Chart 1-6) 

/f% Listen to the sentences and write the words you hear. 



CD 1 Example: You will hear: We are visiting family this weekend. 

Track 6 

You will write: We are vieit'mg family this weekend. 

1 . We an apartment in the city. 

2. We to rent and see how we liked city life. 

3. The earthquake the town. 

4. Our children their grandparents. 

5. We a little weight on our vacation. 

6. I a short trip this summer. 

7. I a few weeks off from work. 

8. Right now I to several emails. 

9. I'm done. I to all of them. 

□ Exercise 19. Let's talk and write. (Chapter l) 

Do one or more of these activities. 
Activities: 

1. Interview a classmate outside of class and write a story of his/her life. 

2. Interview a native speaker of English and write a story of his/her life. 

3. With a classmate, take a trip to a particular place, such as a museum, a park, or a 
restaurant. Write a report of your trip, or give an oral report to your classmates. 

4. Write a brief paragraph about yourself, telling who you are, what you have done in the 
past two years, and what your plans are for the next two years. Then exchange papers 
with a classmate. Read your classmate's paragraph and ask questions if you need more 
information or clarification. Next, join two other students to form a group of four. Tell 
the others in the group about your classmate. Use the information from the paragraph 
he/she wrote. 



1 2 CHAPTER 1 



Chapter 2 



Present and Past; 
Simple and Progressive 



□ Exercise 1 . What do I already know? (Chapter 2) 

Correct the errors in verb forms. 
do 

1 . I am- not agree with your opinion. 

2. I'm not knowing Sam's wife. 

3. My roommate usually watch television, listen to music, or going out in the evening. 

4. When I turned the key, the car was starting. 

5. Air is consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, and other gases. 

6. The children drawed some pictures in school this morning. 

7. Right now Sally in the kitchen eating breakfast. 

8. While I'm driving home last night, I heared a strange noise in the engine. 

9. A: What you are talking about? 

B: I talking about the political situation in my country. 

□ Exercise 2. Warm-up. (Charts 2-1 and 2-2) 

Work individually and then as a class. 

Part I. Read each sentence and circle yes or no. If the information is not true, restate it. 

1 . I read a newspaper every day. yes no 

2. I am sitting next to someone from Asia. yes no 

3. The sun revolves around the earth. yes no 

Part II. Answer the questions. 

4. Which sentence discusses a general truth? 

5. Which sentence talks about a daily habit? 

6. Which sentence talks about something that is happening right now? 



13 



2-1 Simple Present 


x x x x x : 


: x x x x x 


(a) Water consists of hydrogen and 
oxygen. 

(b) The average person breathes 
21,600 times a day. 

(c) The world is round. 


The simple present says that 
something was true in the past, is true 
in the present, and will be true in the 
future. It expresses general statements 
of fact and general truths. 


(d) I get up at seven every morning. 

(e) I always eat a salad for lunch. 


The simple present is used to express 
habitual or everyday activities. 



2-2 Present Progressive 




c start 
now 


finish? 


(f ) The students are sitting at their 
desks right now. 

(g) 1 need an umbrella because it 
is raining. 

(h) 1 am taking five courses this 
semester. 


The present progressive expresses an 
activity that is in progress at the 
moment of speaking. It is a temporary 
activity that began in the past, is 
continuing at present, and will probably 
end at some point in the future. 




i 

/ 

/ 

✓ 



□ Exercise 3. Let's talk. (Charts 2-1 and 2-2) 

Work in small groups. 

Part I. Discuss the given topics. Each member of the group should contribute one sentence 
for each topic. Share some of your sentences with the class. 

Topics: 

Tell your group one daily habit you have. 

Look around the room. Describe one activity that is happening right now. 
Describe something that is happening in the world right now. 

Part II. Use the simple present to make generalizations about some of the given topics. Use 
your own verbs or those in the list. 

beat consist eat make save 

breathe contain have produce sleep 

cause drink live revolve use 

Topics: 
the earth 
air 
trees 

the human heart 



* hybrid cars = cars that use both gasoline and electricity for power. 
14 CHAPTER 2 



snowflakes 

the average person 

hybrid cars* 

mammals A 



snowflakes 



□ Exercise 4. Looking at grammar. (Charts 2-1 and 2-2) 

Complete the sentences with the simple present or the present progressive form of the verbs 
in parentheses. 



1. Kristin can't come to the phone because she (wash) \& waeh'ma 

2. Kristin (wash) her hair every other day or so. 



her hair. 



3 . Tony (sit, usually) 
he (sit) 



in the last row. 



in the front row during class, but today 
to concentrate. 

the door to your apartment when 



4. Please be quiet. I (try) 

5. (you, lock, always) 

you leave? 

6. I wrote to my friend last week. She hasn't answered my letter yet. I (wait, still) 
for a reply. 

7. After six days of rain, I'm glad that the sun (shine) 

8. Every morning, the sun (shine) 

(zvake) me up. 



today. 



in my bedroom window and 



□ Exercise 5. Listening. (Charts 2-1 and 2-2) 

Listen to the sen 
may be possible. 



/Ph Listen to the sentences. Circle the correct completion(s). More than one completion 



CD 1 
Track 7 



1. 


right now. 


every day. 


in the summer. 


2. 


today. 


in the winter. 


every April. 


3. 


every year. 


right now. 


this week. 


4. 


right now. 


today. 


every winter. 


5. 


every summer. 


right now. 


in the spring. 


6. 


this week. 


every January. 


every winter. 



□ Exercise 6. Let's talk: class activity. (Charts 2-1 and 2-2) 

On a piece of paper, write an action that a classmate can demonstrate (e.g., stand up, smile, 
open the door, sneeze, write on the board). Give your paper to the teacher, who will 
redistribute the papers at random to the class. Everyone will take turns performing these 
actions for the entire class. Describe the actions using the present progressive. 



Present and Past; Simple and Progressive 1 5 



□ Exercise 7. Warm-up. (Chart 2-3) 

Choose the correct completions. 

1 . The chef is in his kitchen right now. He 

a. cooks b. is cooking 

2. He some soup. 

a. tastes b. is tasting 

3. It too salty. 

a. tastes b. is tasting 



// HI 



4. He 



it. 



a. doesn't like 



b. isn't liking 







(a) 1 know your cousin. 

(b) incorrect: 1 -am-knowin§- your cousin. 


Some verbs, like know, are non-progressive;* i.e., they are 
rarely used in progressive tenses. They describe states, not 
actions. ("States" are conditions or situations that exist.) 


Common Verbs That Are Usually Non-Progressive (like know) 



know 


like 


dislike 


belong 


consist of 


hear 


agree 


believe 


appreciate 


fear 


possess 


contain 


sound 


disagree 


doubt 


care about 


hate 


own 






mean 


recognize 


please 


mind 




exist 


seem 


promise 


remember 


prefer 




desire 


matter 


look like 


amaze 


suppose 






need 




resemble 


surprise 


understand 






want 
wish 









(c) 1 think that your cousin is very nice. 

(d) 1 'm thinking about my trip to Rome. 


Some verbs, like think, have both non-progressive meanings 
and progressive meanings. 

In (c): think means "believe." 

In (d): am thinking means "thoughts are going around in my 
mind right now." 


Common Verbs with Both Non-Progressive and Progressive Meanings (like think) 




NON-PROGRESSIVE 


PROGRESSIVE 


look 
appear 
think 
feel 
have 
j see 
taste 
smell 
love 
be 


It looks cold outside. 

Jack appears to be tired today. 

1 think that Mr. Liu is a good teacher. 

1 feel that Mr. Liu is a good teacher. 

1 have a bicycle. 

Do you see that bird? 

The soup tastes salty. 

Something smells bad. What is it? 

Ken loves his baby daughter. 

Mary is old and wise. 


Olga is looking out the window. 

She 's appearing on a TV show today. 

1 'm thinking about my family right now. 

1 'm feeling a little tired today. 

1 'm having a good time. 

The doctor is seeing a patient right now. 

The chef is tasting the soup. 

Ann is smelling the perfume to see if she wants to buy it. 
Ken is enjoying parenthood. In fact, he's loving it! 
Al is ill but won't see a doctor. He is being foolish.** 



*Non-progressive verbs are also called "stative verbs" or non-action verbs. 

*Amlislare being + an adjective describes temporary behavior. In the example, Al is usually not foolish, but right now he is acting 
that way. 



16 CHAPTER 2 



Exercise 8. Let's talk. (Chart 2 3) 

Discuss the differences in meaning of the italicized verbs in each group of sentences. Work in 
pairs, in small groups, or as a class. 

1. a. These flowers smell good, 
b. James is smelling the flowers. 

2. a. I think Roberto is a kind man. 
b. I am thinking about this exercise. r C 

c. 

3. a. I see a butterfly. Do you see it too? 

b. Alex is seeing a doctor about his headaches. 

c. Jack and Ann are seeing each other. They go out together every weekend. 

4. a. Astrid looks cold. I'll lend her my coat, 
b. Tina is looking out the window. She sees a butterfly. 

5. a. Sue is feeling the cat's fur. 

b. The cat's fur feels soft. 

c. I'm not feeling well today. 

d. I feel that it is important to respect other people's opinions. 

6. a. I remember my first teacher. Do you remember yours? 
b. Aunt Sara is looking through an old picture album. 

She is remembering the wonderful days of her childhood. 

7. a. The children want a snack. They 're hungry, 
b. Like many kids, our children are often quite noisy when they 

play. They're playing right now in the next room. Hmmm. 
They 're being awfully quiet. What do you suppose they're doing? 

8. a. Our son is appearing in a school play this week, 
b. The grocer is weighing the bananas. He appears to be busy. 





Present and Past; Simple and Progressive 



□ Exercise 9. Looking at grammar. (Chart 2-3) 

Choose the correct completions. 

1. This isn't my notebook. It to Mai. 

(jT) belongs b. is belonging 

2. Ask Ahmed for your notebook. He it. 

a. has b. is having 

3. Your notebook is over there. Ahmed it. 

a. holds b. is holding 

4. Look at Olga. She's smiling and dancing. She a good time. 

a. has b. is having 

5. Relax. You don't have to tell me any more about it. I you. 

a. believe b. am believing 

6. Dinosaurs became extinct a long time ago. They anymore. 

a. don't exist b. aren't existing 



□ Exercise 10. Looking at grammar. (Charts 2-1 > 2-3) 

Complete the sentences. Use the simple present or the present progressive of the verbs 
in parentheses. 

1 . Look. It (begin) is beginning to rain. Unfortunately, I (have, not*) 

my umbrella with me. I (own, not) 



an umbrella. Spiro is lucky. He (wear) 



a raincoat. I (wear) 



a waterproof hat on rainy days. 



2. Right now Martha is in the science building. 
The chemistry experiment she (do) 

is dangerous, so she (be) 

very careful. She 

(want, not) to spill 

any of the acid. She (be, always) 

careful when 

she does a chemistry experiment. 




*A form of do is usually used in the negative when the main verb is have, especially in American English (AmE) but also commonly 
in British English (BrE): / don't have a car. Using have without a form of do is also possible but less common: / haven't a car. 



18 CHAPTER 2 



3. Right now I {look) 



at Nicole. She {look) 



angry. I wonder what's the matter. She {have) 

She certainly {have, not) any fun right now, 



a frown on her face. 



4. A: How {you, like) 



the soup? {it, need) 



more garlic? 



B: No 3 it {taste) 



delicious. It {remind) 



me of 



my grandmother's soup. 

5. A: What {you, look) 

B: You! You {look) 

A: {you, think) 



at? 



like your father. 

_ so? Many people tell me I {resemble) 



B: I {see) 



my mother. 

your father's face when I look at you. 



6. Right now I {look) 



Wan-Ning {scratch) 



around the classroom. Yoko {write) 

in her book. Carlos {bite) his pencil. 

his head. Ali {stare) 



out the window. He {seem) 
{think) 



to be daydreaming, but perhaps he 



hard about verb tenses. What {you, think) 

Ali {do) ? 




Exercise 1 1 . Let's write. (Charts 2-1 > 2-3) 

Go to a place where there are many people (such as a zoo 3 a hotel lobby, a street corner) or 
imagine yourself to be there. Describe what you see. Let your reader "see" what you see by 
drawing a picture in words. Use present tenses. Write one paragraph. Begin with a 
description of what you are doing: / am sitting on a bench at the zoo. 



Present and Past; Simple and Progressive 1 9 



2-4 Regular and Irregular Verbs 



Regular Verbs: The simple past and past participle end in -ed. 



SIMPLE FORM 



SIMPLE PAST 



PAST PARTICIPLE 



PRESENT PARTICIPLE 



hope 

stop 

listen 

study 

start 



hoped 

stopped 

listened 

studied 

started 



hoped 

stopped 

listened 

studied 

started 



hoping 

stopping 

listening 

studying 

starting 



English verbs have 
four principal parts: 

(1) simple form 

(2) simple past 

(3) past participle 

(4) present participle 



Irregular Verbs: The simple past and past participle do not end in -ed. 



SIMPLE FORM 



SIMPLE PAST 



PAST PARTICIPLE 



PRESENT PARTICIPLE 



hit 
find 
swim 
break 



hit 

found 
swam 
broke 



hit 

found 
swum 
broken 



hitting 
finding 
swimming 
breaking 



Some verbs have 
irregular past forms. 

Most of the irregular 
verbs in English are 
given in the 
alphabetical list on 
the inside front and 
back covers. 



2-5 Irregular Verb List 



Group 1: All three forms are the same. 



SIMPLE FORM 


SIMPLE PAST 


PAST PARTICIPLE 


SIMPLE FORM 


SIMPLE PAST 


PAST PARTICIPLE 


bet 


bet 


bet 


let 


let 


let 


burst 


burst 


burst 


put 


put 


put 


cost 


cost 


cost 


quit 


quit 


quit 


cut 


cut 


cut 


shut 


shut 


shut 


fit 


fit/fitted 


fit/fitted 


split 


split 


split 


hit 


hit 


hit 


spread 


spread 


spread 


hurt 


hurt 


hurt 


upset 


upset 


upset 


Group 2: Past participle 


ends in -en. 








awake 


awoke 


awoken 


hide 


hid 


hidden 


bite 


bit 


bitten 


prove 


proved 


proven/proved 


break 


broke 


broken 


ride 


rode 


ridden 


choose 


chose 


chosen 


rise 


rose 


risen 


drive 


drove 


driven 


shake 


shook 


shaken 


eat 


ate 


eaten 


speak 


spoke 


spoken 


fall 


fell 


fallen 


steal 


stole 


stolen 


forget 


forgot 


forgotten 


swell 


swelled 


swollen/swelled 


forgive 


forgave 


forgiven 


take 


took 


taken 


freeze 


froze 


frozen 


wake 


woke/waked 


woken 


get 


got 


gotten/got* 


write 


wrote 


written 


give 


gave 


given 








* In BrE: get-got-got. 










Group 3: Vowel changes from a in the simple past to u in the past participl 


e. 


begin 


began 


begun 


shrink 


shrank 


shrunk 


drink 


drank 


drunk 


sing 


sang 


sung 


ring 


rang 


rung 


sink 


sank 


sunk 


run 


ran 


run 


swim 


swam 


swum 



20 CHAPTER 2 



Group 4: Past tense and past participle forms are the same. 


bend 


bent 


bent 


mislay 


mislaid 


mislaid 


bleed 


bled 


bled 


pay 


paid 


paid 


bring 


brought 


brought 


read 


read 


read 


build 


built 


built 


say 


said 


said 


burn 


burnt 


burnt 


seek 


sought 


sought 


buy 


bought 


bought 


sell 


sold 


sold 


catch 


caught 


caught 


send 


sent 


sent 


dig 


dug 


dug 


shoot 


shot 


shot 


feed 


fed 


fed 


sit 


sat 


sat 


, feel 


felt 


felt 


sleep 


slept 


slept 


fight 


fought 


fought 


slide 


slid 


slid 


! find 


found 


found 


sneak 


snuck/sneaked 


snuck/sneaked 


flee 


fled 


fled 


speed 


sped/speeded 


sped/speeded 


, grind 


ground 


ground 


spend 


spent 


spent 


hang 


hung 


hung 


spin 


spun 


spun 


have 


had 


had 


stand 


stood 


stood 


hear 


heard 


heard 


stick 


stuck 


stuck 


hold 


held 


held 


sting 


stung 


stung 


keep 


kept 


kept 


strike 


struck 


struck 


lay 


laid 


laid 


sweep 


swept 


swept 


lead 


led 


led 


swing 


swung 


swung 


leave 


left 


left 


teach 


taught 


taught 


lend 


lent 


lent 


tell 


told 


told 


light 


lit/lighted 


lit/lighted 


think 


thought 


thought 


lose 


lost 


lost 


understand understood 


understood 


make 


made 


made 


weep 


wept 


wept 


mean 


meant 


meant 


win 


won 


won 


meet 


met 


met 








Group 5: Past participle adds 


-n to the simp] 


e form, with or without a spelling change. 


blow 


blew 


blown 


see 


saw 


1 

seen 


do 


did 


done 


swear 


swore 


sworn 


draw 


drew 


drawn 


tear 


tore 


torn 




flew 


flown 


throw 


threw 


thrown 


i grow 


grew 


grown 


wear 


wore 


worn 


| know 


knew 


known 


withdraw 


withdrew 


withdrawn 


1 lie 


lay 


lain 








i Group 6: The first and third forms are the same. 


become 


became 


become 








come 


came 


come 








run 


ran 


run 








■ Group 7: One of the three forms is very different. 


be 


was, were 


been 








go 


went 


gone 








Group 8: Both regular and irregular forms are used. 


(The regular form is more 




common in AmE, and the irregular form is more common in BrE.) 


burn 


burned/burnt 


burned/burnt 


learn 


learned/learnt 


learned/learnt 


dream 


dreamed/dreamt 


dreamed/dreamt 


smell 


smelled/smelt 


smelled/smelt 


kneel 


kneeled/knelt 


kneeled/knelt 


spill 


spilled/spilt 


spilled/spilt 


lean 


leaned/leant 


leaned/leant 


spoil 


spoiled/spoilt 


spoiled/spoilt 



Note: See the inside front and back covers for an alphabetical list of these verbs as well as some additional irregular verbs that occur 
less frequently. Also included are definitions of the lesser-known verbs. 



Present and Past; Simple and Progressive 21 



□ Exercise 1 2. Listening. (Charts 2-4 and 2-5) 

Listen to the questions. Complete each answer with the correct form of the verb you hear. 
note: Exercises 12 through 19 are quick reviews of the simple past of irregular verbs. Which 
Tracks irregular verbs are easy for you? Which ones are more troublesome? Which ones don't you 
know? Make a note of the verbs that are difficult for you and review them. 

Example: You will hear: Did Sara go to class yesterday? 

You will write: Yes, she went to class yesterday. 



Situation 1 : Sara is a lazy student. She doesn't care about studying. She was at school 
yesterday. 

1 . Yes, she her notebook. 

2. Yes, she her homework. 

3. Yes, she a lot of mistakes on the writing test. 

4. Yes, she several words incorrectly. 

5. Yes, she another student's homework to copy. 

Situation 2: Jim is a serious student. He loves to learn. He was at school yesterday. 

his homework. 

the homework. 

his homework to class. 

a good grade on the test. 

all the answers on the test. 

Situation 3: Ms. Brooks is a good English teacher. She's also friendly. She taught yesterday. 

class on time. 

clearly. 

a fair test. 

extra time helping her students. 

her students jokes. 

her students a song. 

with her students. 



6. 


Yes, he 


7. 


Yes, he 


8. 


Yes, he 


9. 


Yes, he 


10. 


Yes, he 



11. 


Yes, 


she 


12. 


Yes, 


she 


13. 


Yes, 


she 


14. 


Yes, 


she 


15. 


Yes, 


she 


16. 


Yes, 


she 


17. 


Yes, 


she 



22 CHAPTER 2 



□ Exercise 13. Let's talk: pairwork. (Charts 2-4 and 2-5) 

Work with a partner. Partner A asks the questions. Partner B answers the questions with Yes 
and a complete sentence, note: Although a short answer is usually given to a yes/no question 
(Did you sit down? Yes, I did.), practice the long answer in these exercises. 

Situation: Imagine that you came to class today with a big bandage on your finger. You were 
in a pet store yesterday. You were thinking of buying a parrot, but it bit you. 

Example: 

Partner A (book open)'. Did you go somewhere? 

Partner B (book closed): Yes, I went somewhere, or Yes, I did. I went somewhere. 









Change roles. 


1. 


Did you find a pet store? 




6. Did you leave the pet store? 


2. 


Did you buy a parrot? 




7. Did you go to a doctor? 


3. 


Did you take it out of its cage? 




8. Did you drive to the doctor's office? 


4. 


Did you have some trouble witji 


A 9. Did she put a bandage on your finger? 


5. 


Did it bite you? 


m 

w I 


10. Did you pay her? 



J Exercise 14. Listening. (Charts 2-4 and 2-5) 

^ Listen to the questions. Complete each answer with the correct form of the verb you hear. 
CD 1 Situation: A group of friends was at the beach yesterday. 



1. 


Yes j they 


in the water. 


2. 


Yes. thev 


in the waves. 


3. 


Yes j they 


down in the waves. 


4. 


Yes, they 


barefoot on the sand. 


5. 


Yes, they 


in the sun. 


6. 


Yes, they 


sunscreen. 


7. 


Yes, they 


in the sand. 


8. 


Yes, they 


giant sandcasrles. 


9. 


Yes, they 


their names in the sand. 


10. 


Yes, they 


pictures in the sand. 


11. 


Yes, they 


their feet in the sand. 


12. 


Yes. thev 


snngs. 


13. 


Yes, some bees 


them. 


14. 


Yes, they 


the sunset. 



Present and Past; Simple and Progressive 23 



□ Exercise 1 5. Let's talk: pairwork. (Charts 2-4 and 2-5) 

Work with a partner. Partner A asks the questions. Partner B answers the questions with Yes 
and a complete sentence. 

Situation: You just came back from a vacation in Greece. 

Example: Did you fly back last night? 

Partner A (book open): Did you fly back last night? 

Partner B (book closed): Yes, 1 flew back last night. 









Change roles. 


1. 


Did 


you have a great trip? 


8. 


Did you buy some Greek sandals? 


2. 


Did 


you come back feeling rested? 


9. 


Did you speak a little Greek? 


3. 


Did 


you meet many people? 


10. 


Did you eat in typical Greek restaurants? 


4. 


Did 


you hang out with* local people? 


11. 


Did you get my emails? 


5. 


Did 


you do a lot of tourist activities? 


12. 


Did you bring me a present? 


6. 


Did 


you stand on the Acropolis? 


13. 


Did you send me a postcard? 


7. 


Did 


you spend time in museums? 


14. 


Were you sad to leave Greece? 



□ Exercise 16. Listening. (Charts 2-4 and 2-5) 

Listen to the questions. Complete each answer with the correct form of the verb you hear. 



CD 1 Situation: Maria was sick yesterday. 

[rack 10 

1 . Yes, she up sick. 

2. Yes, she a cold. 

3. Yes, her head . 

4. Yes, she her temperature. 

5. Yes, she a fever. 

6. Yes, she bad. 

7. Yes, she her pajamas on. 

8. Yes, she on the couch. 

9. Yes, she for several hours. 

10. Yes, she about scary things. 

1 1 . Yes, she some chicken soup. 

12. Yes 3 she to the doctor. 

13. Yes, she some medicine. 

14. Yes, she the instructions on the label. 



* hang out zvith 
24 CHAPTER 2 



= spend time with. 



ji Exercise 17. Let's talk: pairwork. (Charts 2-4 and 2-5) 

Work with a partner. Partner A asks the questions. Partner B answers the questions with Yes 
and a complete sentence. NOTE: Use the appropriate pronoun (he/she) in the questions. 

Situation: You come to class very, very tired. You live with a noisy roommate and didn't get 
much sleep, note: Tell your partner if you have a male or female roommate. 

Example: Did you have a bad night? 

Partner A (book open): Did you have a bad night? 

Partner B (book closed): Yes 3 1 had a bad night. 



Change roles. 



1. 


Did your roommate wake you up a lot? 


8. 


Did she/he grind some coffee beans 


2. 


Did you hear a lot of noise? 




first? 


3. 


Did your roommate's cell phone ring 


9. 


Did she/he feed the neighbor's cats? 




many times? 


10. 


Did she/he sweep the floor afterwards? 


4. 


Did she/he fight with someone? 


11. 


Did she/he know you were awake? 


5. 


Did she/he put on a CD? 


12. 


Did she/he mean to wake you up? 


6. 


Did she/he sing loudly? 


13. 


Did she/he upset you? 


7. 


Did she/he make breakfast at midnight? 


14. 


Were you upset? 



CD 1 
Track 1 1 



Exercise 18. Listening. (Charts 2-4 and 2-5) 

Listen to the beginning of each sentence. Circle the correct completion(s). More than one 
completion may be possible. 



1. 


happy. 


good about my decision. 


on some ice. 


2. 


two classes. 


about his wife. 


at night. 


3. 


the car with gas? 


sick? 


okay? 


4. 


with colored pencils. 


several faces. 


for several hours. 


5. 


in the woods. 


some money. 


the rain. 


6. 


a picture. 


from the math class. 


some money from the bank. 


7. 


my hand. 


some rice. 


was cooking. 


8. 


the washing machine? 


these jeans? 


my shirt? 


9. 


at the sad ending. 


the actors. 


when the play finished. 


10. 


over the fence. 


very quickly. 


in a sunny spot. 



u Exercise 19. Listening. (Charts 2 4 and 2-5) 

Part I. Anna had a bad experience last night. Listen to her story with your book closed. 
Then open your book and listen to the statements. Circle "T" for true and "F" for false. 



Track 12 J 


T 


F 


4. 


T 


F 


2. 


T 


F 


5. 


T 


F 


3. 


T 


F 


6. 


T 


F 



Present and Past; Simple and Progressive 25 



Part II. Listen again. Complete the sentences with the verbs you hear. 
I a terrible experience last night. You won't believe 



what happened! A thief 



into my apartment 



while I was asleep. There I was, just sleeping peacefully when 

someone the glass in the sliding door! 

3 

The sound me up. I 



4 5 

the sliding door open, so I reached for the phone by the bed and 



called the police. My voice 



as I told the 




operator there was an intruder in my home. 

I in my bedroom closet while the thief was sneaking around my office. Soon 

7 

I sirens as the police to my building. From the crack in 



the closet door, I 



the thief as he 



outside with my computer. 



10 n 
The police jumped out of their cars and followed the thief, but he managed to get away in a 



car that was waiting for him. The police 
him. Later I learned that they 



back in their cars and drove after 



12 



13 



the thief a few miles from my building. 



I 



14 



really frightened by all this. It really 



15 



me, as you 



can imagine. I think I'll stay at my sister's house tonight. 



□ Exercise 20. Warm-up: listening. (Chart 2-6) 

£Jj Listen to each pair of verbs. Decide if the verb endings have the same sound or a different 
sound. 



CD 1 
Track 1 3 



Examples: You will hear: talked, pushed 

You will choose: fsame^ different 



You will hear: rented, called 
You will choose: same different" 



1 . same different 

2. same different 

3. same different 



4. same different 

5. same different 

6. same different 



7. same different 

8. same different 

9. same different 



26 CHAPTER 2 



2-6 Regular Verbs: Pronunciation of -ed Endings 



Final -edhas three different pronunciations: /t/, /d/, and /ad/. The schwa /a/ is an unstressed vowel sound. It is 
pronounced like a in alone in normal, rapid speech (e.g., She lives alone.). 


(a) looked -> look/t/ 
clapped -> clap/t/ 
missed -> miss/t/ 
watched -> watch/t/ 
finished -> finish/t/ 
laughed -> laugh/t/ 


Final -ed is pronounced N after voiceless sounds. 

Voiceless sounds are made by pushing air through your mouth; no sound 
comes from your throat. 

Examples of voiceless sounds: "k," "p," "s," "ch," "sh," "f." 


(b) smelled -> smell/d/ 
saved -> save/d/ 
cleaned -> clean/d/ 
robbed -> rob/d/ 
played -» play/d/ 


Final -ed is pronounced /d/ after voiced sounds. 

Voiced sounds come from your throat. If you touch your neck when you 
make a voiced sound, you can feel your voice box vibrate. 

Examples of voiced sounds: "1," "v," "n," "b," and all vowel sounds. 


(c) decided -> decide/ad/ 
needed -> need/od/ 
wanted -> want/3d/ 
invited -* invite /ad/ 


Final -ed is pronounced /ad/ after T and "d" sounds. The sound /ad/ adds a 

whole syllable to a word. 

compare: looked = one syllable -> look/t/ 

smelled = one syllable -> smell/d/ 

needed = two syllables -> need/sd/ 



□ Exercise 21. Listening. (Chart 2-6) 

Listen to each word. Circle the pronunciation of the -ed ending you hear. 



CD 1 
Track 14 



1. 


Ixl 


Idl 


/3d/ 


4. 


Ixl 


Idl 


/sd/ 


7. 


Ixl 


Idl 


/sd/ 


2. 


III 


Idl 


/3d/ 


5. 


Ixl 


Idl 


/3d/ 


8. 


Ixl 


Idl 


/3d/ 


3. 


III 


Idl 


/3d/ 


6. 


Ixl 


Idl 


/3d/ 


9. 


Ixl 


Idl 


/sd/ 



□ Exercise 22. Listening and pronunciation. (Chart 2-6) 

£J) Listen to the sentences. Practice saying them aloud. Write the pronunciations of the -ed 
endings you hear. 



CD 1 
Track 15 



1 . Olga blinked /t/ 3 yawned / /, and stretched / /. 

2. Mrs. Olsen mopped / / the kitchen floor, vacuumed / / 
the carpet, and dusted / / the furniture. 

3. The meeting started / / late and ended / / early. 

4. My friend jumped / /up and down and yelled / / 
when she got the news. 

5. The airplane departed / /at six and landed / /at eight. 

6. When I asked / / the doctor about some medication, he suggested / 




/ a new one. 



Present and Past; Simple and Progressive 27 



□ Exercise 23. Let's talk: small groups. (Chart 2-6) 

Work in small groups. Take turns choosing a verb from the list in any order you wish. Say the 
simple past. Your classmates will write that word in the correct column. 



accept complain miss push thank 

believe die need rain work 

chase fix play request worry 



M 


Id/ 


/ad/ 

































□ Exercise 24. Let's talk: pairwork. (Chart 2-6) 

Practice pronouncing the -ed endings. 

Part I. Check (/) all the activities you did yesterday. Tell your partner about them. 



combed my hair 

brushed my teeth 

cooked breakfast 

waited for a bus 

walked to school 



washed clothes 

typed an email 

worked on a computer 

exercised 

talked on the phone 



surfed the internet 

translated some words 

added some numbers 

cleaned my room 

listened to music 



Part II. Choose four to six activities your partner talked about. Tell the class about them. 



□ Exercise 25. Warm-up. (Charts 2-7 and 2-8) 

Write the complete sentence (a. or b.) that correctly describes each scene. 

a. Rita was standing under a tree when it began to rain. 

b. Rita stood under a tree when it began to rain. 





\ \\\\\\ ' \ 



1 st: It began to rain. 
Scene 1: 



2nd: Rita stood under a tree. 



28 CHAPTER 2 



1 st: Rita stood under a tree. 
Scene 2: 



2nd: It began to rain. 



2-7 Simple Past 



(a) I walked to school yesterday. 

(b) John lived in Paris for ten years, but 
now he lives in Rome. 

(c) I bought a new car three days ago. 



(d) Rita stood under a tree when it began 
to rain. 

(e) When Mrs. Chu heard a strange noise, 
she got up to investigate. 

(f) When I dropped my cup, the coffee 
spilled on my lap. 



The simple past indicates that an 
activity or situation began and 
ended at a particular time in the 
past. 



If a sentence contains when and 
has the simple past in both 
clauses, the action in the 
when-c\ause happens first. 

In (d): 1st: The rain began. 

2nd: Rita stood under a tree. 




2-8 Past Progressive 



(g) I was walking down the street when it 
began to rain. 

(h) While I was walking down the street, it 
began to rain. 

(i) Rita was standing under a tree when it 
began to rain. 

( j) At eight o'clock last night, I was 
studying. 



(k) While I was studying in one room of 
our apartment, my roommate was 
having a party in the other room. 



In (g): 1st: I was walking down the 
street. 2nd: It began to rain. 

Both actions occurred at the same 
time, but one action began earlier 
and was in progress when the 
other action occurred. 

In (j): My studying began before 
8:00, was in progress at that time, 
and probably continued. 



Sometimes the past progressive is 
used in both parts of a sentence 
when two actions are in progress 
simultaneously. 



J Exercise 26. Let's talk. (Charts 2-7 and 2-8) 

Choose the question or statement you would expect the speaker to say. Discuss your answers. 
Work in pairs, in small groups, or as a class. 

1 . When I went to bed late last night, I noticed that the light was on in your bedroom, 
a. Were you reading? b. Did you read? 



Present and Past; Simple and Progressive 29 



2. Jane's cousin was at the party last night. 

a. Were you meeting him? b. Did you meet him? 

3. A small airplane flew over our house several times last night. 

a. We were sitting out on the patio, and it made us nervous. 

b. We sat out on the patio, and it made us nervous. 

4. I'm not sure if I met Carol Jones at the party last night. Describe her for me. 

a. What was she wearing? b. What did she wear? 

J Exercise 27. Looking at grammar. (Charts 2-7 and 2-8) 

Complete the sentences. Use the simple past or the past progressive of the verbs in parentheses. 

1 . I am sitting in class right now. I (sit) wae elttina in class at this exact 

same time yesterday. 

2. I (call) Roger at nine last night, but he (be, not) 

at home. He (study) at the library. 

3. I (hear, not) the thunder during the storm last night 

because I (sleep) . 

4. It was beautiful yesterday when we went for a walk in the park. The sun (shine) 
. A cool breeze (blow) . 



The birds (sing) 



5. My brother and sister (argue) about something when 

I (walk) into the room. 

6. I got a package in the mail. When I (open) it, I (find) 

a surprise. 

7. While Mrs. Emerson (read) the little boy a story, he (fall) 

asleep, so she (close) the book and 

quietly (sneak) out of the room. 

8. A: (you, hear) what the teacher just said? 

B: No, I (listen, not) . I (think) 

about something else. 

9. I really enjoyed my last vacation. While it (snow) in Iowa, 

the sun (shine) in Florida. While you (shovel) 

snow in Iowa all last week, I (lie) 



on a beach in Florida. 



30 CHAPTER 2 



Exercise 28. Let's talk: pairwork. (Charts 2-7 and 2-8) 

Work with a partner. Complete the sentences with the given verbs and the words in 
parentheses. Use the simple past or the past progressive. Role-play one of the dialogues for 
the rest of the class or a small group of classmates. Try not to look at your book when you 
perform the dialogue. 

1 . call, zvait 

A: Why weren't you at the meeting? 



B: I 



A: (they) 

B: Yes. It was wonderful to hear from them. 

2. break, cross, slip 

A: How (you) 

your arm? 

B: I 

I 



for an overseas call from my family. 

7 



on the ice while 
the street in 




front of the dorm. 



3. find, look, park 

A: You're late again! You were supposed to be here ten minutes ago. Where were you? 
B: I for a place to park. 



A: (you) 



one: 



B: Well, yes and no. I 



my car illegally. 



4. ask, decide, look, see, zvork 
A: How did it go? (you) 
you 



B: No, she 



the manager for a raise when 



her yesterday? 

on a big presentation for next week. She 

pretty busy. I to wait until later. 



5 . drive, get, happen, keep, pay, see 
A: I had a bad day yesterday. 

B: Oh? What 

A: I 



a traffic ticket. 



B: Really? That's too bad. What was it for? 
A: For running a red light. I 



home and (not) 



the red light and just 



attention to the road. I (not) 
driving. 



Present and Past; Simple and Progressive 31 



"I 



CD 1 
Track 16 



Exercise 29. Grammar and listening. (Charts 2-7 and 2-8) 

Complete the sentences. Use the simple past or the past progressive form of the verbs in the list. 
Then listen to the passage to check your completions. Use each verb only one time. 

be find look sit speak stop walk 

It was my first day of class. I finally the right room. The room 

l 

already full of students. 



2 

On one side of the room, students were talking to each other in Japanese or Arabic. On the 

other side, students in Spanish or Portuguese. It sounded like 

3 

the United Nations. Some of the students, however, quietly by 

4 

themselves, not talking to anyone. 

I for an empty seat in the last row and sat down. In a few 

5 

minutes, the teacher into the room, and all the multilingual 

6 

conversation suddenly . 



□ Exercise 30. Let's talk. (Charts 2-7 and 2-8) 

Watch a classmate perform a pantomime. Then in pairs, in small groups, or as a class, describe 
the actions in the pantomime step by step. Pay special attention to the use of past verb forms 
in the descriptions, suggestion: Watch and describe a few pantomimes in each class period 
for the next week or two in order to keep practicing past verbs. 

Example: washing one's hands 

-> She was standing at a sink. She turned on the faucet. Then she picked up some 
soap. While she was washing her hands, the soap slipped out of her hands and 
dropped to the floor. She bent over to pick it up. Then she finished washing her 
hands and turned off the faucet. At the end, she wiped her hands on a towel. 

Possible pantomime subjects: 

opening a door with a key reading a newspaper while drinking a cup of coffee 

taking a picture with a camera being unable to start a car; looking under the hood 

□ Exercise 31 . Let's write. (Charts 2-7 and 2-8) 

In writing, describe one or more of your classmates' pantomimes. Give a title to the 
pantomime and identify the pantomimist. Use a few time words to show the order in which 
the actions were performed: first, next, then, after that, before, when, while, etc. 

□ Exercise 32. Let's write. (Charts 2-1 -> 2-8) 

First, write about your first day or two in this country or city. Use past tense verbs. What did 
you do? What did you think? What did you see? Who did you meet? Did you have any 
interesting experiences? How did you feel about this place? 

Second, write about how you feel about this place now. In what ways are your present 
experiences here different from your earlier experiences? 

32 CHAPTER 2 



j Exercise 33. Warm-up. (Chart 2 9) 

Check (/) the sentences that are correct. What do you notice about the use of always with 
verb tenses in these sentences? 

1 . Nadia is always talking on the phone when I'm trying to study. 

2. Frank always studies in the library after school. 

3. My friends always do their homework together. 

4. Our math teacher is always giving us surprise quizzes. 



2-9 Using Progressive Verbs with Always 


(a) Mary always leaves for school at 7:45. 


In sentences referring to present time, usually the simple 
present is used with always to describe habitual or 
everyday activities, as in (a). 


(b) Mary is always leaving her dirty socks on the 
floor for me to pick up! Who does she think 1 am? 
Her maid? 


In special circumstances, a speaker may use the present 
progressive with always to express annoyance, as in (b). 


(c) 1 am always/ forever/constantly picking up 
Mary's dirty socks! 


In addition to always, the words forever and constantly 
are used with progressive verbs to express annoyance. 



□ Exercise 34. Let's talk. (Chart 2-9) 

Your roommate. Jack, has many bad habits. These bad habits annoy you. Pretend you are 
speaking to a friend and complaining about Jack. Use the present progressive of a verb in 
Column A and complete the sentence with a phrase from Column B. Use always, constantly, 
or forever in each sentence. Say your sentence aloud with annoyance in your voice. 

Example: He's always messing up the kitchen! 





Column A 




Column B 


1. 


mess up 


a. 


about himself 


2. 


leave 


/b. 


the kitchen 


3. 


borrow 


c. 


my clothes without asking me 


4. 


try 


d. 


to give me my phone messages 


5. 


brag 


e. 


his dirty dishes on the table 


6. 


crack 


f. 


to show me he's smarter than me* 


7. 


forget 


g. 


his knuckles while I'm trying to study 



□ Exercise 35. In your own words. (Chart 2-9) 

Complete the sentences with your own words. 

A: I don't know if I can stand Sue as a roommate one more day. She's driving me crazy. 
B: Oh? What's wrong? 

A: Well, for one thing she's always 

l 



*In formal English, a subject pronoun follows than: He's older than I (am). In everyday informal English, an object pronoun is 
frequently used after than: He's older than me. 



Present and Past; Simple and Progressive 33 



B: Really? 

A: And not only that. She's forever 

B: That must be a hassle for you. 
A: It is. And what's more, she's constantly. 
Can you believe that? And she's always 



B: I think you're right. You need to find a new roommate. 

□ Exercise 36. Warm-up. (Chart 2-10) 

Read the two short dialogues. What do you notice about the word order? How is the focus 
different? 

1 . A: What was Hans doing when you arrived? 
B: He was reading a book in bed. 

2. A: Where was Hans when you arrived? 
B: He was in bed reading a book. 



2-10 Using Expressions of Place with Progressive Verbs 


(a) — What is Kay doing? 

— She s studying in her room. 


In usual word order, an expression of place follows a verb. 

In (a): is studying + in her room = the focus is on Kay's activity. 


(b) —Where's Kay? 

— She s in her room studying. 


An expression of place can sometimes come between the auxiliary be and 
the -ing verb in a progressive verb form. 

In (b): was + in her room + studying = the focus is on Kay's location. 



□ Exercise 37. Looking at grammar. (Chart 2-10) 

Work individually, in small groups, or as a class. Use the given verbs and expressions of place 
to complete the dialogues. Use usual word order if the focus is on an activity in progress. If 
the focus is on the person's location, put the expression of place between be and the -ing verb. 

1 . listen to music \ in her room 
A: Where's Sally? 

B: 5he's in her room listening to mueic. 

2. listen to music \ in the living room 
A: What's Soon doing? 

B: He's listening to mueic in the living room. 

3. watch TV \ in his bedroom 

A: Where was Jim when you got home? 

B: He was 



34 CHAPTER 2 



4. watch TV\ in his bedroom 

A: What was Jim doing when you got home? 

B: He was 

5. take a nap \ on the couch in the living room 
A: What's Kurt doing? 

B: He's 

6. take a nap \ on the couch in the living room 
A: Where's Kurt? 

B: He's 

7 . attend a conference \ in Singapore 
A: Where's Ms. Chang this week? 

B: She's 

Exercise 38. Check your knowledge. (Chapter 2) 

Correct the errors. 

1. Breakfast is an important meal. I'm always eating breakfast. 

2. While I was working in my office yesterday, my cousin stops by to visit me. 

3. Yuki staied home because she catched a bad cold. 

4. My brother is looks like our father, but I am resembling my mother. 

5. Jun, are you listen to me? I am talk to you! 

6. While I was surfing the internet yesterday, I was finding a really interesting Web site. 

7. Did you spoke English before you were come here? 

8. Yesterday, while I was working at my computer, Shelley was suddenly coming into the 
room. I wasn't knowing she was there. I was concentrate hard on my work. When she 
suddenly speak, I am jump. She startle me. 



Present and Past; Simple and Progressive 35 



Perfect and Perfect 
Progressive Tenses 




□ Exercise 1 . Let's talk: pairwork. (Charts 2 4 and 2-5) 

Work with a partner to review past participles. Partner A asks questions beginning with Have 
you ever. Partner B answers the questions with No, I haven't. I've never 

Example: see a silent film 

Partner A (book open): Have you ever seen a silent film? 
Partner B (book closed): No, I haven't. I've never seen a silent film. 

1 . buy a boat 

2. break a window 

3. hide from the police 

4. teach English 

5. make ice cream 

6. win a contest 

7. ride an elephant 

8. fly an airplane 

9. catch a butterfly 

10. leave your umbrella at a restaurant 

1 1 . dig a hole to plant a tree 

12. drive a school bus 

13. draw a picture of yourself 



Change roles. 

14. build a house 

1 5 . forget your own name 

16. fall off a ladder 

17. hold a poisonous snake 

18. steal anything 

19. eat a duck egg 

20. swing a baseball bat 

21. feed a lion 

22. split wood with an axe 

23. hit a baseball 

24. read a play by Shakespeare 

25. grow tomatoes from seed 

26. tear a page out of a library book 





36 



□ Exercise 2. Let's listen and talk. (Charts l 6 and 2-4) 

You will hear a sentence and the beginning of a question. Complete the question with the past 
participle of the verb you heard in the first sentence. Have you ever done these things? Circle 
Tra^n yes or no. Tell another student some of the things you have and haven't done. 



Example: You will hear: I took an English test. Have you ever . . . ? 





You will write: Have you ever 


taken an English test? 


(yes) 


no 


1. 


Have you ever 


a book? 


yes 


no 


2. 


Have you ever 


your wallet? 


yes 


no 


3. 


Have you ever 


a mountain? 


yes 


no 


4. 


Have you ever 


a speech to a large audience? 


yes 


no 


5. 


Have you ever 


a lie? 


yes 


no 


6. 


Have you ever 


in public? 


yes 


no 


7. 


Have you ever 


on a motorcycle? 


yes 


no 


8. 


Have you ever 


Turkish coffee? 


yes 


no 


9. 


Have you ever 


a cooking class? 


yes 


no 


10. 


Have you ever 


hands with a famous person? 


yes 


no 


11. 


Have you ever 


another person with English? 


yes 


no 


12. 


Have you ever 


in a tent? 


yes 


no 


13. 


Have you ever 


a truck? offi 


yes 


no 


14. 


Have you ever 


a car accident? ^4L^ 


yes 


no 


15. 


Have you ever 


biology? \JJj Jf 


yes 


no 


16. 


Have you ever 


a violin? (w (ft 


yes 


no 



□ Exercise 3. Warm-up. (Chart 3-1) 

Complete the sentences with your own words. What do you notice about the verb tenses in 
blue? In which sentences do the situations continue from the past until now? 

1 . I got up at (time) today. 

2. I have been awake since (time). 

3. I am studying English grammar in this class. I have come to this class 
(immber) times so far this month. 

4. I took my first English class in (yecu). 




Perfect and Perfect Progressive Tenses 37 



3-1 Present Perfect 



up to now 



(a) Mrs. Oh has been a teacher since 
2002. 

(b) I have been in this city since last 
May. 

(c) We have been here since nine 
o'clock. 

(d) Rita knows Rob. They met two 
months ago. She has known him 
for two months. I met him three 
years ago. I have known him for 
three years. 

(e) I have known Rob since I was in 
high school. 



The present perfect is often used with 
since and for to talk about situations 
that began in the past and continue up 
to now. 

In (a): situation = being a teacher 
time frame = from 2002 up to now 



Notice the use of since vs. for in the 
examples: 

since + a specific point in time (e.g., 
2002, last May, nine o'clock) 

for + a length of time (e.g., two 
months, three years) 

In (e): since + a time clause (i.e., a 
subject and verb may follow since).* 



(f) 



(f ) — Have you ever seen snow? 
— No, I haven't. I 've never seen 

snow. But Anna has seen 
snow. 

(g) Have you finished your 
homework yet? I still haven't 
finished mine. Jack has already 
finished his. 



The present perfect can talk about 
events that have (or haven't) happened 
before now. The exact time of the 
event is unspecified. 

The adverbs ever, never, yet, still, and 
already are often used with the present 
perfect. 

In (f): event = seeing snow 

time frame = from the beginning of 

their lives up to now 

In (g): event = doing homework 
time frame = from the time the people 
started up to now 



(h) 



C/5 C/5 C/5 
U U U 



(h) We have had three tests so far 
this term. 

(i ) I 've met many people since I 
came here. 



The present perfect can also express 
an event that has occurred repeatedly 
from a point in the past up to the 
present time. The event may happen 
again. 

In (h): repeated event = taking tests 
time frame = from the beginning of the 
term up to now 

In (i): repeated event = meeting people 
time frame = from the time I came here 
up to now 



contractions: 

(j) I've been there. You've been there. We've been there. 
They've been there. 

He's been there. She's been there. It's been interesting. 



Have and has are usually contracted 
with personal pronouns in informal 
writing, as in (j). 

note: He's there. He's = He Is 

He's been there. He's = He has 



*See Chart 18-2, p. 388, for more information about time clauses. 



38 CHAPTER 3 



□ Exercise 4. Looking at grammar. (Chart 3-1) 

Complete the sentences with since or for. 

1 . There has been snow on the ground New Year's Day. 

2. The weather has been cold a long time. 

3. Maria has studied English less than a year. 

4. Mr. and Mrs. Roberts have been together they were in college. 

5. They have known each other more than fifty years. 

6. We haven't seen Aziz last month. 

7. I've had a cold over a week. 

8. I haven't heard from my sister the beginning of March. 

□ Exercise 5. Let's talk. (Chart 3-1) 

Complete the sentences with any appropriate time expression. Work in pairs, in small groups, 
or as a class. 

1. Today is the 14th of June I bought this book two weeks ago. 

I have had this book since the first of June 

I have had this book for two weeks 

2. I moved to this city . 



I have been in this city since 
I have been here for 



3. It is the year 

I started going to school in the year 
I've been a student for 



I've been a student since 



I first met our teacher . 
I've known her/him for 



I've known her/him since 



5. I have (a/an) that I bought ago. 

I have had it since . 

I have had it for . 



Perfect and Perfect Progressive Tenses 39 



Exercise 6. Let's talk. (Chart 3-1) 

Answer the questions in complete sentences. Student B will use for. Student C will use 
since. Close your book. 

Example: To A: When did you come here? To B: Use for. To C: Or 3 using since? 

Teacher: When did you come here? 

Student A: I came here on June 2nd. 

Teacher: How long has {Student A) been here? Use for. 

Student B: He/She has been here for two weeks. 

Teacher: Or 3 using since? 

Student C: He's/She's been here since June 2nd. 



.) been in class? Use /or. To C: Or 3 using since? 
;et up this morning? 

.) been up? Use for. To C: Or 3 using since? 

ns a car/bicycle? When did you buy it? 

.) had a car/bicycle? Use /or. To C: Or 3 using since? 

itch? When did you get it? 

.) had his/her watch? Use for. To C: Or 3 using since? 



1, 


To A: 




ToB: 


2. 


To A: 




ToB: 


3. 


To A: 




ToB: 


4. 


To A: 




ToB: 


5. 


To A: 




To B: 


6. 


To A: 




ToB: 



_) been married? Use for. To C: Or 3 using since? 

.)? When did you meet him/her? 

_) known ( )? Use /or. To C: Or 3 using since? 



□ Exercise 7. Looking at grammar. (Chart 3-1) 

Underline the present perfect verbs. What is the time frame in each situation? 

Example: I haven't attended any parties since I came to this city. I don't know anyone here. 
-> Present peifect verb: haven } t attended 
> Timeframe: from the time the speaker arrived in this city to the present time 

1. So far this week 3 I've had two tests and a quiz. And it's only Wednesday! 

2. Try not to be absent from class again for the rest of the term. You've already missed too 
many classes. 

3. I'm really hungry. I haven't eaten since I got up. 

4. Nadia started her homework right after dinner 3 but she still hasn't finished it. She 
probably won't be able to go to bed until after midnight. 

5. A: Hi 3 Judy. Welcome to the party. Have you ever met my cousin? 
B: No, I haven't. 



40 CHAPTER 3 



6. A: Do you like lobster? 

B: I don't know. I've never eaten it. 

7. A: How did you like the book I lent you? 

B: Gosh, I'm sorry, but I haven't read it yet. I haven't had time. 

□ Exercise 8. Let's talk. (Chart 3-1) 

Answer the questions. Work in pairs, in small groups, or as a class. 
Example: 

Speaker A (book open): How many tests have you taken since you started coming to this class? 
Speaker B (book closed): I have taken (three, several, many) tests since I started coming to this 

class. OR I haven't taken any tests since I started coming to this class. 

1 . How many textbooks have you bought since the beginning of the year? 

2. How many emails have you gotten so far this week/month? 

3. How many emails have you written since the beginning of the week/month? 

4. How many questions have I asked so far? 

5. How many times have you flown in an airplane? 

(Change roles if working in pairs.) 

6. How many people have you met since you came here? 

7. How many classes have you missed since the beginning of the semester? 

8. How many cups of coffee have you had since you got up this morning? 

9. How many classes have you had so far today? 

10. How many times have you eaten your native food at a restaurant this month? 



□ 



CD 1 
Track 18 



Exercise 9. Let's write and talk. (Chart 3-1) 

What are some interesting and unusual things you have done in your lifetime? Answer this 
question by writing four to six sentences, some of them true and some of them false. Then 
share your sentences with a partner, a small group, or the class, who will guess whether your 
statement is true or false. 

Example: 

Speaker A: I have jumped from an airplane. 
Speaker B: I think that's false. 

Speaker A: You're right. I've never jumped from an airplane, but I've thought about going 
skydiving sometime. 



Exercise 10. Warm-up: listening. (Chart 3-2) 

Listen for reduced speech in these sentences. How are have and has 
pronounced? 



1. The Browns have decided to grow their own vegetables. 

2. It's past midnight. Where have you been? 

3. Laura has offered to help us move into our new apartment. 

4. Is Nick in trouble again? What has he done this time? 

5. Janet has traveled all over the world. 

6. Her parents have traveled a lot too. 




Perfect and Perfect Progressive Tenses 41 



3-2 Have and Has in Spoken English 



(a) How have you been? 
Spoken: HowNI you been? or 

How/av/ you been? 

(b) Jane has already eaten lunch. 
Spoken: Jane/zJ already eaten lunch, or 

Jane/szJ already eaten lunch. 

(c) Mike has already left. 
Spoken: Mike/s/ already left, or 

Mike/as/ already left. 



In spoken English, the present perfect helping verbs has and 
have are often reduced following nouns and question words.* 

In (a): have can sound like Nl or /av/. 
In (b): has can sound like Izl or /az/. 
In (c): has can sound like /s/ or /as/.** 



note: Jane /zJ eaten. Jane's = Jane has 
Jane /z/ here. Jane's = Jane is 

Mike/s/ left. Mike's = Mike has 
Mike/s/ here. Mike's = Mike is 



*In very informal writing, has is sometimes contracted with nouns (e.g., Jane's already eaten.) and question words (e.g., WJiere's 
he gone?). Have is rarely contracted in writing except with pronouns (e.g., I've). See Chart 3-1 for written contractions of have 
and has with pronouns. See Appendix Chart C for more information about contractions in general. 

r *See Chart 6-1, p. 85, for the pronunciation of final -s after voiced and voiceless sounds. 



□ Exercise 1 1 . Listening. (Chart 3-2) 

Listen to the sentences. You will hear reduced forms for have, has, and is, but you will write 
their full (non-reduced) forms and any other words you hear. 

Example: You will hear: Sorry I'm late. How long have you been here? 
You will write: How long nave you been here? 



CD 1 
Track 19 



1 . My teacher _ 

2. Your teacher 



in the classroom. 



3. All of the other teachers 

4. You're late! Where 



too. 



5. Susan has a guilty look on her face. What 

6. Finally! The mail 



My neighbors 
Vicky 



in the same apartment for over thirty years. 



a trip to Brazil. 



9. It's great to see you. How 
10. India 



1 1 . The weather 

12. The weather 

13. The children 

14. Ruth 



an independent country since 1947. 
very nice. 



warm lately. 

their drawings. 



four novels so far this month. 



42 CHAPTER 3 




3-3 Present Perfect vs. Simple Past 




Present Perfect 

B 1 
•a c 


t 


(a) 1 Ve met Linda, but 1 haven 't met her 
husband. Have you met them? 


The present perfect is used to 
talk about past events when there 
is no specific mention of time. 

In (a): The speaker is talking about 
some unspecified time before now. 










► 

up to now 


Simple Past 

>> 

w 

XI 
u 

<U 
00 

t) 
>> 

— K 




(b) 1 met Helen yesterday at a party. Her 
husband was there too, but 1 didn't 
meefhim. Did you meef them at the 
party? 


The simple past is used when there I 
is a specific mention of time. 

In (b): The speaker is thinking of a 
specific time: yesterday. 






Present Perfect 

o 
to 
w 

00 

U 
03 
t) 
>> 

O 


I 


(c) Sam has been a teacher for ten 
years. He loves teaching. 


The present perfect is used for 
situations that began in the past 
and continue to the present. 

In (c): The present perfect tells us 
that Sam is still a teacher now. 










► 

up to now 


Simple Past 

in 
o 
o 

<N 

1 

in 

<^ 
<^ 

— * ! 




(d) Jim was a teacher for ten years, from 
1995 to 2005. Now he is a salesman. 


The simple past is used for 
situations that began and ended in 
the past. 

In (d): The simple past tells us that 
Jim is not a teacher now. 




I 



Perfect and Perfect Progressive Tenses 43 



Exercise 13. Looking at grammar. (Charts 2-6 and 3-3) 

Complete the sentences. Use the simple past or the present perfect form of the verbs in 
parentheses. 

1. Fatima is from a hot, arid part of her country. She (see, never) 

snow. 

2. Last January, I (see) snow for the first time in my life. 

3. Last night my friend and I (have) some free time, so we (go) 

to a show. 



4. Since classes began, I (have, not) much free time. My 

classes keep me really busy. 

5. Ming Won (be) in this class for three months. His English is 

getting better and better. He plans to take this class until the end of May. 

6. Mrs. Perez (be) in our class for three months, but then she left 

school to get a job. 

7. Late-breaking news! A major earthquake (occur, just) 



in southern California. It (occur) at 9:25 a.m. Pacific Standard 

Time. 

8. I admit that I (get*) older since I last (see) 



you, but with any luck at all, I (get, also) wiser. 

9. A: Are you taking Chemistry 101 this semester? 

B: No, I (take, already**) it. I (take) 

it last semester. This semester I'm in 102. 



10. Greg Adams? Yes, I know him. I (know) him since college. 

1 1 . Joe North passed away? I'm sorry to hear that. I (know) him 

well when we were in college together. 



*Compare: 

(a) / have gotten OR have got four letters so far this week. In this sentence, have gotten I have got is present perfect. (NOTE: 
Got is used as the past participle of get in both American English and British English. Gotten occurs only in American 
English.) 

(b) / have got a problem. In this sentence, have got is NOT present perfect. I've got a problem = I have a problem. The 
expression have got means "have" and is common in informal spoken English. Its meaning is present; it has no past form. 

**Typically, the present perfect is used in sentences with already, yet, and just, but in some situations the simple past is also 
commonly used with these adverbs in informal English, especially American English, with no difference in meaning. 



CHAPTER 3 



Exercise 14. Let's talk: find someone who (Charts 3-1 and 3-3) 

Walk around the room. Ask a complete question for each item using the present perfect of the 
given verb. Begin your questions with Have you ever. When you find someone who answers 
"yes/' ask a follow-up question using the zu/2-word and the simple past. 

Example: see a bear? Where? 

Speaker A: (Hassan), have you ever seen a bear? 

Speaker B: No, I haven't. 

Speaker A: Okay. Thanks. 

(Maria), have you ever seen a bear? 
Speaker C: Yes, I have. 
Speaker A: Really? Where did you see it? 
Speaker C: In a zoo. 

Have you ever . . . 

1 . break something valuable? What . . . ? 

2. lose something important? What . . . ? 

3. stay up all night? Why . . . ? 

4. travel to an interesting place? Where . . . ? 

5. be in a car accident? When . . . ? 

6. play a team sport? Which . . . ? 

Exercise 15. Warm-up. (Chart 3-4) 

Check (/) each correct sentence, note: One sentence in each group is incorrect. 

1 . Anita is at the bus stop. 

a. She is waiting for the bus. 

b. She is waiting for the bus for fifteen minutes. 

c. She has been waiting for the bus for fifteen minutes. 

2. Tarik is at the bus stop too. 

a. He is standing beside Anita. 

b. He is standing there since five o'clock. 

c. He has been standing there since five o'clock. 




■ 



Perfect and Perfect Progressive Tenses 45 



3-4 Present Perfect Progressive 



how long 
up to now? 



(a) Right now I am sitting at my 
desk. 

(b) I have been sitting at my desk 
since seven o'clock. I have 
been sitting here for two hours. 

(c) It 's been raining all day. It's still 
raining right now. 



(d) I 've known Alex since he was a 
child. 

incorrect: -I'vabeerv^nowing Alex 
since he was a child. 



(e) How long have you been living 
here? 

(f ) How long have you lived here? 



(g) Al has been wearing glasses 
since he was ten. 

(h) Al has worn glasses since he 
was ten. 



compare: 

In (a): The present progressive expresses 
an activity in progress right now. (See Chart 
2-2, p. 14.) 

In (b): The present perfect progressive 
expresses how long an activity has been in 
progress. In other words, it expresses the 
duration of an activity that began in the past 
and continues to the present. 



Time expressions often used with this tense 
are 

• since and for, as in (b). 

• all day/all morning I all week, as 
in (c). 



note: In (c): It's been raining. It's = It has 
It's still raining. It's = It is 



For non-progressive verbs such as know, the 
present perfect (not the present perfect 
progressive) is used to express the duration 
of a situation that began in the past and 
continues to the present. 

(See Charts 2-3, p. 16, and 3-1 , p. 38.) 



For some (not all) verbs, the idea of how 
long can be expressed by either tense — the 
present perfect progressive or the present 
perfect. 

note: (e) and (f) have the same meaning; 
(g) and (h) have the same meaning. 

Either tense can be used only when the verb 
expresses the duration of present activities 
or situations that happen regularly, usually, 
habitually: e.g., live, work, teach, study, wear 
glasses, play chess, etc. 



recently 



( i ) I Ve been thinking about 
looking for a different job. This 
one doesn't pay enough. 

(j) All of the students have been 
studying hard. Final exams 
start next week. 



When the tense is used without any mention 
of time, it expresses a general activity in 
progress recently, lately. For example, (i) 
means I've been thinking about this recently, 
lately. 



46 CHAPTER 3 



Exercise 16. Looking at grammar. (Chart 3-4) 

Complete the sentences. Use the present progressive or the present perfect progressive form of 
the verbs in parentheses. 



Mr. and Mrs. Jones (sit) are g/tt/ng 

now. They (sit) have been sitting 



outside on their porch right 



there since after dinner. 



The test begins at 1:00. Right now it's 1 1:00. Sara is at the library. She (review) 
her notes right now. She (review) 



her notes all morning. 



3. Marco is in a store. He (stand) 
counter right now. He (stand) . 



_ at a checkout 
there for over five 



minutes. He wishes he could find a salesperson. He wants to buy a pair of jeans. 

The little girl is dirty from head to foot because she (play) 
in the mud. 

The children are excited about the concert. They (practice) 

a lot in the last few weeks. 

They're going to sing for their parents. 

My back hurts, so I (sleep) 



on 




a pad on the floor lately. The bed is too soft. 



□ Exercise 1 7. Let's write. (Charts 2-6, 3-1, and 3-4) 

Write about the picture using the verbs in the list and the verb form given in each item. 




cook 



fix 



memorize 



plant 



vacuum 



wash 



1 . Tom has had a busy day so far. Right now, he's taking a break. What has Tom been doing? 
Write at least four sentences on another piece of paper. Use the present perfect progressive. 

2. Rewrite your sentences using yesterday. Use the simple past. 

3. Rewrite your sentences using just. Use the present perfect. 



Perfect and Perfect Progressive Tenses 47 



J Exercise 18. Listening. (Charts 3- 1 and 3-4) 

Listen to the dialogue one time with your book closed. Then, with your book open, listen 
@* again and write the words you hear. 

Track 20 

A: Good to see you! So what up to lately? 

l 

B: Not too much. it easy. 

2 

A: How nice! Glad to hear you too hard. 

3 

By the way, your parents? I them 

4 5 

for a while. 

B: great. now 

6 7 

that they're retired. 

A: How long retired? 

8 

B: Gosh, I don't know. a couple of years now. 

9 

A: So a lot*? 

10 

B: Yeah. in warm, sunny places in the winter and 

n 

summers here. 

12 

A: What a great way to spend retirement! I'm glad to hear 



13 

themselves. 

Exercise 19. Looking at grammar. (Charts 3-1 and 3-4) 

Complete the sentences. Use the verb in italics in the first sentence of each item to complete 
the remaining sentence(s). Use the present perfect or the present perfect progressive. In some 
sentences, either verb form is correct. 

1 . I'm trying to study. I have been trying to study for the last hour, but something 

always seems to interrupt me. I think I'd better go to the library. 

2. Joe has an old bicycle. He has had the same bicycle for twenty years. 

3. Matt works at the ABC Company. He has worked / has been working there 

since 2005. 

4. Toshi is waiting for his friend. He for her since 

five o'clock. She's late for their date. 

5. I like cowboy movies. I cowboy movies ever 

since I was a child. 



^Notice: A statement form (not a question form) can sometimes be used to ask a question by using a rising intonation at the 
end of a sentence. 



48 CHAPTER 3 



6. Susie is watching a cowboy movie. She it for 

over two hours without a break. 

7. Dr. Chang teaches math. He is an excellent teacher. He 



math at this school for more than 25 years. 



8. Sue and Rick are playing tennis right now and they're getting tired. They 

since nine o'clock this morning. Sue's 

winning. She's the better tennis player. She 



tennis since she was ten. Rick started playing only last year. 

□ Exercise 20. Listening. (Charts 3-1 and 3-4) 

Listen to the description of each item and complete the sentence that follows it. Use the 
v» present perfect and the present perfect progressive. 

CD 1 

Example: You will hear: Manuel has called Eva five times in the last hour, but her line is busy. 

He'll keep trying until he reaches her. 

You will write: Manuel (try) has been trying to reach Eva for 

an hour to talk about their plans for the weekend. 

1 . Susan (wait) in the doctor's office since 

. She hopes she doesn't have to wait much longer. 

2. Alexi (own) his motorcycle for 



3. Joe (decide, not) which job to take yet. He'll 

decide soon. 

4. Mika is frustrated. She (sit) in rush-hour traffic since 

. She's going to be very late for work. 

5. Andrew and Donna (play) chess for hours. 

□ Exercise 21 . Let's write. (Charts 3-1 , 3-3, and 3-4) 

Choose one topic to write about. 
Topics: 

1 . Write about your first day in this class. What did you see, hear, feel, think? Then write 
about what you have done and have been doing in this class since the first day. 

2. Describe your last week at home before you came to this city/country. Then describe what 
you have done and have been doing since you arrived here. 

□ Exercise 22. Warm-up. (Chart 3-5) 

Each of the following talks about two events. Which event happened first? 

1. The teacher stood up. Someone had knocked on the classroom door. 

2. I looked at the chalkboard. The teacher had written my name there. 



Perfect and Perfect Progressive Tenses 49 



3-5 Past Perfect 





(a) Sam arrived at 10:00. 
Ann left at 9:30. 

In other words, Ann had already left 
when Sam arrived. 



The past perfect expresses an 
activity that was complete before 
another activity or time in the 
past. 



(b) By the time Sam got there, Ann had already left. 



In (a): 1st: Ann left. 

2nd: Sam arrived. 

Adverb clauses with by the time are frequently used with 
the past perfect in the main clause, as in (b).* 



(c) Sam had left before Ann got there. 

(d) Sam left before Ann got there. 

(e) After {he guests had left, I went to bed. 

(f) After {he guests left, I went to bed. 



If either before or after is used in the sentence, the past 
perfect is often not necessary because the time 
relationship is already clear. The simple past may be 
used, as in (d) and (f). 

note: (c) and (d) have the same meaning; 
(e) and (f) have the same meaning. 



(g) Actual spoken words: I lost my keys. 

(h) Reported words: Jenny said that she had lost her 
keys. 



The past perfect is commonly used in reported speech.** 
If the actual spoken words use the simple past, the past 
perfect is often used in reporting those words, as in (h). 

Common reporting verbs include tell (someone), say, find 
out, learn, and discover. 



(i) Written: Bill felt great that evening. Earlier in the day, 
Annie had caught one fish, and he had caught 
three. They had had a delicious picnic near the lake 
and then had gone swimming again. It had been a 
nearly perfect vacation day. 



The past perfect is often found in more formal writing such 
as fiction. 

In (i), the fiction writer uses the simple past to say that an 
event happened (Bill felt great), and then uses the past 
perfect to explain what had happened before that event. 



(j) /'dfinished. You'd finished. 
We'd finished. They'd finished. 

She'd finished. He'd finished. 
It'd finished. 



Had is often contracted with personal pronouns in 
informal writing. 

note: I'd finished. I'd = I had 
I'd like to go. I'd = I would 



*For more information about by the time, see Chart 17-2, p. 368. 

*For more information about verb form usage in reported speech 3 see Chart 12-7, p. 261. 



50 CHAPTER 3 



Exercise 23. Looking at grammar. (Charts 2-6 and 3-5) 

Use the simple past or the past perfect form of the verbs in parentheses to complete the 
sentences. In some cases, either tense is correct. 



1 . Samir {be) 



wae / had been 



a newspaper reporter before he {become) 



became 



a businessman. 



2. I {feel) 



a little better after I {take) 



the medicine. 



3. I was late. The teacher {give, already) 

{get) to class. 

4. It was raining hard, but by the time class {be) 

rain {stop) . 



a quiz when I 



over, the 



5. Millions of years ago, dinosaurs {warn) 

{become) extinct by the time people first {appeal) 



the earth, but they 




6. I {see, never) any of Picasso's paintings before I {visit) 

the art museum. 

7. After work, I went to Rosa's office to give her a ride home, but I couldn't find her. She 
{leave) with someone else. 

8. I got ready to pay the bill, but when I {look) in my pocket, I 

discovered that I {leave) my wallet at home. With some 

embarrassment, I told my friend that I {forget) my wallet. 

She kindly {offer) to pay my part of the bill for me. 



Perfect and Perfect Progressive Tenses 51 



9. Yesterday at a meeting, I {see) 
mine. I {see, not) 



Rick Collins, an old friend of 



him in years. At first, I {recognize, not) 



a great deal of weight. 

10. In 1980 3 my parents {emigrate) 
China. They {travel, never) 



him because he {lose) 



to the United States from 
_ outside of China and 



were, of course, excited by the challenge of relocating to a foreign country. Eventually, 

they {settle) in California. My sister and I were born there and 

{grozv) up there. Last year, I {go) to 

China for the first time to study at Beijing University. I {want, alzvays) 



to visit China and learn more about my own 



family background. My dreams finally came true. 



□ Exercise 24. Looking at grammar. (Chart 3-5) 

Underline the past perfect verbs. Which of the passages is typical of fiction writing? Which of 
the passages is typical of spoken English? What are the differences in verb form usage? 

1. The thief simply walked in. Mrs. Garcia had forgotten to lock the door. Her son's school 
had called to say that he was ill, so she had rushed out the door without thinking to lock it. 

2. Hey 3 Anna! Did you hear? A thief got into Mrs. Garcia's house. Yeah. She forgot to lock 
the door. The school called and told her that her son was sick, so she rushed out the door 
without locking it. 

3. Sometime in 1995, Mr. Parvaz took a long, hard look at his life. He had had the same job 
for almost three decades. His dear wife had passed away. His children had grown and 
moved away. So he quit his job 3 packed everything he owned, and moved to London. That 
was the beginning of his adventure. 



□ Exercise 25. Warm-up: listening. (Chart 3-6) 




Listen for reduced speech in these sentences. How is had pronounced? 



1 . I'm sorry we missed the meeting. We had forgotten about it. 

2. The movie had already begun by the time we got there. 

3. I couldn't change my schedule. I had already planned my day. 

4. I got home late. My roommate had already gone to bed. 



52 CHAPTER 3 



3-6 Had in Spoken English 



(a) Joe had already heard the story. In spoken English, the helping verb had'\n the past perfect 
Spoken: Joeldl already heard the story, or is often reduced following nouns and question words. It can 

Joe/od/ already heard the story. be pronounced as /d/ or as /ad/.* 

(b) Who had been there before you? 
Spoken: Wholdl been there before you? or 

Wholsdl been there before you? 



(c) The dog had a bone. Had is not reduced when it is a main verb, as in (c). 

Spoken: The dog had a bone. 

*See Chart 3-5 for written contractions of had with pronouns. 



□ Exercise 26. Listening. (Chart 3-6) 

Listen for reduced forms of had. If you hear a reduced form, underline had and the word it 
is combined with. Practice saying the reduced forms. 

CD 1 

Examples: You will hear: Anna had missed the bus. 

You will underline: Anna had missed the bus. 

You will hear: She had a headache. 

You will underline: {nothing) 

1 . We had never seen it. He had never seen it. They had never seen it. 

2. We got home late. The children had already fallen asleep. 

3. My roommates had finished dinner by the time I got home. 

4. My roommates had dinner early. 

5. We couldn't drive across the river. The flood had washed away the bridge. 

6. You were at Jim's at 8:00. Where had you been before that? 

7. I had never visited there before. I'd like to go again. I had a good time. 

□ Exercise 27. Listening. (Charts 3-2 and 3-6) 

Listen to the sentences. You will hear reduced forms for have, had, is, and would, but you 
will write their non-reduced forms. 

CD 1 
rack 21 

1. You're a new student, aren't you? How long have you been in this 

country? 

2. You must miss your old neighbor. How long you known Mr. Kim 

before he moved away? 

3. You're looking for Jack? Jack left. He isn't here. 

4. We were late, and Natasha left by the time we got there. 

5. Unfortunately, I didn't have my cell phone with me when we got lost. I 
left it at home. 



Perfect and Perfect Progressive Tenses 53 



6. Since we're teachers, we have the summers off and do a lot of traveling. We 
like to travel to Africa next. 

7. Talk about long marriages! Can you believe that Mr. and Mrs. Cho 

been married for 65 years? 

8. Serena an amazing chef. She created so many 

new and popular dishes that it's almost impossible to get a reservation at her restaurant. 



□ Exercise 28. Listening. (Charts 3-5 and 3-6) 




A Pleasant Surprise 

Last night. Amy got home from work two hours late. Usually she's home by 7:30, but last 

night she didn't get there until almost 9:30. 

When she got home, her husband, Jamal, dinner 

l 

and was washing the dishes. With a worried tone in his voice, he asked her where 

. She told him to work late, 

2 3 

and then, on her way home, a big accident that had 

4 

slowed traffic to a crawl. He asked her why she . She said 

5 

to recharge her cell phone, so she couldn't call him. 

6 

Jamal smiled warmly and said that he was just glad that she was safely home. Then he 
offered to make her dinner — which she gratefully accepted. A home-cooked meal sounded 
wonderful. a long day! 

7 



54 CHAPTER 3 



□ Exercise 29. Warm-up. (Chart 3 7) 

Which sentence (a. or b.) logically follows each statement? Discuss the meanings of the verbs 
in blue. 

1 . I have been working outside for almost an hour. 

2. I had been working outside for almost an hour. 

a. It's hot. I think I'll go inside. 

b. But I got too hot and came inside. 



3. I have been waiting for Jack since 5:00. 

4. I had been waiting for Jack since 5:00. 

a. Then I left. 

b. And I'm still here. 



3-7 Past Perfect Progressive 



o o 

CO O 








V V 






1 

1 






duration 





of waiting 



(a) Eric finally came at six o'clock. I had 
been waiting for him since four-thirty. 

(b) The police had been looking for the 
criminal for two years before they 
caught him. 



The past perfect progressive 
emphasizes the duration of an activity 
that was in progress before another 
activity or time in the past. 

note: The past perfect progressive is 
used infrequently compared to other 
verb tenses. 



# *■ 



close 
in time 



(c) When Judy got home, her hair was still 
wet because she had been swimming. 

(d) I went to Ed's house after the funeral. 
His eyes were red because he had 
been crying. 



This tense also may express an 
activity in progress close in time to 
another activity or time in 
the past. 



(e) Actual spoken words: I have been waiting for you. 

(f ) Reported words: Lia told me that she had been waiting for me. 



The past perfect progressive also 
occurs in reported speech. See 
Chart 3-5, examples (g) and (h). 



□ Exercise 30. Looking at grammar. (Charts 3-4 and 3-7) 

Complete the sentences. Use the present perfect progressive or the past perfect progressive 
form of the verbs in parentheses. 

1 . We (zvait) have been waiting for Nancy for the last two hours, but 

she still hasn't arrived. 

2. We (zvait) had been waiting for Nancy for over three hours before 

she finally arrived yesterday. 

3. It is midnight. I (study) for five straight hours. 

No wonder I'm getting tired. 



Perfect and Perfect Progressive Tenses 55 



4. It was midnight. I (study) for five straight 

hours. No wonder I was getting tired. 

5. Jack suddenly realized that the teacher was asking him a question. He couldn't answer 
because he (daydream) for the last ten minutes. 

6. Wake up! You (sleep) long enough. It's time to get up. 

□ Exercise 31 . Looking at grammar. (Chart 3-7) 

Complete the sentences. Use the past perfect progressive form of the verbs in the list (or your 
own words) . 




dance draw look play /sing study talk 



Situation: Ms. Reed, a teacher, left the classroom for fifteen minutes. During that time, her 
students did whatever they wanted. When she came back, .... 

1 . She learned that a few students had been singing loudly. 

2. She found out that a couple of students on cell phones. 

3. Someone told her that one student loud music. 

4. She heard that several students in the aisles. 

5. She found out that a group of students in her grade book. 

6. She saw that a couple of students pictures on 

the board. 

7. She happily discovered that a few students 

the whole time. 



56 CHAPTER 3 



Exercise 32. Let's talk: class activity. (Chapters l ► 3) 

Discuss the meaning of the verb forms and answer the questions about each pair of sentences. 
Work in pairs, in small groups, or as a class. 

1. a. When the rain stopped, Gloria was riding her bicycle to work. 

b. When the rain stopped, Paul jumped on his bicycle and rode to work. 

Question: Who got wet on the way to work? 
Answer: Gloria. 

2. a. Ms. Lincoln taught at this school for nine years. 

b. Mr. Sanchez has taught at this school for nine years. 

Question: Who is teaching at this school now? 

3. a. Alice was opening the door when the doorbell rang, 
b. George walked to the door after the doorbell rang. 

Question: Who had been expecting a visitor? 

4. a. Donna lived in Chicago for five years. 

b. Carlos has been living in Chicago for five years. 

Question: Who still lives in Chicago? 

5. a. Jane put some lotion on her face because she had been lying in the sun. 
b. Sue put some lotion on her face because she was lying in the sun. 

Question: Who put lotion on her face after she finished sunbathing? 

6. a. I looked across the street. Mr. Fox was waving at me. 
b. I looked across the street. Mrs. Cook waved at me. 

Question: Who began to wave at me before I looked across the street? 

7. a. Dan was leaving the room when I walked in. 
b. Sam had left the room when I walked in. 

Question: Who did I see when I came into the room? 

8. a. Ken went to the store because he was running out of food, 
b. Ann went to the store because she had run out of food. 

Question: Who is better at planning ahead? 

9. a. Jack had been studying Spanish since he was in elementary school. He spoke it very 

well by the time he moved to Peru, 
b. Robert has been studying Spanish since he was in elementary school. His Spanish is 
getting quite good. 

Question: Who is studying Spanish in school? 



Perfect and Perfect Progressive Tenses 57 



□ Exercise 33. Listening. (Chapters l > 3) 

Listen to each situation. Choose the sentence (a. or b.) that correctly describes it. 
CD 1 Example: You will hear: Haven't you finished your term paper yet? You've been working on 

["rack 26 m 

it for three days. It s due tomorrow, you know, Alice. 

You will circle: (jel) Alice has been working on her term paper. 

b. Alice finished her term paper three days ago. 

1. a. Yoko knows how to ski now. 
b. Yoko is learning to ski. 

2. a. Yoko knows how to ski now. 
b. Yoko is learning to ski. 

3. a. Mia is working as an auto mechanic right now. 
b. Mia has experience as an auto mechanic. 

4. a. Jon is traveling now. 

b. Jon has traveled in the past, but he isn't traveling now. 

5. a. Jon is currently working in sales, 
b. Jon no longer works in sales. 

□ Exercise 34. Check your knowledge. (Chapters l > 3) 

Correct the errors. 

1. Since I came to this country, I am learning a lot about the way of life here. 

2. I arrive here only a short time ago. I am here since last Friday. 

3. How long you been living here? I been here for almost two years. 

4. Why you no have been in class for the last couple of days? 

5. I am coaching a soccer team for the last two months. 

6. My grandfather had lived in a small village in Italy when he was a child. At nineteen, he 
had moved to Rome, where he had met and had married my grandmother in 1957. My 
father had been born in Rome in 1960. I am born in Rome in 1989. 

7. I'm living in my cousin's apartment since I have arrived here. It very small, and we are 
sharing the bedroom. I am needing my own place, but I don't find one so far. 

8. When I was a child, I had lived with my grandmother instead of my parents. Grandpa has 
die before I am born, so I never knew him. Grandma raised me alone. 




58 CHAPTER 3 



□ Exercise 35. Let's talk. (Chapters l > 3) 

From the given situation, make up a "chain story." One person begins the story; then others 
continue the story in turn, using cue words from the list. The cue words may be used in any 
order and may be used more than once. Work in small groups or as a class. 

Example: (Pierre) had a terrible day yesterday. The trouble began early in the morning. His 

alarm clock rang at 7:00. 
Speaker A: When his alarm clock rang, he got out of bed and stepped on a snake. He was 

nearly frightened to death, but the snake got away without biting him. 
Speaker B: After the snake left, Pierre got dressed in a hurry and ran downstairs to have 

breakfast. 

Speaker C: While he was running downstairs, he fell and broke his arm. Etc. 

after as soon as by the time never then 

after that before for (a length of time) next when 

already because later since while 

Possible beginning sentences: 

1 . ( ) had a terrible day yesterday. 

2. ( ) had a great vacation last summer. 

3. ( ) got into a lot of trouble a couple of days ago. 

4. ( ) had an interesting experience last week. 

5. {Make up your own beginning sentence. ) 

□ Exercise 36. Let's write and talk: small groups. (Chapters 1 ► 3) 

Form a group and sit in a circle. On a separate sheet of paper, write the following sentence, 
using the name of the person sitting to your right: (...) had a strange experience yesterday. 

Then write two or three additional sentences and pass your paper to the person sitting to 
your left, who will continue the story. Continue to pass the papers to the left until everyone in 
the group has had a chance to write part of each story. 

Then decide which story in your group is the most entertaining or the most interesting. As a 
group, make any necessary corrections in grammar or spelling. Read the story aloud to the rest 
of the class. NOTE: You may wish to establish a time limit for each contribution to the story. 
(Use a buzzer or bell, or appoint someone to say "pass.") When the time limit is up, each 
person must pass his/her paper to the left even if it contains an unfinished sentence. The next 
person will then have to finish the sentence and continue writing the story. 

□ Exercise 37. Let's write. (Chapters l > 3) 

Choose one to write about. 

1 . Describe the state of the world in the year of your birth. What significant or historical 
events occurred or were occurring at that time? Who were the leaders of your country? 
Then describe the changes that have occurred since that time and discuss the state of the 
world today. 

2. Describe your family in the year you were born. Where were they living and working? 
Were they in a good situation? Who did your family consist of? Who in your family hadn't 
been born yet? Then describe the changes in your family that have occurred since the year 
of your birth and your family's current situation. 



Perfect and Perfect Progressive Tenses 59 



Chapter 4 

Future Time 




J 



Exercise 1 . What do I already know? (Chapter 4) 

Look at the verbs in italics. Do the sentences express present or future 



1 . The students are going to give oral reports today. 

2. I'm beginning a new job next week. 

3. Look. It's beginning to rain. 

4. The teacher zoill be in her office after class today. 

5. When class is over, the teacher will be in her office. 
Finally, class is over. Let's get a cup of coffee. 
Oh no! We have only five minutes to make our train! 
Our train leaves from Track 37 in five minutes. 

9. The soccer team is playing in Barcelona next week. 
10. The soccer team is playing well today. They're winning. 



□ Exercise 2. Warm-up. (Chart 4-1) 

Correct the errors. 

1. Marie will cooks some chicken and rice for dinner tonight. 

2. Where you will be tomorrow morning? 

3. I no will ride the bus to work tomorrow. 

4. Marco will probably to call us this evening. 

5. I going to look for a new apartment. 



time? 
present 
present 
present 
present 
present 
present 
present 
present 
present 
present 




^jture) 
future 
future 
future 
future 
future 
future 
future 
future 
future 



60 



4-1 Simple Future: Will and Be Going To 



(a) Jack will finish his work tomorrow. 

(b) Jack is going to finish his work 
tomorrow. 



W/7/and be going to express future time and 
often have essentially the same meaning. 
Examples (a) and (b) have the same meaning. 
See Chart 4-2 for differences in meaning 
between the two forms. 



Will 



(c) Anna will come tomorrow around 5:00. 

incorrect: Anna -wills- come. 
incorrect: Anna -will- comes. 
incorrect: Anna will to come. 



Will typically expresses predictions about the future, as 
in (c). 

Will does not take a final -s. 

Will is followed immediately by the simple form of 

a verb. 



(d) Alex will not be here tomorrow. 
Peter won't be here either. 



negative: will + not= won't 



(e) Will you be here tomorrow? 
How will you get here? 



question: will + subject + main verb 

In (e): The speaker is asking for information about a 
future event.* 



(f) Spoken or written: I'll be there. 

(g) Spoken: Tom 7/ be there too. 
Written: Tom will be there too. 

(h) Spoken or very informal writing: 
Nobody'll notice. 

That'll be fun. 

There'll be a test tomorrow. 



CONTRACTIONS WITH PRONOUNS AND NOUNS: 

W/7/is often contracted with pronouns in both speaking 
and informal writing: /'//, you'll, she'll, he'll, it'll, we'll, they'll. 

Will \s also often contracted with nouns in speaking but 
usually not in writing, as in (g). 

In very informal writing, will may be contracted with other 
kinds of pronouns and there, as in (h). 



Be Going To 



(i) Anna is going to come tomorrow around 5:00. 
( j) Informally spoken: Anna 's gonna come tomorrow 
around 5:00. 

(k) Tom isn't going to come. 

( I ) Are you going to come? 



Be going to also commonly expresses predictions about 
the future. In informal speech, going to is often 
pronounced "gonna." 

negative: be + not + going to, as in (k) 

question: be + subject + going to, as in (I) 



*\Vill can also be used in questions to make polite requests: Will you open the door for me, please? See Chart 9-3, p. 159. 



□ Exercise 3. Listening. (Chart 4-1) 

{Tj\ If you hear a form of voill, choose yes. If not, choose no. 



CD 
Track 27 



> 27 Example: I'll have time to see you tomorrow. (yes) no 

I have time to see you tomorrow. yes (no) 



1. 


yes 


no 


5. 


yes 


no 


2. 


yes 


no 


6. 


yes 


no 


3. 


yes 


no 


7. 


yes 


no 


4. 


yes 


no 


8. 


yes 


no 



Future Time 61 



Exercise 4. Pronunciation. (Chart 4-1 ) 

Practice pronouncing contractions with will. 



1. 


Bob will be here soon. 


8. 


Bill will be here too. 




Bob 7/ be here soon. 


9. 


The children will be home at 3:00. 


2. 


I'll come. He'll come. You'll come. 


10. 


Who will be at the meeting? 


3. 


She'll help us. They'll help us too. 


11. 


Where will you be around five? 


4. 


I'm sure we'll do well on the test. 


12. 


How long will Tom be here? 


5. 


It'll probably rain tomorrow. 


13. 


Nobody will recognize you in that wig. 


6. 


The weather will be hot in August. 


14. 


That will be interesting. 


7. 


Mary will come tomorrow. 


15. 


What will you do? 



□ Exercise 5. Listening. (Chart 4-1) 

fj\ Complete the sentences with the words you hear. Write the non-contracted forms of the verbs 
you hear. 



CD 1 
Track 28 



1. 

2. 



3. The 

4. 

5. 



to turn in all your assignments by tomorrow, 
for the final exam on Monday. 
50 questions. 



6. It's a long exam. Sorry, but 

7. 



8. The 



50 questions on the exam. 

the whole hour to complete the test. 

early. 

a lot of work. Study hard! 
available in my office the next day. 



□ Exercise 6. Listening. (Chart 4-1) 

/f% Listen to the sentences. Circle whether you hear "going to" or "gonna. 



CD 1 1 . going to gonna 

Track 29 ° ° ° 

2. going to gonna 



3. going to 

4. going to 



gonna 
gonna 



□ Exercise 7. Let's talk: small groups. (Chart 4-1) 

Choose a leader for your group. Practice using be going to. Follow these steps: 

(1) Every person in the group, including the leader, will hand the leader a slip of paper on 
which is written the name of an occupation or any kind of work adults do. Examples: 
movie star, teacher, plumber, peace activist, artist, stay-at-home dad, civil engineer, 
architect, politician. 

(2) The leader will redistribute the slips of paper to the group. 

(3) Each member of the group will then explain what he/she is going to be or do according 
to what is written on the slip of paper. Example: "I'm going to be a famous movie star." 

(4) The group will ask the speaker questions about his/her future career. Example: "What 
kind of movies are you going to be in? Where will you live?" Etc. 



62 CHAPTER 4 



U Exercise 8. Warm-up. (Chart 4-2) 

Read the sentences and answer the questions. 

a. It's going to rain tomorrow. 

b. I'm going to paint the house next week. 

c. Here. I'll help you carry that box. It looks heavy. 

d. It will be cloudy this weekend. 

1 . Which sentence expresses a prior plan? 

2. Which sentences are predictions? and 

3. Which sentence expresses willingness? 



4-2 Will vs. Be Going To 




Prediction 


(a) According to the weather report, it will be 
cloudy tomorrow. 

(b) According to the weather report, it is going to be 
cloudy tomorrow. 


Will and be going to mean the same when they make 
predictions about the future (prediction = a statement 
about something the speaker thinks will be true or will 
occur in the future). 

Examples (a) and (b) have the same meaning. 


Prior Plan 


(c) — Why did you buy this paint? 

— I'm going to paint my bedroom tomorrow. 


Be going to (but not will) is used to express a prior plan 
(i.e., a plan made before the moment of speaking).* 

In (c): The speaker already has a plan to paint his/her 
bedroom. 


Willingness 


(d) — The phone's ringing. 

— 1 'II get it. 

(e) — How old is Aunt Agnes? 

— 1 don't know. She won 't tell me. 

(f) The car won 't start. Maybe the battery is dead. 


Will (but not be going to) is used to express willingness. 
In this case, will expresses a decision the speaker 
makes at the moment of speaking. 

In (d): The speaker decides to answer the phone at the 
immediate present moment; she/he does not have a prior 
plan. 

Will not/ won't can express refusal, as in (e) with a 
person or in (f) with an inanimate object. 



*Compare: 
Situation 1: A: Are you busy this evening? 

B: Yes. I'm going to meet Jack at the library at seven. We're going to study together. 
In Situation 1 , only be going to is possible. The speaker has a prior plan, so he uses be going to. 
Situation 2: A: Are you busy this evening? 

B: Well, I really haven't made any plans. I'll eat (OR I'ni going to eat) dinner, of course. And then I'll probably 
ivatch (or I'm probably going to watch) TV for a little while. 
In Situation 2, either will or be going to is possible. Speaker B has not planned his evening. He is "predicting" his evening (rather 
than stating any prior plans), so he may use either will or be going to. 



Future Time 63 



□ Exercise 9. Looking at grammar. (Chart 4-2) 

Discuss the italicized verbs in these short conversations. Decide if the speakers are expressing 

(a) predictions, 

(b) decisions they are making at the moment of speaking (willingness), or 

(c) plans they made before the moment of speaking. 

1. A: Are you busy Saturday night? I've got front-row seats for the baseball game. 

B: Oh, I wish I could, but I can't. Vm going to be at my niece's wedding on Saturday. 

2. A: Masako's such a creative artist. And she's so patient with children. 
B: She 7/ be very successful as an elementary art teacher. 

3. A: We 're going to go out to dinner in a few minutes. Do you want to join us? 
B: Sure. Give me just a minute. I'll grab my coat. 

4. A: I heard Sue and David are engaged for the third time! 
B: They zvon't ever get married. They fight too much. 

5. A: How do you spell "accustomed"? 
B: I'm not sure. I'll look it up for you. 

6. A: That's great news about your new job. 

B: Well, actually, I've changed my mind about it. Vm not going to take it after all. I've 
decided to stay with my old job. 



□ Exercise 10. Looking at grammar. (Chart 4-2) 

Decide if each italicized verb expresses a prediction, a prior 

1. Dinner's almost ready. 17/ ser the table. 

2. Ivan has some vacation time. He is going to take 
next week off. 

3. Heidi will love her birthday present. It's just what 
she wants. 

4. I don't like my job. Vm going to quit when I get 
back from vacation. 

5. That's okay. Don't worry about the spilled coffee. 
17/ clean it up. 

6. Someday, there are going to be computers in every 
classroom in the world. 

7. The light bulb is burned out. 17/ get a new one 
from the supply room. 

8. Vm going to the bookstore. Do you want to go 
with me? 



plan, or willingness, 
prediction plan 

prediction plan 



prediction 
prediction 
prediction 
prediction 
prediction 
prediction 




64 CHAPTER 4 



Exercise 1 1 . Looking at grammar. (Chart 4-2) 

Complete the sentences with be going to if you think the speaker is expressing a prior plan. If 
you think she/he has no prior plan, use will. Use won't if the speaker is expressing refusal. 

1. A: This letter is in French, and I don't speak French. Can you help me? 
B: Sure. I (translate) will translate it for you. 

2. A: Do you want to go shopping with me? I (go) am 0oing to go to the shopping 

mall downtown. 
B: Sure. What time do you want to leave? 
A: How about 1:00? 
B: Great! See you then. 



jjjjT^ Me> will come, tomorrow. 
§y ' He, will comeX tomorrow. 
|9|h w He. wilit come tomorrow. 




3. A: Who wants to erase the board? 
Are there any volunteers? 

B: I (do) it! 

C: I (do) it! 




He, mil come, tomorrow. 
He* will comeXtomorrow. 
He, willi' come, tomorrow. 



4. A: Why does he have an eraser in his hand? 

B: He (erase) 

the board. 




A: How about getting together for dinner tonight? 
B: Sounds good. Where? 

A: How about Alice's Restaurant or the Gateway Cafe? You decide. 

B: Alice's Restaurant. I (meet) you there around six. 

A: Great. I (see) you then. 

B: It's a date. 



Future Time 65 



A: Do you have plans for dinner? 

B: Yes. I (meet*) a co-worker for dinner at Alice's 

Restaurant. Want to join us? 

A: Why is that little boy crying? 

B: I don't know. He (tell, not) me. I wonder where his parents are. 

A: What's wrong? 

B: The door (open, not) . 

A: Wellj of course not. It's locked. 



□ Exercise 12. Listening. (Chart 4-2) 




Listen to the sentences and choose the expected response (a. or b.). 



1. a. I'm going to work at a summer resort in the mountains, 
b. I'll work at a summer resort in the mountains. 

2. a. Sure. I'm going to drop it off on my way to work, 
b. Sure. I'll drop it off on my way to work. 

3. a. I'm going to attend my cousin's funeral, 
b. I'll attend my cousin's funeral. 

4. a. Here 3 give it to me. I'm going to fix it for you. 
b. Here 3 give it to me. I'll fix it for you. 

5. a. I'm going to sweep the front steps, 
b. I'll sweep the front steps. 



Exercise 13. Warm-up. (Chart 4-3) 

Complete the sentences with your own words, 
do you notice about the verbs in blue? 

1 . After I leave this class 3 I'm going to 

2. As soon as I get home tonight, I'll 



All the sentences talk about future time. What 



3. When I finish my English studies^ I'm going to 



*\Vhen be going to expresses a prior plan, it is often also possible to use the present progressive with no change in meaning. 
See Chart 4-2, p. 63. There is no difference in meaning between these sentences: 
/ am goitig to ttieet Larry at Alice's Restaurant at six. 
I am meeting Larry at Alice's Restaurant at six. 



66 CHAPTER 4 



4-3 Expressing the Future in Time Clauses 




(a) Bob will come soon. When Bob comes, we will see 
him. 

(b) Linda is going to leave soon. Before she leaves, she 
is going to finish her work. 

(c) 1 will get home at 5:30. After 1 get home, 1 will eat 
dinner. 

(d) The taxi will arrive soon. -4s soon as it arrives, we'll 
be able to leave for the airport. 

(e) They are going to come soon. I'll wait here until they 
come. 


In (a): When Bob comes is a time clause.* 

when + subject + verb = a time clause 

When the meaning of the time clause is future, the simple 

present tense is used. Will or be going to is not used in 

the time clause. 


A time clause begins with such words as when, before, 
after, as soon as, until, and while and includes a subject 
and a verb. The time clause can come either at the 
beginning of the sentence or in the second part of the 
sentence: 

When he comes, we'll see him. or 

We'll see him when he comes. 

Notice: A comma is used when the time clause comes 
first in a sentence. 


(f ) While 1 am traveling in Europe next year, I'm going to 
save money by staying in youth hostels. 


Sometimes the present progressive is used in a time 
clause to express an activity that will be in progress in 
the future, as in (f). 


(g) 1 will go to bed after 1 finish my work. 

(h) 1 will go to bed after 1 have finished my work. 


Occasionally, the present perfect is used in a time 
clause, as in (h). Examples (g) and (h) have the same 

mPflninn "T"hp nrPQPnt nprfppt in thp timp pIpiiqp 

IllCdlllllvJ. 1 1 IC yJl CotJI 11 [Jul ICO l III MIC III 1 IC LIuUOC 

emphasizes the completion of one act before a second 
act occurs in the future. 



*A time clause is an adverb clause. See Charts 17-1 (p. 365) and 17-2 (p. 368) for more information. 



□ Exercise 14. Looking at grammar. (Chart 4-3) 

Draw brackets around the time clause in each sentence and underline its verb. Identify and 
discuss the use of verb tenses. 

1. We'll be here [when you arrive tomorrow.] 

2. After the rain stops 3 I'm going to sweep the front porch. 

3. I'm going to start making dinner before my wife gets home from work today. 

4. I'm going to wait right here until Sonya comes. 

5. As soon as the war is over 3 there will be new elections. 

6. Right now the tide is low 3 but when the tide comes in 3 the ship will leave the harbor. 

7. While I'm driving to work tomorrow, I'm going to listen to my Greek language CD. 

□ Exercise 15. Looking at grammar. (Chart 4-3) 

Use will/be going to or the simple present. (In this exercise 3 both will and be going to are 
possible when a future verb is necessary, with little or no difference in meaning.) 

1 . Pete is going to leave in half an hour. He (finish) will finish / is aoina to finish all 

of his work before he (leave) leaves 



Future Time 67 



2. I'm going to eat lunch at 12:30. After I (eat) 
I (take, probably) 



a nap. 



3. I'll get home around six. When I (get) 



home, I (give) 



Sharon a call. 



4. I'm going to watch a TV program at nine, but before I (watch) 

the program, I (call) my parents. 



5. Bakir will come soon. I (wait) 



here until he (come) 



6. I'm sure it will stop raining soon. As soon as the rain (stop) 

I (walk) to the store to get some film. 

7. I'm a junior in college this year. After I (graduate) 

next year, I (intend) to enter 

graduate school and work for an M.A. Perhaps I 
(go) on for a Ph.D. after 



with a B.A. 



I (get) 



8. I (listen) 



my master's degree. 
to 




an English language course while I (sleep) 

tonight. Do you 

think it will help me learn English faster? 



□ Exercise 16. Let's talk: interview. (Chart 4-3) 

Make questions using the given words. Ask two students each question. Share some of their 
answers with the class. Use be going to for the future verb. 

1 . What \ you \ do \ after \ you \ wake up \ tomorrow? 

2. What \ you \ do \ as soon as \ class \ end \ today? 

3. Before \ you \ go \ to bed \ tonight \ what \ you \ do? 

4. What \ you \ do \ when \ you \ have \ free time \ this weekend? 

5. When \ you \ finish \ school \ what \ you \ do? 

□ Exercise 17. Warm-up. (Chart 4-4) 

Decide if each sentence has a present or future meaning. What do you notice about the verb 
tense in each sentence? 



1 . I'm meeting a friend for dinner tonight. 

2. We're taking a flight at midnight. 

3. Class starts in ten minutes. 



present meaning 
present meaning 
present meaning 



future meaning 
future meaning 
future meaning 



68 CHAPTER 4 



4-4 Using the Present Progressive and the Simple Present to 
Express Future Time 



Present Progressive 



(a) My wife has an appointment with a doctor. She 
is seeing Dr. North next Tuesday. 

(b) Sam has already made his plans. He is leaving 
at noon tomorrow. 

(c) — What are you going to do this afternoon? 
— After lunch, 1 am meeting a friend of mine. 

We are going shopping. Would you like to 
come along? 


The present progressive may be used to express future 
time when the idea of the sentence concerns a planned 
event or definite intention. 

compare: A verb such as rain is not used in the present 
progressive to indicate future time because rain is not a 
planned event. 

A future meaning for the present progressive tense is 
indicated either by future time words in the sentence or 
by the context. 


Simple Present 




(d) The museum opens at 10:00 tomorrow morning. 

(e) Classes begin next week. 

(f ) John's plane arrives at 6:05 p.m. next Monday. 


The simple present can also be used to express future 
time in a sentence concerning events that are on a 
definite schedule or timetable. These sentences usually 
contain future time words. Only a few verbs are used in 
this way: e.g., open, close, begin, end, start, finish, 
arrive, leave, come, return. 



□ Exercise 18. Looking at grammar. (Chart 4-4) 

Decide the meaning of each italicized verb. Write in the future, novo, or habitually. 



1 . I am taking four courses next semester. 

2. I am taking four courses this semester. 
Students usually take four courses every semester. 
I'll mail this letter at the corner when I take Susan home. 



My brother's birthday is next week. I am giving him a 
sweater. 

6. Shhh. The broadcaster is giving the latest news about the 
crisis overseas. I want to hear what she's saying. 

7. When I graduate, I'm going to return home. 

8. When students graduate, they receive diplomas. 

9. I'm tired. I am going to bed early tonight. 

10. When I am in New York, I'm going to visit the Museum 
of Modern Art. 

1 1 . When I am home alone in the evening, I like to read or 
watch television. 



in the future 



now 



habitually 



Future Time 69 



12. A: Are you busy? 
B: Not really 

A: What are you doing? A: 

B: I'm writing a letter to my folks. B: 

A: When you finish your letter, do you want to play a 

game of chess? A: 

13. A: What are you doing after work today? A: 

B: I'm playing tennis with Brown at the health club. 

And you? B: 

A: I'm meeting Smith for a round of golf. A: 




□ Exercise 19. Looking at grammar. (Chart 4-4) 

Complete each sentence with any present progressive verb. 

1 . A: How about going across the street for a cup of coffee? 

B: I can't. I am meeting Jennifer at the library at 5:00. 

2. A: Why are you in such a hurry? 

B: I have to be at the airport in an hour. I the four 

o'clock plane to New York. I have an important meeting there tomorrow. 

3. A: I see you're smoking. I thought you stopped last month. 

B: I did. I don't know why I started again. I tomorrow, 

and this time I mean it. 



70 CHAPTER 4 



4. A: Your cough sounds terrible! You should see a doctor. 

B: I know. It just won't go away. I 

Dr. Murray later this afternoon. 

5. A: Where are you and your family going for your vacation this 

summer? 
B: Ontario, Canada. 




A: Are you planning to fly? 

B: No 3 we so we can take our time and enjoy the scenery. 

A: That sounds wonderful. 



□ Exercise 20. Let's write. (Chart 4-4) 

Pretend that you are going to take your ideal vacation next week. All of your plans are made, 
and your itinerary is in front of you. Write your travel plans. Use present tenses where 
appropriate. 

Example: This coming Saturday, I am beginning my "vacation of a lifetime." The first place I'm 
going to is Bali. My plane leaves at six-thirty Saturday morning. I arrive in Bali late that 
afternoon. I'm staying at the Nusa Dua Beach Hotel. I leave Bali on the fifteenth and 
travel to the Philippines. While I'm there, I'm staying with some friends. Etc. 



□ Exercise 21. Warm-up. (Chart 4-5) 

Notice the verbs in blue. What do they have in common? 

1 . Right now, I'm sitting in class. 

2. Yesterday at this time, I was sitting in class. 

3. Tomorrow at this time, I will be sitting in class. 



4-5 Future Progressive 




(a) I will begin to study at seven. You will 
come at eight. I will be studying when 
you come. 



(b) Don't call me at nine because I won't be 
home. I am going to be studying at the 
library. 



(c) Don't worry. She will be coming soon. 

(d) Don't worry. She will come soon. 



The future progressive expresses an 
activity that will be in progress at a 
time in the future. 



The progressive form of be going to: 
be going to + be + -ing, as in (b) 



Sometimes there is little or no 
difference between the future 
progressive and the simple future, 
especially when the future event will 
occur at an indefinite time in the 
future, as in (c) and (d). 



Future Time 71 



Exercise 22. Looking at grammar. (Chart 4-5) 

Complete the sentences. Use the future progressive form of the given verbs. 



1 . finish, sleeps study 

Please don't call our house after 9:00 tonight. The baby 
OR will be eleepina My husband 



ie going to be sleeping 



for a test. I 
talk, do, see 



a project for work. 



Dr. Roberts is the town's only medical doctor and works long hours. Tomorrow she has an 

especially busy schedule. From early in the morning until lunch, she 

patients at her clinic. After lunch, she 



research at the hospital. In the evening, she 
medical students about rural health care. 



to 



□ Exercise 23. Looking at grammar. (Chart 4-5) 

Complete the sentences. Use the future progressive or the simple present form of the verbs in 
parentheses. 



for me. 



1. Tomorrow I'm going to leave for home. When I (arrive) 

airport, my whole family (zvait) 

2. When I (get) up tomorrow morning, the sun (shine) 

, the birds (sing) 



at the 



and my 



roommate (lie, still) 



A: When do you leave for Florida? 

B: Tomorrow. Just think! Two days from now 

I (enjoy) 

my vacation in the sun. 
A: Sounds great! I (think) 



about you. 



A: Are you going to be in town next Saturday? 
B: No. I (visit, in Chicago*) 



my aunt. 



A: Where are you going to be this evening? 

B: I (work, at the library) 

on my research paper. 



in bed fast asleep. 




^Expressions of place can often be used between the helping verb and the main verb in progressive tenses. See Chart 2-10, p. 34. 



72 CHAPTER 4 



□ Exercise 24. Warm-up. (Chart 4-6) 

Notice the verbs in blue. What do they have in common? 

1. Eric isn't here. He has left. 

2. Eric wasn't there. He had left by the time we got there. 

3. Eric won't be there. He will have left by the time we get there. 



4-6 Future Perfect and Future Perfect Progressive 



note: These two tenses are rarely used compared to the other verb tenses. 



Future Perfei 


;t 

X X 


(a) 1 will graduate in June. 1 will see 
you in July. By the time 1 see you, 
1 will have graduated. 


The future perfect expresses an 
activity that will be completed before 
another time or event in the future. 


Future Perfe 


:t Progressive 

jj? 

i 

. ■ 


(b) I will go to bed at 10:00 p.m. Ed will 

not hnmo cit miHninht At miHninht 
yyi iiuniu cu MiKJiiiyiu. mi 1 1 iiui iiyi ii 

1 will be sleeping. 1 will have been 
sleeping for two hours by the time 
Ed gets home. 


The future perfect progressive 

pmnhaci7PC thp Hi iratinn r.f an ar*ti\/it\/ 
clIIUI Idol .ceo 11 IC UUI allUI 1 Ul all dOUVIly 

that will be in progress before another 
time or event in the future. 


— ¥ — 


— ¥ 

i 

a ■ 

~ 1 


(c) When Professor Jones retires next 
month, he will have taught or 
will have been teaching for 45 
years. 


Sometimes the future perfect and the 
future perfect progressive have the 
same meaning, as in (c). 

Also, notice that the activity expressed 
by either of these two tenses may begin 
in the past. 



□ Exercise 25. Looking at grammar. (Chapter 3; Charts 4-5 and 4-6) 

Complete the sentences. Use any appropriate tense of the verbs in parentheses. 



Ann and Andy got married on June 1st. 
Today is June 15th. They (be) 


June 


Sun 


Hon 


Tues 




Thurj 


Fit 


so 


married for two weeks. 
By June 8th, they (be) 














5> 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


married for one week. 
By June 29th, they (be) 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


married for four weeks. 

This traffic is terrible. We're going to be late. By the time we 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 















(get) to the airport, Yuri's plane (arrive, already*) 



, and he'll be wondering where we are. 



*With the future perfect, already has two possible midsentence positions: / zuill already have finished. 

I tuill have already finished. 



Future Time 73 



3. The traffic was very heavy. By the time we (get) to the airport, 

Yuri's plane (arrive, already) . 

4. This morning I came to class at 9:00. Right now it is 10:00, and I am still in class. I (sit) 

at this desk for an hour. By 9:30, 1 (sit) 

here for half an hour. By 1 1 :00, 1 (sit) 

here for two hours. 

5. Classes start at 9:00 every day. It's 9:30 and the school bus is late. When the bus gets to 

school, classes (begin) . The teachers (teach) 

since 9:00. 

6. I'm getting tired of sitting in the car. Do you realize that by the time we arrive in Phoenix, 
we (drive) for twenty straight hours? 

7. Go ahead and leave on your vacation. Don't worry about this work. By the time you (get) 

back, we (take) care of 

everything. 

8. I don't understand how those marathon runners do it! The race began more than an hour 

ago. By the time they reach the finish line, they (run) 

steadily for more than two hours. I don't think I can run more than two minutes! 

9. We have been married for a long time. By our next anniversary, we (be) 

married for 43 years. 

□ Exercise 26. Let's talk or write. (Chapter 4) 

These sentences describe typical events in a day in the life of a man named Bill. The sentences 
are in the past, but all of these things will happen in Bill's life tomorrow. Change all of the 
sentences to the future. 

1 . When Bill got up yesterday morning, the sun 
was shining. And tomorrow? 
-> WJien Bill gets up tomorrow morning, the sun 

zvill be shining. 

2. He shaved and showered, and then made a 
light breakfast. And tomorrow? 

3. After he ate breakfast yesterday, he got ready 
to go to work. And tomorrow? 

4. By the time he got to work yesterday, he had 
drunk three cups of coffee. And tomorrow? 

5. Between 8:00 and 9:00, Bill answered his email and planned his day. And tomorrow? 

6. By 10:00 yesterday, he had called new clients. And tomorrow? 

7. At 1 1:00 yesterday, he was attending a staff meeting. And tomorrow? 

8. He went to lunch at noon and had a sandwich and a bowl of soup. And tomorrow? 




74 CHAPTER 4 



9. After he finished eating, he took a short walk in the park before he returned to the office. 
And tomorrow? 

10. He worked at his desk until he went to another meeting in the middle of the afternoon. 
And tomorrow? 

11. By the time he left the office, he had attended three meetings. And tomorrow? 

12. When Bill got home, his children were playing in the yard. And tomorrow? 

13. They had been playing since 3:00 in the afternoon. And tomorrow? 

14. As soon as he finished dinner, he took the children for a walk to a nearby playground. And 
tomorrow? 

15. Afterward, the whole family sat in the living room and discussed their day. And tomorrow? 

16. They watched television for a while, and then he and his wife put the kids to bed. And 
tomorrow? 

17. By the time Bill went to bed yesterday, he 
had had a full day and was ready for sleep. 
And tomorrow? 




Exercise 27. Let's talk or write. (Chapter 4) 

What do you think the world will be like in a hundred years? What changes will have occurred 
between then and now? Use your imagination and make some predictions, note: You may 
wish to make comparisons among the past, the present, and the future. 

Example: A hundred years ago, the automobile hadn't been invented. Today it is one of the 
most common means of transportation and has greatly changed the way people lead 

their lives. By the year , the automobile will have become obsolete. A hundred 

years from now, people will use small, jet-propelled, wingless flying machines in place of 
cars. 

Possible topics: 



1. 


types of transportation 


9. 


space exploration; contact with 


2. 


energy sources 




beings from outer space 


3. 


population growth 


10. 


weapon technology 


4. 


food sources 


11. 


role of computers in daily life 


5. 


extinction of animal species 


12. 


long-term solutions to today's 


6. 


architecture 




political crises 


7. 


clothing styles 


13. 


international language 


8. 


exploration of the oceans or of the 


14. 


international world government 




earth's interior 







Future Time 75 




□ Exercise 1 . What do I already know? (Chapters l > 4) 

Correct the errors in verb tense usage. 

1 . I am studying here since last January. 

2. By the time Hassan returned to his country, he is away from home for more than 
three years. 

3. After I will graduate, I going to return to my hometown. 

4. By the end of the 21st century, man will had discovered the cure for the common cold. 

5. I want to get married, but I don't meet the right person yet. 

6. I have been seeing that movie three times, and now I am wanting to see it again. 

7. I am not like my job. My brother wants me to quit. I am thinking he is right. 

8. While I'm study tonight, I'm going to listen to classical music. 

9. We washed the dishes and clean up the kitchen after our dinner guests were leaving. 

10. My neighbors are Mr. and Mrs. Sanchez. I know them ever since I am a child. 

1 1 . Many scientists believe there is a major earthquake in California in the near future. 



□ Exercise 2. Looking at grammar. (Chapters l -> 4) 

Complete the sentences with any appropriate tense of the verbs in parentheses. 



John is in my English class. He (study) 



English this 



semester. He (take, also) 
classes (begin) 



some other classes. His 



at 9:00 every day. 



2 



Yesterday John ate breakfast at 8:00. He (eat, already) 
breakfast when he (leave) 



for class at 8:45. 



76 



3. John {eat, ahvays) 



breakfast before he (go) 



class 3 he (eat) 



to class. Tomorrow before he (go) 
breakfast. 



to 



4. John is in class every morning from 9:00 to 12:00. Two days ago 3 1 (call) 

him at 1 1:30 3 but I could not reach him because he (attend) 

class at that time. 

5. Don't try to call John at 1 1:30 tomorrow morning because he (attend) 
class at that time. 

6. Yesterday John took a nap from 1:00 to 2:00. I arrived at 1:45. When I (get) 

there 3 John (sleep) He (sleep) 

for 45 minutes by the time I got there. 

a nap. He (fall) 



7. Right now John (take) 



asleep an hour ago. He (sleep) 
Tomorrow^ after he (eat) 



for an hour. 



dinner, John (go) 



to a movie. In other words., he (eat) 

time he (go) to the movie. 

9. Three days ago 3 John (start) 



dinner by the 



to read The Old Man and the Sea, a novel by 
Ernest Hemingway. It is a long novel. He 

(finish, not) 

reading it yet. He (read) 



teacher assigned it. 



it because his English 



10. Since the beginning of the semester, John 
(finish) three 



novels. Right now he (read) 



and the Sea. He (read) 

days. He (intend) 

(read) 



The Old Man 




that novel for the past three 



to finish it by next week. In his lifetime;, he 



many novels^ but this is the first Hemingway novel he 



(read, ever) 



Review of Verb Tenses 77 



u Exercise 3. Let's talk. (Chapters l > 4) 

Practice verb tenses by answering the questions in complete sentences. Work in pairs 3 in small 
groups 3 or as a class. Only the questioner's book is open. 

1 . What have we been studying? What is one tense we have studied since the beginning of the 
term? When 3 as best as you can remember 3 did we study it? 

2. What else will we have studied in this class by the time the term ends? 

3. This class began on {date). Had you studied verb tenses before that? 

4. We're going to finish studying Chapter 5 on (day or date). How long will we have been 
studying Chapter 5 by that time? 

5. Where are you going to be living in five years? 

6. Think about recent news. What's happening in world affairs? What's happened recently? 

(Change roles if working in pairs.) 

7. What are you doing right now? How long have you been doing that? 

8. What were you doing at this time yesterday? What did you do after that? 

9. What will you be doing tonight at midnight? What were you doing last night at midnight? 

10. What places have you been to since you came to (this city)? 

1 1 . What are some of the things you have done in your lifetime? When did you do them? 

12. What countries/cities have you visited? When did you visit ( )? Why did you go 

there? What did you like about ( )? What did you dislike about ( )? Are you 

planning to go there again someday? 

J Exercise 4. Listening. (Chapters l -> 4) 

Part I. Listen to the story with your book closed. Then open your book and read the 
statements. Circle "T" for true and "F" for false. 

CD 1 
Track 3 1 

1 . The man broke the lock on the door. T F 

2. The man thought a stranger was in his apartment. T F 

3. The man's wife opened the door. T F 

4. The man felt he had done something stupid. T F 

Part II. Listen again. Complete the sentences with the verbs you hear. 

When I home to my apartment last night 3 1 out my key 

l 2 

to open the door as usual. As always 3 1 it in the lock 3 but the door 

3 

I my key again and again with no luck. So I 

4 5 

on the door for my wife to let me in. Finally the door 

6 

3 but I my wife on the other side. I 



a stranger. I to get into the wrong 



9 10 

apartment! I quickly and to my own. I 

11 12 

very stupid about what I 



13 14 



78 CHAPTER 5 



□ Exercise 5. Let's talk and write. (Chapters i - 4) 

Before you come to class, think of an interesting, dangerous, or amusing experience you have 
had. Tell the story to a classmate, who will report your experience in a composition. 

□ Exercise 6. Looking at grammar. (Chapters l > 4) 

Complete the sentences with any appropriate tense of the verbs in parentheses. 



Dear Anna, 
I (get) _ 



your long email about two 



weeks ago and (try) 



to find time to write you back ever since. I (be) 
very busy lately. In the past 



two weeks, I (have) 



four tests, and 




I have another one next week. In addition, a friend (stay) 
with me since last Thursday. She wanted to see the 



city, so we (spend) 



interesting places here. We (be) 
and the botanical gardens. 
Yesterday we (go) 



a lot of time visiting some of the 
to the zoo, the art museum, 



to the park and (watch) 



balloon race. Between showing her the city and studying for my exams, I (have, barely) 

enough time to breathe. 



10 



Right now it (be) 
desk. I (sit) 



n 



3:00 A.M., and I (sit) 



12 



at my 



13 



here for five hours doing my studying. My 



friend's plane (leave) 



in a few hours, so I (decide) 



14 



15 



not to go to bed. That's why I (zorite) 



to 



16 



you at such an early hour in the day. I (get) 
would rather stay up. I (take) 



17 



a little sleepy, but I 



a nap after I (get) 



19 



back from taking her to the airport. 

How (you, get) 

(your classes, go) 



along? How 



20 



.? Please write soon. 



21 



Yours, 
Yoko 



Review of Verb Tenses 79 



J Exercise 7. Let's write. (Chapters l > 4) 

Write a letter to a friend or family member. Discuss your activities, thoughts, feelings, and 
adventures in the present, past, and future. 

Use as many different tenses as seems natural. For example, in the course of your letter, 
tell your reader what you are doing, do every day, have done since a certain time, have been doing 
lately, did at some particular time, had done before you did something else, are going to do, etc. 



□ Exercise 8. Listening. (Chapters l > 4) 

Listen to each situation and choose the sentence that comes next (a. or b.). 



CD l 7 1. a. Now the passengers are waiting in the baggage claim area. 

b. After the plane lands, the passengers will be waiting in the baggage claim area. 

2. a. Then his boss called. 

b. He's finding it very relaxing. 

3. a. When did it stop? 

b. When's it going to stop? 

4. a. Some people in the audience said "Shhh" as we sat down, 
b. We missed the first half hour. 

5. a. She's glad that she's finished her training. 

b. She's going to take another one next month. 

6. a. They never caught him. 
b. They'll never catch him. 

□ Exercise 9. Looking at grammar. (Chapters l --> 4) 

Complete the sentences with the words in parentheses. Use any appropriate tense. 

Almost every part of the world (experience) an 

l 

earthquake in recent years, and almost every part of the world (experience) 

earthquakes in the years to come. Since the ancient 

2 

Chinese (begin) to keep records several thousand years ago, more than 13 

3 

million earthquakes (occur) worldwide by some estimates. 

4 

What (cause) earthquakes? Throughout time, different cultures 

5 

(develop) myths to explain these violent earth movements. 

6 

From India comes the story of six strong elephants who (hold) up the 

7 

earth on their heads. Whenever one elephant (move) its head, the earth 

8 

trembles. 



80 CHAPTER 5 



According to a Japanese myth, a playful catfish lives in the mud under the earth. Whenever it 



feels like playing, it {zvave) 

9 

Earthquakes. 

Nowadays, although scientists 

{knoiv) more 

10 

about the causes of earthquakes, they 
still cannot prevent the terrible 
damage. One of the strongest quakes 
in the last hundred years {happen) 



its fat tail around in the mud. The result? 




11 



in Anchorage, Alaska, on March 



24, 1964, at about six o'clock in the evening. When the earthquake {strike) 
that evening, many families {sit) 



down to 



eat dinner. People in the city {find, suddenly) 



14 



themselves in the dark because most of the lights in the city went out when the earthquake 
occurred. Many people {die) instantly when tall buildings {collapse) 



15 



and {send) 



16 17 

into the streets. When {the next earthquake, occur) 



18 



tons of brick and concrete crashing 



.? No one really knows for sure. 



Interestingly enough, throughout history animals {help, often) 



19 



people predict earthquakes shortly before they happen. At present, some scientists {study) 
catfish because catfish swim excitedly just before an 

20 

earthquake. 

According to some studies, snakes, monkeys, and rodents {appear, also) 

to be sensitive to the approach of violent movement in the 



earth's surface. Some animals {seem) 



humans about when an earthquake will occur. 
In recent years, scientists {develop) 



23 



sensitive instruments. Perhaps someday the instruments {be) 



to know a great deal more than 



many extremely 
able to 



24 



give us a sufficiently early warning so that we can be waiting calmly in a safe place when the 
next earthquake {strike) 



25 



Review of Verb Tenses 8 1 



□ Exercise 10. Let's talk: pairwork. (Chapters l > 4) 

Work with a partner. 



Partner A: Pretend to be a famous living person. Agree to an interview by a nosy newspaper 
reporter (Partner B). Tell the reporter all about yourself. Invent answers. Use 
your imagination. Begin with / 

Partner B: You're the reporter. Ask the famous person (Partner A) all sorts of questions 
about his/her past, present, and future. 

After the interview, write an article with your partner about this person. 

□ Exercise 1 1 . Let's talk: small groups. (Chapters l ► 4) 

Divide up the tasks within your group. Put together a news release about your class. It should 
contain the following: 

• a few sentences about each class member and the teacher 

• activities you have done in this class 

• a description of the classroom, the building it's in, and the surrounding area 

• some information about the school you're attending 

• other interesting information about your class 

□ Exercise 1 2. Let's talk and write. (Chapters l > 4) 

In a short talk (two or three minutes), summarize a recent news event. Present your talk to a 
small group or to the class. If necessary, you may speak from brief notes (an outline of only 
the most important points). Listeners can write short summaries of each presentation. 

□ Exercise 1 3. Check your knowledge. (Chapters l > 4) 

Correct the errors in verb tense usage. 

1. I haven't been in this town very long. I come here just two weeks ago. 

2. Dormitory life is not quiet. Everyone shouted and make a lot of noise in the halls. 

3. My friends will meet me when I will arrive at the airport. 

4. Hasn't anyone ever tell you to knock on the door before you enter someone else's room? 
Didn't your parents taught you that? 

5. The phone rung while I doing the dishes. I dry my hands and answer it. When I am hear 
my husband's voice, I very happy. 

6. I am in the United States for the last four months. During this time, I had done many 
things and saw many places. 

7. When the old man started to walk back to his hut, the sun has already hided itself behind 
the mountain. 



82 CHAPTERS 



8. While I am writing my composition last night, someone knocks on the door. 

9. Why did you writing a children's book? 

10. I'm really glad you to visit my hometown next year. 

11. While I was visitting my cousin in Los Angeles, we went to a restaurant and eat Thai food. 

12. When I was a child, I viewed things from a much lower height. Many physical objects 
around me appear very large. When I want to move something such as a chair, I need help. 

13. When I was in my country, I am afraid to come to the United States. I thought I couldn't 
walk outside at night because of the terrible crime. But now I am having a different 
opinion. I live in this small town for three months and learn that there is very little crime 
here. 



Review of Verb Tenses 83 



Chapter 6 

Subject-Verb Agreement 




□ Exercise 1. What do I already know? (Chart 6-1) 

Add -5 or -es where necessary. Do not change or omit any other words. All of the sentences 
are simple present. Discuss the use, spelling, and pronunciation of final -sl-es. 

ee 

1 . Erica miss A her mother and father. 

2. My parent visit many countries when they travel in Europe. 

3. Robert sing when he take a shower. 



4. Chicken, duck, and turkey lay egg. 




□ Exercise 2. Warm-up. (Chart 6-1) 

Look at the words that end in -s. Are they singular or plural? Are they nouns or verbs? 





Singular 


Plural 


Noun 


Verb 


1 . A new car costs a lot of money. 


X 






X 


2. New cars cost a lot of money. 










3. My neighbor makes a lot of noise. 










4. My neighbors make a lot of noise. 










5. Bill drinks tea for breakfast. 










6. Cold drinks taste good on a hot day. 











84 





Use 


(a) Noun + -s: Friends are important. 
Noun + -es: 1 like my classes. 


A final -s or -es is added to a noun to make the noun plural. 
Friend and class = singular nouns 
Friends and classes = plural nouns 


Iir\\ \/prh 4- -•»■ Marv wnrk^ at thp hank 

Verb + -es: John watches birds. 


A final -c r\r -ac io qHHoH to 3 cirnr\lo nrocont \/orh w/hon t h o 
r\ Mlldl "o Ul "C7o lb allllcU LU d oil 1 [J\ Uocl 11 VtM U VVIIUII UlU 

subject is a singular noun (e.g., Mary, my father, the machine) or 

third person singular pronoun {she, he, it). 

Mary works = singular She works = singular 
The students work = plural They work = plural 


Pronunciation 


(c) seats -> seat/s/ 
ropes rope/s/ 
backs back/sl 


Final -s is pronounced Isl after voiceless sounds, as in (c): "t,""p," 
and "k" are examples of voiceless sounds.* 


(d) seeds -> seedlzl 
robes -> robelzl 
bags --► baglzl 
sees see/z/ 


Final -s is pronounced Izl after voiced sounds, as in (d): "d," "b," "g," 
and "ee" are examples of voiced sounds.* 


(e) dishes -> dishidzl 
catches -> catch zzl 
kisses > kiss'zizl 
mixes -> mixiozl 
prizes prize/ozl 
edges -> edge 'oz/ 


Final -s and -es are pronounced fazl after "sh," "ch," "s," "x," "z," and 

"ge'Vdge" sounds. 

The hzl ending adds a syllable. 

All of the words in (e) are pronounced with two syllables. 

compare: All of the words in (c) and (d) are pronounced with one 

syllable. 


Spelling 


(f) sing s/'ngs 
song songs 


For most words (whether a verb or a noun), simply add a final -s 
to spell the word correctly. 


(g) wash -> washes 
watch watohes 
class -> classes 
buzz -> buzzes 
box -» boxes 


Final -es is added to words that end in -sh, -ch, -s, -z, and -x. 


(h) toy -> toys 
buy buys 

(i) baby babies 
cry -> cr/es 


For words that end in -y : 

In (h): If -y is preceded by a vowel, only -s is added. 

In (i): If -y is preceded by a consonant, the -y is changed to 

-/and -es is added. 



*See Chart 2-6 3 p. 21, for an explanation of voiced vs. voiceless sounds. 



□ Exercise 3. Listening and pronunciation. (Chart 6-1) 

Listen to the words. Practice saying them aloud. Write the pronunciation of final -sl-es after 
each word. 

CD 1 
Track 33 

1. rides Izl 4. rugs 7. wishes 

2. writes 5. sleeps 8. pages 

3. robs 6. locks 9. months 



Subject-Verb Agreement 85 



□ Exercise 4. Spelling and pronunciation. (Chart 6-1) 

Add -s or -es to the given words to make them plural. Practice saying them aloud. Write the 
pronunciation for each ending. 

1. floor _s /z/ 7. season 

2. tax ee /oz/ 8. develop 

3. talk _s Je/ 9. touch 

4. bush 10. cough 



5. hat 11. method. 



rise 12. language 



□ 



Exercise 5. Listening and pronunciation. (Chart 6-1) 

Complete the sentences with the words you hear. Practice pronouncing final -s/-es by reading 
the sentences aloud. 



CD 1 
Track 34 



1 



2. People come in many 

3. Maria 

4. The 

5. Our 



eighteen 
and 



a day. 



pronunciation by reading 
good 



aloud. 



us to speak English outside of class. 



6. When Jack has a cold, he 



and 



Exercise 6. Let's talk: pairwork. (Chart 6-1) 

Work with a partner. Each item contains a subject and a verb. Make two sentences for each 
item. Help each other with the use of final -s/-es if necessary. Partner A uses a plural subject. 
Partner B uses a singular subject and begins with A/An. 

Example: alarm clock \ ring 
Partner A: Alarm clocks ring. 
Partner B: An alarm clock rings. 

1 . opera singer \ sing 

2. teacher \ teach 

3. butterfly \ fly 

4. ball \ bounce 

5. door \ open and close 

Change roles. 

6. mosquito bite \ itch 

7. hungry baby \ cry 

8. student \ ask questions 

9. snake \ hiss 
10. dog \ say "arf-arf" in English 




86 CHAPTER 6 



□ Exercise 7. Warm-up. (Chart 6-2) 

Look at the verbs in blue in each pair of sentences. How do you know when to use a singular 
or a plural verb? 



1 . a. A girl is in the classroom. 

b. Some girls are in the classroom. 

2. a. A girl and a boy are in the classroom, 
b. Every girl and boy is in the classroom. 



a. The fruit at those markets is cheap. 

b. The apples at that market are cheap. 

a. Vegetables are good for you. 

b. Eating vegetables is good for you. 



6-2 Basic Subject - Verb Agreement 



Singular Verb 


Plural Verb 




(a) My friend lives in Boston. 


(b) My friends live in Boston. 


Verb + -s/-es = third person singular in 

tho cimnlp nrpQpnt tpn<;p 

LI IC Oil 1 IUIC UlCOwl 11 LC.IIOC. 

Noun + -s/-es = plural 




(c) My brother and sister live in 
Boston. 

(d) My brother, sister, and cousin 
live in Boston. 


Two or more subjects connected by and 
require a plural verb. 


(e) Every man. woman, and 
child needs love. 

\\j tZaUII UUUr\ afiU 1 f \ctya*Lil /t? 

is listed in the bibliography. 




exception: Every and each are always 
followed immediately by singular nouns. 
(See Chart 7-1 1 , p. 129.) In this case, 
even when there are two (or more) nouns 
connected by and, the verb is singular. 


1 

(g) That book on political 
parties is interesting. 

(i) The book that 1 got from 
my parents was very 
interesting. 


(h) The ideas in that book are 
interesting. 

(j) The books 1 bought at the 
bookstore were expensive. 


Sometimes a phrase or clause separates 
a subject from its verb. These interrupting 
structures do not affect basic agreement. 

For example, in (g) the interrupting 
prepositional phrase on political parties 
does not change the fact that the verb is 
must agree with the subject book. 

In (i) and (j): The subject and verb are 
separated by an adjective clause. (See 
Chapter 13.) 


(k) Watching old movies is fun. 




A gerund (e.g., watching) used as the 
subject of the sentence requires a singular 
verb. (See Chart 14-8, p. 322.) 



□ Exercise 8. Looking at grammar. (Chart 6-2) 

Choose the correct completions. 



1. Lettuce (is, are) good for you. 

2. The subjects you will be studying in this course (is, are) listed in the syllabus. 

3. The extent of Fatima's knowledge on various subjects (astounds, astound) me. 

4. Oranges, tomatoes, fresh strawberries, cabbage, and lettuce (is, are) rich in vitamin C. 



Subject-Verb Agreement 87 



5. Every man 3 woman 3 and child (is, are) protected under the law. 

6. The professor and the student (agrees, agree) on that point. 

7. Almost every professor and student at the university (approves, approve) of the choice of Dr. 
Brown as the new president. 

8. Each girl and boy in the sixth-grade class (has, have) to do a science project. 

9. Tomatoes (is, are) easy to grow. Growing tomatoes (is, are) especially easy in hot climates. 

10. Getting to know students from all over the world (is, are) one of the best parts of my job. 

1 1 . Where (does, do) your parents live? 

12. Annie had a hard time when she was coming home from the store 
because the bag of groceries (zvas, were) too heavy for her to carry. 

13. Why (zvas, were) Yoko and Alex late for the meeting? 

14. (Is, Are) having the responsibility for taking care of pets good for 
young children? 

15. I like to go shopping when I'm on vacation^ but I don't buy many 
things. A lot of the stuff* in tourist shops (is, are) cheaply made 
and overpriced. 

□ Exercise 9. Listening. (Chart 6-2) 




Listen to the beginning of each sentence. Choose the correct verb. 



cd i Example: You will hear: The student . . . 

Track 35 ^ ^ 

You will choose: (knozu, Qinozus}) the assignment. 



1. 


(know, kiiozvs) 


basic math calculations. 


2. 


(know, knozus) 


when the assignments are due 


3. 


(know, knozus) 


how to use a thesaurus. 


4. 


(knozu, knozus) 


the classroom routine. 


5. 


(know, knozus) 


her expectations. 


6. 


(know, knozus) 


how to use the internet. 


7. 


(knozu, knozus) 


how to use sign language. 


8. 


(know, knozus) 


where to go in case of fire. 



□ Exercise 10. Warm-up. (Chart 6-3) 

Look at the verbs in blue. How do you know when to use a singular or a plural verb? 

1. Some of this book is interesting. 4. Most of the book is interesting. 

2. Some of those books are interesting. 5. One of those books is Linda's. 

3. Most of those books are interesting. 6. Each of those books is yours. 

* stuff = a noun used in informal English to refer to a group of things. For example: My stuff is in my backpack. My stuff = my 
books, pens, gym clothes, etc. 

88 CHAPTER 6 




6-3 Subject - Verb Agreement: Using Expressions of Quantity 



Singular Verb 


Plural Verb 




(a) Some of the book is good, 
(c) A lot of the equipment is 
new. 

(e) Two-thirds of the money is 
mine. 

(g) Most of our homework is 
easy. 


(b) Some of the books are 
good. 

(d) A lot of my friends are 
here. 

(f ) Two-thirds of the boys are 
here. 

(h) Most of our assignments 
are easy. 


In most expressions of quantity, the verb is 
determined by the noun (or pronoun) that follows 
of. 

For example, in (a) and (b): 

some of + singular noun = singular verb 
some of + plural noun = plural verb 


(i ) One of my friends is here. 

( j ) Each of my friends is here. 

(k) Every one of my friends is 
here. 




exceptions: One of, each of, and every one of 
take singular verbs. 

Ulltl Ul 

each of > + plural noun = singular verb 
every one of J 


( 1 ) None of the boys is here. 


(m) None of the boys are here. 


Subjects with none of used to be considered 
singular in very formal English, but plural verbs 
are often used in informal English and 
sometimes even in formal writing. 


(n) The number of students in 
the class is fifteen. 


(o) A number of students 
were late for class. 


compare: 

In (n): The number is the subject. 
In (o): A number of is an expression of quantity 
meaning "a lot of." It is followed by a plural noun 
and a plural verb. 



□ Exercise 1 1 . Looking at grammar. (Chart 6-3) 

Choose the correct completions. Underline the word(s) that determine whether the verb is 
singular or plural. 

1. Some of the fruit in this bowl (Us?) are) rotten. 



2. Some of the apples in that bowl (is, are) rotten. 

3. Most of the movie (is, are) funny. 

4. Most of the movies (is, are) funny. 

5. Half of the students in the class (is, are) from Arabic-speaking countries. 

6. Half of this money (is, are) yours. 

7. A lot of the students in the class (is, are) from Southeast Asia. 

8. A lot of clothing in those stores (is, are) on sale this week. 

9. One of my best friends (is, are) coming to visit me next month. 

10. Each boy in the class (has, have) his own notebook. 

1 1 . Each of the boys in the class (has, have) his own notebook. 



Subject-Verb Agreement 89 



12. Every one of the students (is, are) required to take the final test. 

13. None of the animals at the zoo (is, are) free to roam. All of them (is, are) in enclosures. 

14. A number of students (is, are) absent today. 

15. The number of employees in my company (is, are) approximately ten thousand. 

16. One of the chief materials in bones and teeth (is, are) calcium. 

17. (Does, Do) all of the students have their books? 

18. (Does, Do) all of this homework have to be finished by tomorrow? 

19. Why (was, were) some of the students excused from the examination? 

20. Why (was, zuere) one of the students excused from the examination? 



□ Exercise 12. Looking at grammar. (Chart 6-3) 

Take turns making sentences. Work with a partner or in small groups. 





. . . is/are unusual. 




. . . is/are secondhand. 


1. 


The story ► The story is unusual. 


11. 


The furniture 


2. 


The stories 


12. 


A lot of the furniture 


3. 


Some of the story 


13. 


A lot of the chairs 


4. 


Some of the stories 


14. 


Some of the furniture 


5. 


Two-thirds of the story 


15. 


Half of the furniture 


6. 


One of the stories 


16. 


None of the furniture 


7. 


Each of the stories 


17. 


Some of the chairs 


8. 


None of the story 


18. 


Three-fourths of the furniture 


9. 


None of the stories 


19. 


Seventy-five percent of the furniture 


10. 


A number of stories 


20. 


Half of the chairs 



Exercise 13. Warm-up. (Chart 6-4) 

Complete the sentences with your own words. 

1. Think about (or look around) your classroom. 

There are in my classroom. 

There is in my classroom. 

2. Think about (or look around) your bedroom. 

There are in my bedroom. 

There is in my bedroom. 



90 CHAPTER 6 





(a) There is a fly in the room. 

(b) There are three windows in this room. 


There + be introduces the idea that something exists in a 
particular place. 

There + be + subject + expression of place* 

Tho ci ihiopt fnlln\A/c H& wyhpn th&rc* iq i iqpH 

1 1 ICS OUUIUUl lUIIUVVO L/C Wl Id 1 11 Id & IO UoCVJ, 

In (a): The subject is a fly. (singular) 

In (b): The subject is three windows, (plural) 


(c) informal: There 's two sides to every story. 


In informal spoken English, some native speakers use a singular 
verb even when the subject is plural, as in (c). The use of this form 
is fairly frequent but is not generally considered to be 
grammatically correct. 



*Sometimes the expression of place is omitted when the meaning is clear. For example, There are seven continents. The implied 
expression of place is clearly in the icorld. 




Exercise 14. Looking at grammar. (Chart 6-4) 

Choose the correct completions. 

1. There {isn't, aren't) any letters in the mail for you today. 

2. There {isn't, aren't) any mail for you today. 

3. There {is, are) a lot of problems in the world. 

4. There {is, are) a hole in his sock. 

5 . How many kinds of birds {is, are) there in the world? 

6. Why {isn't, aren't) there a hospital close to those villages? 

7. There {zuas, were) a terrible earthquake in Iran last year. 

8. Why {is, are) there a shortage of available apartments for rent in this city at present? 

9. There {is, are) more women than men in my office. 

10. There {has been, have been) a line in front of that theater every night for the past two weeks. 

1 1 . How many wars do you suppose there {has been, have been) in the history of the world? 



□ Exercise 15. Listening. (Chart 6-4) 

Choose the words you hear. For many of the sentences, you will hear reductions of the given 
words. NOTE: Is + there can sound like "ih-zehr." For example. Is there ("ih-zehr") a doctor 
Tra"k36 in the house? 

Example: You will hear: There's a spider on the wall. 
You will choose: (^herejs) There are 

1. There is There are 5. Is there Are there 



2. there is there are 

3. There is There are 

4. There is There are 



6. Is there Are there 

7. there is there are 

8. Is there Are there 



Subject-Verb Agreement 91 



□ Exercise 16. Let's talk. (Chart 6-4) 

Using there and be, name four or five things that exist in the given places. Work in small 
groups or as a class. 

Example: in this book 

Speaker A: There are exercises in this book. 
Speaker B: There's an index in this book. 
Speaker C: There are illustrations in this book. 

1. on this page 4. on an airplane 

2. in this room 5. in the world 

3. in this city 6. in outer space 

□ Exercise 17. Let's talk and write. (Chart 6-4) 

Choose the correct verb in each sentence. Based on the city/town you're in now, do you agree or 
disagree with each statement? Circle yes or no. Afterward, write four more true sentences about 
this city/town. Begin your sentences with Tliere is/There are. Share some of them with the class. 



1. There (is, are) good public transportation. yes no 

2. There (is, are) clean air. yes no 

3. There (is, are) enough recreation areas. yes no 

4. There (is, are) good restaurants. yes no 

5. There (is, are) excellent medical facilities. yes no 



□ Exercise 18. Warm-up. (Chart 6-5) 

Look at the subjects and verbs (in blue) in each pair of sentences. Some of them are 
"exceptions to the rule." For example, nouns that end in -5 usually take a plural verb, but 
sometimes not. Look for these irregularities. 

1. a. Nations are groups of people who share a common identity, 
b. The United Nations is an international organization. 

2. a. Kilometers are measures of distance. 

b. Seven kilometers is too far for me to run. 

3. a. Mix and fix are verbs, 
b. Six and six is twelve. 

4. a. Whales are mammals, 
b. People are mammals. 

5. a. English is a language. 

b. The English are concerned about global warming. 



92 CHAPTER 6 



6-5 Subject -Verb Agreement: Some Irregularities 



Singular Verb 



( a ) The United States is big. 

(b) The Philippines consists of more than 7,000 islands. 

(c) The United Nations has its headquarters in New 
York City. 

(d) Harrods is a department store. 


Sometimes a proper noun that ends in -s is singular. 

In the examples, if the noun is changed to a 
pronoun, the singular pronoun It is used (not the 
plural pronoun they) because the noun is singular. 

In (a): The United States = it (not they) 


(e) The news is interesting. 


News is singular. 


( f ) Mathematics is easy for her. Physics is easy for her too. 


Fields of study that end in -ics require singular 
verbs. 


(g) Diabetes is an illness. 


Certain illnesses that end in -s are singular: 
diabetes, measles, mumps, rabies, rickets, 
shingles. 


( h ) Eight hours of sleep is enough. 

( i ) Ten dollars is too much to pay. 

( j ) Five thousand miles is too far to travel. 


Expressions of time, money, and distance usually 
require a singular verb. 


( k ) Two and two is fou r. 

Two and two equals four. 

Two plus two is/equals four. 
( 1 ) Five times five is twenty-five. 


Arithmetic expressions require singular verbs. 


Plural Verb 


(m) Those people are from Canada. 
( n ) The police have been called, 
(o) Cattle are domestic animals, 
(p) Fish live under water. 


People* police, cattle, and fish do not end in 
-s, but they are plural nouns in the example 
sentences and require plural verbs. 


Singular Verb 


Plural Verb 




(q) English is spoken 
in many countries. 

(s) Chinese is his 
native language. 


( r ) The English drink tea. 

( t ) The Chinese have an 
interesting history. 


In (q): English = language 

In (r): The English - people from England 

Some nouns of nationality that end in -sh, 
-ese, and -ch can mean either language or people, 
e.g., English, Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, 
Vietnamese, Portuguese, French. 




(u) The poor have many 
problems. 

(v) The rich get richer. 


A few adjectives can be preceded by the and used 
as a plural noun (without final -s) to refer to people 
who have that quality. Other examples: the young, 
the elderly, the living, the dead, the blind, the deaf, 
the disabled. 



*The word people has a final -s (peoples) only when it is used to refer to ethnic or national groups: All the peoples of the world 
desire peace. 



Subject- Verb Agreement 93 



Exercise 19. Looking at grammar. (Chart 6-5) 

Choose the correct completions. 

1. The United States ((has?) have) a population of around 300 million. 

2. The news about Mr. Gonzalez (is, are) surprising. 

3. The NewYork Times (is, are) an established and respected newspaper. 

4. Physics (seek, seeks) to understand the mysteries of the physical world. 

5. Statistics (is, are) a branch of mathematics. 

6. The statistics in that report on oil production (is, are) incorrect.* 

7. Fifty minutes (is, are) the maximum length of time allowed for the exam. 

8. Twenty dollars (is, are) an unreasonable price for the necklace. 

9. Many people in the world (does, do) not have enough to eat. 

10. The police (is, are) prepared in case there is a riot. 

1 1 . Rabies (is, are) an infectious and often fatal disease. 

12. The French (is, are) proud 3 independent people. 

13. French (is, are) not my native language. 

14. Many Japanese (commutes, commute) to their places of work. 

15. Portuguese (is, are) somewhat similar to Spanish., (isn't it, aren't they)? 

16. The poor (is, are) helped by government programs. 

17. The blind (zvant, zvants) the rest of us to treat them the same way we treat everyone else. 

18. The effect of a honeybee's sting on a human being (depends, depend) on that person's 
susceptibility to the bee's venom. Most people (is, are) not in danger if they are stung., but 
there (has, have) been instances of allergic deaths from a single honeybee sting. 

Exercise 20. Game. (Chart 6-5) 

Check your knowledge by choosing the correct words (or numbers) in parentheses. Then 
complete the sentences with is or are. Work in pairs or small groups. (The correct answers 
can be found on page 476.) 

1 . (The Scots, The Irish, (The English)) are famous for educational institutions like 
Oxford and Cambridge. 

2. (Statistics, Linguistics, Physics) the study of the structure and nature of language. 

3. (Diabetes, Measles, Rabies) a blood-sugar illness. 

4. (English, French, Afrikaans) the official language of Namibia. 



*Statistics is singular when it refers to a field of study (e.g.. Statistics is an interesting field of study.). When it refers to particular 
numbers, it is used as a count noun: singular = one statistic (no final -s); plural = tivo statistics. For example. This statistic is 
correct. Those statistics are incorrect. 



94 CHAPTER 6 



5 



People from Canada 



called {Canadas, Canadians, Canadese) . 



6 



Approximately {60 percent, 70 percent, 80 percent) of the earth 

but only {one percent, ten percent, twenty percent) of the earth's water 



covered by water. 



drinkable. 



7 



312 X .5 + 100 



{227,275,256). 



8 



{The United Arab Emirates, The Netherlands, The Philippines) 
Hemisphere (i.e., north of the equator). 



in the Northern 



9 



{Fish, WJiales, Cattle) 



not mammals. 



□ Exercise 21 . Let's talk. (Chart 6-5) 

Work in small groups. Take turns giving answers. 

1 . How many hours of sleep is enough for you? How are you affected if you don't get that 
amount of sleep? 

2. Write one math equation for each answer: 250, 75, 700, and 1,000. Use addition, 
subtraction, multiplication, or division. Read the equations aloud for others to answer. 

3. What do you think is a reasonable amount of money to pay for school supplies and 
textbooks for one term? 

4. V/hat do you think is a manageable distance for a person to commute to and from a job? 
Give your answer in miles or kilometers. 

5. In your opinion, what advantages do the old have over the young? The young over the old? 

6. Consider various school subjects: science (biology, chemistry, etc.), mathematics (algebra, 
geometry, etc.), languages, etc. Which class is easy for you to understand? Which is 
difficult for you? Which is the most enjoyable? 

7. Think of a country that has a history you're familiar with. Share some information about 
the people (the Chinese, the French, the Egyptians, etc.) of this country. Which country 
has a history you'd like to know more about? 

□ Exercise 22. Looking at grammar. (Charts 6-2 - > 6-5) 

Your teacher will give you phrases to complete with is or are. Close your book for this activity. 
Example: 

Teacher {book open): Women 
Speaker A: {book closed): are 

Teacher {book open) : Every man, woman, and child 
Speaker B {book closed): is 



1. 


A woman and her child 


7. 


Chinese 


2. 


One of the countries I would like to visit 


8. 


The Chinese 


3. 


Some of the cities I would like to visit 


9. 


The poor in my country 


4. 


A number of students 


10. 


Washing the dishes 


5. 


Ten minutes 


11. 


The United States 


6. 


Most people 


12. 


This exercise on subject-verb agreement 



Subject- Verb Agreement 95 



□ Exercise 23. Looking at grammar. (Charts 6-2 --> 6-5) 

Your teacher will give you phrases to complete with is or are. Close your book for this 
activity. 

Example: 

Teacher (book open): His idea \ interesting 
Student A (book closed): His idea is interesting. 

1. His ideas \ interesting 5. Two-thirds of the food \ gone 

2. Some of the people \ friendly 6. The clothes in that store \ expensive 

3. One of the girls \ absent 7. The clothing in those stores \ inexpensive 

4. Italian \ a Romance language 8. Most of the stores in tourist towns \ overpriced 

□ Exercise 24. Let's talk. (Charts 6-2 > 6-5) 

Choose the correct verb in each sentence. Are the sentences true in your opinion? Circle yes 
or no. Share some of your answers with the class. 

1. The United Nations (has, have) an important role in today's world. yes no 

2. Mathematics (is, are) an interesting subject. yes no 

3. Both boys and girls (needs, need) to learn how to do housecleaning. yes no 

4. Every girl and boy in my country (needs, need) to have 

immunizations for certain diseases before entering public school. yes no 

5. Two hours of homework per day (is, are) too much for elementary 

school children. yes no 

6. Having good computer skills (is, are) necessary if you want to get a 

high-paying job. yes no 

7. One of the biggest problems in the world today (is, are) the lack of 

clean 3 fresh drinking water for significant numbers of people. yes no 

8. We may come from different cultures and have different customs 3 
but I believe that people across the world (is, are) more alike than 

different. yes no 

□ Exercise 25. Game. (Charts 6-2 > 6-5) 

Work in teams. Decide if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I). If incorrect 3 make the 
necessary changes. Your teacher will give you a time limit. The team with the most correct 
answers wins. 

C I wae 

_/ 1 . The news about the economy were disappointing. 

/ 2. The economy is not doing well. 

3. Economists is worried. 

4. Economics is a field of study. 



96 CHAPTER 6 



C I 

5. Where's Kenya on the map? 

6. Where's my gloves? I can't find them. 

7. More men than women are left-handed. 

8. Chinese have more than fifty thousand written characters. 

9. About two-thirds of the Vietnamese works in agriculture. 

10. Two hours is too long to wait, don't you think? 

1 1 . How many people is there in Canada? 

12. What is the population of Canada? 

13. Everybody in my family enjoys music and reading. 

14. Some of the movies these days contains too much violence. 

Exercise 26. Looking at grammar. (Chapter 6) 

Complete the sentences. Use the simple present form of the verbs in parentheses. 

1 . My alarm clock (ring) rings at seven every morning. 

2. There (be) a lot of sheep in the field. 

3. One of my friends (keep) a goldfish bowl on her kitchen table. 

4. Sensitivity to other people's feelings (make) Giorgio a kind person. 

5. Each car, truck, and motorcycle (be) stopped at the border by customs officials. 

6. My driver's license (be) in my wallet. 

7. (Do) Sergei's uncle live in the suburbs? 

8. (Do) most of the students live in the dormitories? 

9. An orange and black bird (be) sitting in that tree. 

10. An orange bird and a black bird (be) sitting in that tree. 

1 1 . The insurance rates on our car (be) high because we live in a city. 

12. (Be) January and February the coldest months of the year in the Northern 

Hemisphere? 

13. Almost two-thirds of the land in the southwestern areas of the country (be) 

unsuitable for farming. 

14. A car with poor brakes and no brake lights (be) dangerous. 



Subject- Verb Agreement 97 



15. Almost all the information in those texts on the Aztec Indians and their civilization 
{appear) to be well researched. 

16. Every day there {be) more than a dozen traffic accidents in the city. 

17. No news {be) good news. 

18. Four hours of skiing {provide) 

plenty 

of exercise. 



□ Exercise 27. Check your knowledge. (Chapter 6) 

Correct the errors in subject-verb agreement. Some sentences contain no errors. 

are 

1 . The books in my office -is- very valuable to me. 

2. All of the windows in our house were broken in the earthquake, {no errors) 

3. A lot of the people in my class works during the day and attends class in the evening. 

4. Many of the satellites orbiting the earth is used for communications. 

5. The news about the long-range effects of air pollution on the development of children's 
lungs is disturbing. 

6. Studying a foreign language often lead students to learn about the culture of the countries 
where it is spoken. 

7. One of the most common names for dogs in the United States are "Rover." 

8. A number of planes were delayed due to the snowstorm in Denver. 

9. Most of the mountain peaks in the Himalayan Range is covered with snow the year round. 

10. The number of passengers affected by the delays was great. 

11. Seventy-five percent of the people in New York City lives in upstairs apartments, not on 
the ground floor. 

12. Approximately 76 percent of all the data in computers around the world is in English. 




98 CHAPTER 6 



13. Unless there are a profound and extensive reform of government policies in the near 
future^ the economic conditions in that country will continue to deteriorate. 

14. While I was in Paris 3 some of the best food I found were not at the well-known eating 
places but in small out-of-the-way cafes. 




□ Exercise 28. Let's talk. (Chapter 6) 

Work in small groups. Share your experiences as second language learners. Discuss the 
following questions and any other thoughts that occur to you. Summarize some of your 
group's conclusions for the rest of the class. Listen to each other for subject-verb agreement. 

1 . How much English do you speak and read outside the classroom? Is using English in class 
sufficient for you to meet your language-learning goals? What are some good ways to get 
practice with English outside the classroom? 

2. Do you avoid certain situations if you have to speak English? For example^ speaking on 
the phone? Attending a party? Participating in class discussion? 

3. Are you afraid of making mistakes when you speak? Everyone who is learning a second 
language makes mistakes. It's part of the process. Do mistakes matter? 

□ Exercise 29. Let's talk and write. (Chapter 6) 

Tell a fairy/folk tale from your country or from your imagination. Present your story to a small 
group or to the class in five minutes or less. Begin your tale with Once upon a time, there 
voaslvoere. Listeners can write short summaries of each story. 

Example: Once upon a time, there was a mother duck who was sitting on her nest of eggs. 

Suddenly they began to hatch. Six cute, yellow ducklings popped out of their shells, but the 
seventh had gray feathers and looked very strange. The ugly duckling struggled to fit in, but 
he felt that nobody wanted him because he looked so different from all the others* Etc. 



*Adapted from The Ugly Duckling by Hans Christian Andersen. 



Subject-Verb Agreement 99 



Chapter 7 

Nouns 



□ Exercise 1 . What do I already know? (Chart 7-1) 

Write the plural forms of the given nouns. 

children 



1 . one child, two 

2. one branch, two 

3. one mouse, two 

4. one enemy, two 

5. one valley, two 

6. one shelf, two 

7. one belief, two 



o. one woman, two 

9. one echo, two 

10. one photo, two 

1 1 . one zero, two 

12. one crisis, two 

13. one curriculum, two 

14. one offspring, two 



□ Exercise 2. Warm-up. (Chart 7-1) 

Complete the sentences with the plural forms of the given nouns. 



Last night I ate a lot of . 

1 . tomato tomatoee 



2. potato 

3. fish 

4. sandwich 

5. carrot 

6. vegetable 



Did you see any 

7. kangaroo 

8. goose 

9. donkey 

10. deer 

11. wolf 

12. sheep 



at the zoo? 




100 





(a) song— songs 


The plural of most nouns is 
formed by adding final -s* 


(b) box — boxes 


Final -es is added to nouns that 
end in -sh, -ch, -s, -z, and -x* 


(c) baby — babies 


The plural of words that end in a 
consonant + -y is spelled -ies* 


1 ri\ t~t~\ n /non rw swan \r\r\\]n faatrl 

(u) rndii — iiicii ox — uxcii loom — iccin 
woman — women foot — feet mouse — mice 
child — children goose — geese louse — lice 


Tho nni inc in fr\\ h g\ /q irromilor 
1 lie MUUIlb III \U) lldve IllcyUldl 

plural forms that do not end in -s. 


(e) echo — echoes potato — potatoes 
hero — heroes tomato — tomatoes 


Some nouns that end in -o add 
-es to form the plural. 


(f) auto — autos photo — photos studio — studios 
ghetto — ghettos piano — pianos tatoo — tatoos 

l^Qnnarnrt tan/tarnno roHin roWirte virion i/i'Wflnc 

KdliydlUU IsaliyaiUUo idUlU^ - IctUIUs VIUcU VIUcUo 

kilo — /c/7os solo — so/os zoo — zoos 
memo — memos soprano — sopranos 


Some nouns that end in -o add 
only -s to form the plural. 

note: When in doubt, use your 
dictionary or spellcheck. 


(g) memento — mementoes/ mementos volcano — volcanoes! volcanos 

mAcm i i \ r\ m r\ c? n 1 1 ttnac 1 mnc fit ittnc 70 y r\ Tama o / to mc 

1 IlUbLjUllU^ - IIIOisLfUllUciyl IllUoCfUllUo Z.CIU ZclUcol /LclUis 

tornado — tornadoes/tornados 


Some nouns that end in -o add 

cllllcl "ca Ul "o IU IUIII1 lllc jJIUIdi 

(with -es being the more usual 
plural form). 


(h) calf — calves life — lives thief — thieves 
iiaii — iiaivcs iodi — loaves won — woives 
knife — knives self — selves scarf — scarves/scarfs 
leaf — leaves shelf — shelves 


Some nouns that end in -for -fe 

die OlldllLJcU IU "Vco IU lOllll [lie 

plural. 


(i) belief — beliefs cliff — c//7/s 
chief — chiefs roof — roofe 


Some nouns that end in -f simply 
add -s to form the plural. 


(j) one deer — two deer one series — two series 

Ulle llbll iWCJ IISll Olle bllccp llrvO Sliccp 

one means — fwo means one shrimp — fivo shrimp*** 
one offspring — fwo offspring one species — fwo species 


Some nouns have the same 
biiiyuidr diiu piurdi iur in . c.y., 

One deer is 

Two deer are .... 


(k) criterion — criteria (m) analysis — analyses 
phenomenon — phenomena basis — bases 

crisis — crises 

(I) bacterium — bacteria hypothesis — hypotheses 
curriculum — curricula parenthesis — parentheses 
datum — data thesis — theses 
medium — media 
memorandum — memoranda 


Some nouns that English has 
borrowed from other languages 
have foreign plurals. 



*For information about the pronunciation and spelling of words ending in -sl-es, see Chart 6-1, p. 85. 
**Fishes is also possible but rarely used. 

**Especially in British English, but also occasionally in American English, the plural of shrimp can be shrimps. 



Nouns 101 



□ Exercise 3. Game. (Chart 7-1) 

Divide into teams of three to five members. The leader has paper and a pen. Use Chart 7-1 
to list plural nouns that fit the given categories. 

The team that comes up with the most words within the given time limit wins. Be ready 
to explain a choice if another team questions it. Your teacher will decide if the word belongs 
on the list. 

Example: things that cause people physical problems 

Team A Leader writes: mosquitoes, lice, tornadoes, autos, etc. 

Team B: How do autos cause physical problems? 

Team A: They hit people. 

Teacher: We'll accept autos on the list. 

Make a list of: 

1 . things that you find in nature 

2. things that you see every day 

3. things in life that can be dangerous 

4. things that you can hear 

□ Exercise 4. Looking at spelling. (Chart 7-1) 

Write the plural form of each word in the correct column. Some forms have two possible spellings. 



/belief / deer leaf photo tomato 

box fish life potato video 

chief /hero loaf scarf wolf 

class kilo match sheep zoo 

cloud /knife memo shelf 



-s 


-es 


-ves 


no change 


beliefs 


heroes 


knives 


deer 



























































102 CHAPTER 7 



Exercise 5. Looking at grammar. (Chart 7-1 ) 

Write the correct forms of the given nouns. Use each noun only one time. 



attorney discovery /match piano 

beach laboratory medium phenomenon 

box man ox /tooth 
cliff 



1 . The baby has been crying and not sleeping well at night because she is getting her first 

teeth 

2. I need some matchee to light the fire. 

3. Studies are showing that process information differently from 

women. 

4. Maria needed some legal advice for her businesses 3 so she contacted two 



5. New scientific are made every day in 

throughout the world. 

6. The farmer loaded his cart with of fresh vegetables to take to market. 

His cart was pulled by two . 




7. The north side of the island has no for people to walk on. There are 

only steep No one can climb these steep walls of rock. 

8. The music building at the university has 27 for students to play on. 

Students need to sign up for practice times. 

9. Thunder and lightning are of nature. 

10. People get most of their news about the world through the mass 3 that 

is 3 through radio 3 television the internet newspapers 3 and magazines. 



Nouns 103 



J Exercise 6. Looking at grammar. (Chart 7-1) 

Change the nouns to plural as necessary. Do not change any other words. 
Bacteria 

(1) -Bacterium are the smallest living thing. They are simple organism that consist of 
one cell. 

(2) Bacterium exist almost everywhere. They are in the air 3 water 3 and soil* as well as in the 
body of all living creature. 

(3) There are thousand of kind of bacterium. Most of them are harmless to human being 3 
but some cause diseases such as tuberculosis and pneumonia. 

(4) Virus are also microscopic organism 3 but virus live in the cell of other living thing. By 
themselvesj they are lifeless particle that cannot reproduce 3 but inside a living cell they become 
active and can multiply hundred of time. 

(5) Virus cause many disease. They infect human being with such illness as influenza 3 the 
common cold 3 measles 3 and AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). 

(6) Virus are tiny. The virus that causes AIDS is 230 million** times smaller than the period 
at the end of this sentence. Some viral infection are difficult or impossible to treat. 

□ Exercise 7. Warm-up. (Chart 7-2) 

Decide if the words in blue refer to one person or more than one person. If the meaning is 
one 3 write 1. If the meaning is more than one 3 write 2. 

1. his sisters' opinions 4. my sons' school 

2. his sister's opinions 5. the men's hats 

3. my son's school 6. the man's hats 



*Air, ivater, and soil are used as noncount nouns and thus have no plural form. See Chart 7-4 for information about noncount 
nouns. 

**\Vhen the words hundred thousand, million, and billion are used with numerals, they remain in their singular form: Six 
hundred employees will attend the company picnic this year. There are three thousand entrants in the photo contest. 
When they are used without numerals to indicate an indefinite but large number of something, they are used in their plural 
form: Hundreds of people came to the concert. There are thousands of earthquakes in the world every year. Millions of people in 
the world are starving. 



104 CHAPTER 7 







Singular Noun 


Possessive Form 


To show possession, add an apostrophe (') and -s to a 


la) the airl 

(b) Tom 

(c) my wife 

(d) a lady 

(e) Thomas 


the girl's 
Tom's 
my wife 's 
a lady's 

Thomas 's/Thomas ' 


singular noun: The girl's book is on the table. 


If a singular noun ends in -s, there are two possible forms: 

1. Add an apostrophe and -s: Thomas's book. 

2. Add only an apostrophe: Thomas' book. 


Plural Noun 


Possessive Form 


Add only an apostrophe to a plural noun that ends in -s: 


(f) the girls 

(g) their wives 
1 (h) the ladies 

(i) the men 
(j) my children 


the girls' 
their wives' 
the ladies' 
the men 's 
my children 's 


The girls' books are on the table. 

Add an apostrophe and -s to plural nouns that do not end 
in -s: The men's books are on the table. 


" (k) Alan and Lisa's apartment is on the third floor. 


When two (or more) names are connected by and, only 
the final name shows possession. 



□ Exercise 8. Looking at grammar. (Chart 7-2) 

Complete the sentences. Use the possessive form of the nouns in parentheses. 

1. (Mrs. Smith) Mre. Smith'e husband often gives her flowers. 

2. The (boy) hat is red. 

3. The (boys) hats are red. 

4. The (children) toys are all over the floor. 

5. I fixed the (child) bicycle. 

6. (Sally) last name is White. 

7 . (Bess) last name is Young. 

8. There are many problems in (today) world. 

9. It would cost me a (month) salary to buy that refrigerator. 

10. We went to (Jack and Larry) house for dinner. 

□ Exercise 9. Looking at grammar. (Chart 7-2) 

Correct the errors. Use the possessive nouns by adding apostrophes and final -s/-es as 
necessary. 

friende' 

1. I enjoy visiting friend houses. 

friend'e 

2. When I was in Chicago, I stayed at a -friend- house. 

3. My uncle is my father brother. 



4. I have four aunts. All of my aunt homes are within walking distance of my mother apartment. 

5. Esteban's aunt oldest son is a violinist. 

6. Bill wife is a factory worker. 

7. I walked into my boss office. 

8. I borrowed the secretary pen to fill out the application form. 

9. Five astronauts were aboard the space shuttle. The astronaut safe return to earth was a 
welcome sight to millions of television viewers. 

10. It is the people right to know what the city is going to do about the housing problem. 

1 1 . Quite a few diplomats are assigned to our city. Almost all of the diplomat children attend a 
special school. 

12. A diplomat work invariably involves numerous meetings. 

□ Exercise 10. Looking at grammar. (Chart 7-2) 

Correct the errors in the use of possessive nouns by adding apostrophes as necessary. 

1. Texas is a leading producer of petroleum and natural gas. It is one of the world ^s largest 
storage areas for petroleum. 

2. Psychologists have developed many different kinds of tests. A "personality test" is used to 
evaluate an individuals personal characteristics, such as friendliness or trustworthiness. 

3. Many mythological stories tell of heroes encounters with giants or dangerous animals. In 
one story, the heros encounter with a dragon saves a village from destruction. 

4. Childrens play is an important part of their lives. It teaches them about their environment 
while they are having fun. For instance, they can learn that boats float and can practice 
ways to make boats move across water. Toys are not limited to children. Adults have their 
own toys, such as pleasure boats, and children have theirs, such as miniature boats. Adults 
toys are usually much more expensive than childrens toys. 

□ Exercise 1 1 . Warm-up. (Chart 7-3) 

Which nouns in the list commonly follow the nouns computer and airplane} 

error passenger pilot screen skills ticket 



1. computer 2. airplane 

computer airplane 

computer airplane 



106 CHAPTER 7 



7-3 Nouns as Adjectives 



The soup has vegetables in it. 

(a) It is vegetable soup. 

The building has offices in it. 

(b) It is an office building. 



When a noun is used as an adjective, it is in its singular form. 
incorrect: vegetable -s- soup 



The test lasted two hours. 

(c) It was a two-hour test. 

Her son is five years old. 

(d) She has a five-year-old son. 



When a noun used as a modifier is combined with a number 
expression, the noun is singular and a hyphen (-) is used. 

incorrect: She has a five year-s- old son. 



*Adjectives never take a final -s (ixcorrect: beautiful s- pictures). See Appendix Chart A-2. 



□ Exercise 12. Looking at grammar. (Chart 7-3) 

Complete the sentences with the words in italics. Use the singular or plural form as 
appropriate. Include hyphens (-) as necessary. 



1 . shoe 

2. flower 

3. bean 

4. baby 

5. child 

6. salad 

7. mosquito 



They sell ehoee at that store. It is a 



ehoe 



store. 



in it. It is a 



It is black 



My garden has 

garden. 

This soup is made from black . 
soup. 

People can buy special food in small jars for 

It is called food. 

Dr. Adams is trained as a psychologist for 

She is a psychologist. 

At a formal dinner, there are usually two forks on the table. The smaller 
fork is for . It is a fork. 

In tropical climates, sometimes it is necessary to 
hang a net over a bed to 
protect the sleeper from 



It is called a 



net. 




Nouns 107 



8. two + hour 



The plane was late. We had a 
We had to wait for 



wait. 



9. ten + year + old My brother is 



10. three + letter 



I have a 



brother. 



Arm and dog are 
word has 



words. Each 



Exercise 13. Game. (Chart 7-3) 

Work in teams. Think of common expressions in which the given nouns are used to modify 
other nouns. The team that comes up with the most expressions in the given time wins. 



Example: flower 

1. cotton 

2. grammar 

3. birthday 

4. chicken 



a flower vase, a Jlozver garden, a flozver sJiop, etc. 

5. telephone 9. morning 13. kitchen 

6. mountain 10. street 14. baby 

7. government 11. newspaper 15. vegetable 

8. football 12. hotel 16. bicycle 



□ 



Exercise 14. Listening. (Chart 7-3) 

Listen to the sentences. Choose the words you hear. 



CD 1 

Track 37 



Examples: You will hear: 

You will choose: 

You will hear: 
You will choose: 



T ed is a professor at two well-known colleg es. 
professor) professors college (colleges 

Ted is a highly respected c ollege professor, 
college) colleges (m - ofesso?) professors 



1. 


taxi 


taxis 


driver 


drivers 


2. 


driver 


drivers 


taxi 


taxis 


3. 


office 


offices 


manager 


managers 


4. 


manager 


managers 


office 


offices 


5. 


airplane 


airplanes 


seat 


seats 


6. 


airplane 


airplanes 


seat 


seats 


7. 


school 


schools 


activity 


activities 


8. 


school 


schools 


activity 


activities 



□ Exercise 15. Warm-up. (Chart 7-4) 

Choose all the correct completions. 

1 . I got one 

a. letter b. postcard c. package d. mail 

2. My room has one 

a. chair b. furniture c. table d. bed 



108 CHAPTER 7 



Count and Noncount Nouns 



(a) 1 bought a chair. Sam bought three chairs. 

(b) We bought some furniture. 
incorrect: We bought some furniture s-. 
incorrect: We bought a furniture. 


Chair is called a "count noun." This means you can count 
chairs: one chair, two chairs, etc. 

Furniture is called a "noncount noun." In grammar, you cannot 
use numbers (one, two, etc.) with the word furniture. 




Singular 


Plural 




Count 
Noun 


a chair 
one chair 


two chairs 
some chairs 
a lot of chairs 
many chairs 
0 chairs* 


A count noun: 

(1 ) may be preceded by a/an or one in the singular. 

(2) takes a final -s/-es in the plural. 


Noncount 
Noun 


some furniture 
a lot of furniture 
much furniture 
0 furniture* 




A noncount noun: 

(1) is not immediately preceded by a/an or one. 

(2) has no plural form, so does not add a final -s/-es. 



*0 = nothing (i.e., no article or other determiner). 

□ Exercise 16. Looking at grammar. (Chart 7-4) 

Look at the italicized nouns. Write "C" above the count nouns and "NC" above the noncount 
nouns. 

C C C NC 

1. I bought some chairs, tables, and desks. In other words, I bought some furniture. 

2. Michiko likes to wear jewelry. Today she is wearing four rings, six bracelets, and a necklace. 

3. We saw beautiful mountains, fields, and lakes on our trip. We saw beautiful scenery. 

4. Gold and iron are metals. 

5. I used an iron to press my wrinkled shirt. 

6. They have a rusty car without an engine, broken furniture, and 
an old refrigerator in their front yard. Their yard is full of junk. 





Nouns 109 



7-5 Noncount Nouns 


(a) 1 bought some chairs, tables, and desks. In other 
words, 1 bouqht some furniture. 


Many noncount nouns refer to a "whole" that is made up 
of different parts. 

In (a): furniture represents a whole group of things that 
is made up of similar but separate items. 


(b) 1 put some sugar in my coffee. 


In (b): sugar and coffee represent whole masses made 
up of individual particles or elements.* 


(c) 1 wish you luck. 


Many noncount nouns are abstractions. 

In (c): luck \s an abstract concept, an abstract "whole." 
It has no physical form; you can't touch it; you can't 
count it. 


(d) Sunshine is warm and cheerful. 


A phenomenon of nature, such as sunshine, is 
frequently used as a noncount noun, as in (d). 


(e) noncount: Ann has brown hair. 

count: Tom has a hair on his jacket. 

(f) noncount: 1 opened the curtains to let in some light. 

count: Don't forget to turn off the light before you 
go to bed. 


Many nouns can be used as either noncount or count 
nouns, but the meaning is different, e.g., hair 'm (e) and 
light \n (f). 

(Dictionaries written especially for learners of English as 
a second language are a good source of information on 
count/noncount usage of nouns.) 



*To express a particular quantity, some noncount nouns may be preceded by unit expressions: a spoonful of sugar, a glass of water, a 
cup of coffee, a quart of milk, a loaf of bread, a grain of rice, a bozvl of soup, a bag of flour, a pound of meat, a piece of furniture, a piece of 
paper, a piece of jewelry. 



7-6 Some Common Noncount Nouns 



This list is a sample of nouns that are commonly used as noncount nouns. Many other nouns can also be used as 
noncount nouns. 

(a) whole groups made up of similar items: baggage, clothing, equipment, food, fruit, furniture, garbage, hardware, 
jewelry, junk, luggage, machinery, mail, makeup, money/cash/change, postage, scenery, stuff, traffic, etc. 

(b) fluids: water, coffee, tea, milk, oil, soup, gasoline, blood, etc. 

(c) solids: ice, bread, butter, cheese, meat, gold, iron, silver, glass, paper, wood, cotton, wool, etc. 

(d) gases: steam, air, oxygen, nitrogen, smoke, smog, pollution, etc. 

(e) particles: rice, chalk, corn, dirt, dust, flour, grass, hair, pepper, salt, sand, sugar, wheat, etc. 

(f) abstractions: 

— beauty, confidence, courage, education, enjoyment, fun, happiness, health, help, honesty, hospitality, 

importance, intelligence, justice, knowledge, laughter, luck, music, patience, peace, pride, progress, recreation, 
significance, sleep, truth, violence, wealth, etc. 

— advice, information, news, evidence, proof, etc. 

— time, space, energy, etc. 

— homework, work, etc. 

— grammar, slang, vocabulary, etc. 

(g) languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, Spanish, etc. 

(h) fields of study: chemistry, engineering, history, literature, mathematics, psychology, etc. 

(i) recreation: baseball, soccer, tennis, chess, bridge, poker, etc. 

( j) activities: driving, studying, swimming, traveling, walking (and other gerunds) 

(k) natural phenomena: weather, dew, fog, hail, heat, humidity, lightning, rain, sleet, snow, thunder, wind, darkness, 
light, sunshine, electricity, fire, gravity, etc. 



110 CHAPTER 7 



□ Exercise 1 7. Looking at grammar. (Charts 7-3, 7-5, and 7-6) 

Add final -sl-es to the nouns in italics if necessary. Do not add or change any other words. 

5 5 

1. Isabel always has fresh egg A available because she raises chicken x in her yard. 

2. I had chicken and rice for dinner last night, {no change) 

3. Outside my window, I can see a lot of tree, bush, grass, dirt, and flozver. 

4. Abdullah gave me some good advice. Nadia also gave me some good suggestion. 

5. Yoko learned several new word today. She increased her vocabulary today. 

6. I drank two glass of water. 

7. Windoiv are made of glass. 

8. Mr. Chu wears glass because he has poor eyesight. 

9. It took me a lot of time to finish my homeivork. I had a lot of assigmnent. 

10. I have been in Mexico three time. I've spent a lot of time there. 

1 1 . The air is full of smoke, dust, carbon monoxide, and many other harmful substance. We must 
try to reduce air pollution. 

12. I like to read good literature. I especially like to read novel, poetry, and essay. My favorite 
poet are Longfellow and Wordsworth. I have always liked their poem. 

13. I like to experience different season. I like both hot and cold weather. 

14. Being a parent has brought me a lot of happiness. Parenting requires a lot of patience, but it 
provides many reward. 

15. There are more star in the universe than there are grain of sand on all the beaches on earth. 

16. The true sign of intelligence is not knowledge but imagination* 

□ Exercise 1 8. Game. (Chart 7-6) 

Work in teams. The leader has paper and a pen. The teacher will say a noncount noun. 
Working together, make a list of things that belong to this category until the teacher says 
"Stop." The team with the most nouns in a list is the winner of that list. 

Example: 

Teacher {book open): mail 
Leader writes {book closed): mail 

Team to Leader {book closed): letters, postcards, packages, etc. 

1. fruit 4. garbage 

2. jewelry 5. traffic 

3. clothing 6. office equipment 

*This is a quote from Albert Einstein, Nobel Prize winner in physics. 



Nouns 111 



□ Exercise 19. Looking at grammar. (Charts 7-5 and 7-6) 

Complete the sentences with the given nouns. Add final -sl-es if necessary. Use each noun 
only one time. In one sentence, you will need to choose the correct word in parentheses. 



advice definition music symphony 

/change equipment problem traffic 

/ coin homework progress truck 

computer information river vocabulary 



1 . Yes, 1 have some money. I have a few coins in my pocket. In other words, 

I have some change in my pocket. 

2. The Mississippi, the Amazon, and the Nile are well-known 

3. I like to listen to operas, , and folk songs. I enjoy 

and listen to it often on my iPod. 

4. The street is full of cars, , and buses. In other words, it is full of 



5. There are , copiers, telephones, and staplers in a typical 

business office. A business office needs a lot of 

6. Tonight I have to read 20 pages in my history book, do 30 algebra 

and write a composition. In other words, I have a lot of 

to do tonight. 

7. Antonio is studying the meaning of English words. He learned some new 

today. For example, he learned that the word fly has at 

least two . 

8. Toronto is 365 feet/109 meters above sea level. The average annual precipitation in 
Toronto is 32 inches/81 centimeters. The population of the metropolitan area is over 
3,000,000. I found {this I these) on the internet. 

9. I didn't feel good. Ann said, "You should see a doctor." Nick said, "You should go home 
and go to bed." Martha said, "You should drink fruit juice and rest." I got 
from three people. 

10. My English is slowly getting better. My vocabulary is increasing. It's getting easier for me 
to write, and I make fewer mistakes. I can often understand people even when they talk 
fast. I'm satisfied with the I've made in learning English. 



112 CHAPTER 7 



Exercise 20. Warm-up. (Chart 7 7) 

Read the dialogues. Notice the words in blue, and notice whether or not the speaker and the 
listener are thinking of the same specific cats. Then answer the questions. 



Dialogue 1 




Tom: Sally will take care of 

the cat while we're away. 
Anna: Good. 



Dialogue 3 




Tom: A cat has an independent nature. 
Anna: That's true. But cats can also 
express a lot of affection when 
they want to. 



Dialogue 2 




Tom: Our new neighbor has a cat. 

It's very friendly. 
Anna: Oh? What does it look like? 



Questions: 

1. In dialogue 1, why do you think Tom uses the? 

2. In dialogue 2, Tom is thinking of a particular cat, but he uses a (not the) when he is 
talking to Anna. Why? 

3. In dialogue 3, Tom and Anna do not use the. Are they talking about specific cats, or are 
they talking about any and all cats in general? 



Nouns 1 1 



7-7 Basic Article Usage 




I. Using A or 0: Generic Nouns 



Singular 

Count 

Noun 


(a) A banana is yellow.* 


A speaker uses generic nouns to make generalizations. A generic 
noun represents a whole class of things; it is not a specific, real, 
concrete thing, but rather a symbol of a whole group. 

In (a) and (b): The speaker is talking about any banana, all 
bananas, bananas in general. 

In (c): The speaker is talking about any and all fruit, fruit in 
general. 

Notice that no article (0) is used to make generalizations with 
plural count nouns, as in (b), and with noncount nouns, as in (c). 


Plural 
Count 
Noun 


(b) 0 Bananas are yellow. 


Noncount 
Noun 


(c) 0 Fruit is good for you. 


II. Using A or Some: Indefinite Nouns 


Singular 

Count 

Noun 


(d) 1 ate a banana. 


Indefinite nouns are actual things (not symbols), but they are not 
specifically identified. 

In (d): The speaker is not referring to "this banana" or "that 
banana" or "the banana you gave me." The speaker is simply 
saying that she/he ate one banana. The listener does not know or 
need to know which specific banana was eaten; it was simply one 
banana out of all bananas. 

In (e) and (f): Some is often used with indefinite plural count 
nouns and indefinite noncount nouns. In addition to some, a 
speaker might use two, a few, several, a lot of, etc., with plural 
count nouns, or a little, a lot of, etc., with noncount nouns. 
(See Chart 7-4.) 


Plural 
Count 
Noun 


(e) 1 ate some bananas. 


Noncount 
Noun 


(f) 1 ate some fruit. 


III. Using The: Definite Nouns 


Singular 

Count 

Noun 


(g) Thank you for the banana. 


A noun is definite when both the speaker and the listener are 
thinking about the same specific thing. 

In (g): The speaker uses the because the listener knows which 
specific banana the speaker is talking about, i.e., that particular 
banana which the listener gave to the speaker. 

Notice that the is used with both singular and plural count nouns 
and with noncount nouns. 


Plural 
Count 
Noun 


(h) Thank you for the bananas. 


Noncount 
Noun 


(i) Thank you for the fruit. 



*Usually a/an is used with a singular generic count noun. Examples: A windaw is made of glass. A doctor heals sick people. Parents 
must give a child love. A box has six sides. An apple can be red, green, or yellow. 

However, the is sometimes used with a singular generic count noun (not a plural generic count noun, not a generic noncount 
noun). "Generic the" is commonly used with, in particular: 

(1) species of animals: The blue ivhale is the largest mammal on earth. The elephant is the largest land mammal. 

(2) inventions: H'^/o invented the telephone? the ivheel? the refrigerator? the airplane? The computer will play an 
increasingly large role in all of our lives. 

(3) instruments: I'd like to learn to play the piano. Do you play the guitar? 



114 CHAPTER 7 



□ Exercise 21. Looking at grammar. (Chart 7-7) 

Add a/an if necessary. Write 0 if the noun is noncount. Capitalize as necessary. 



1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 



A bird has wings. 

An animal needs a regular supply of food. 
F 

0 food is a necessity of life. 



tennis is a sport. 

tennis player has to practice long hours, 
island is a piece of land surrounded by water, 
gold is a metal. 

bridge is a structure that spans a river. 

health is one of the most important things in life. 

adjective is a word that modifies a noun. 

tree needs water to survive. 

water is composed of oxygen and hydrogen. 

knowledge is a source of power. 

homework is a necessary part of a course of study. 

grammar is interesting and fun. 

sentence usually contains a subject and a verb. 

English is used in airports throughout much of the world. 



air is free. 

fruit is good for you. 
orange is green until it ripens, 
iron is a metal. 

iron is an appliance used to take wrinkles out of cloth, 
basketball is round, 
basketball is a sport. 




Nouns 1 



□ Exercise 22. Looking at grammar. (Chart 7-7) 

Complete the sentences with a, an, or some. 

1 . The teacher made an announcement. 

2. I saw a bird. 

3. I saw some birds. 

4. Rosa borrowed eome money from her uncle. 

5. I had accident. 

6. I have homework to do tonight. 

7. There is table in the room. 

8. There is furniture in the room. 

9. There are chairs in the room. 

10. My father gave me advice. 

11. Sonya is carrying bag. 

12. Sonya is pulling luggage. 

13. There was earthquake in California. 

14. I got letters in the mail. 

15. Helen got letter from her mother. 

16. Mr. Alvarez got mail yesterday. 

17. A computer is machine that can solve problems. 

18. The factory bought new machinery. 

19. machines are powered by electricity. Some use other sources of energy. 

20. I threw away junk. 

21. I threw away old basket that was falling apart. 

22. I threw away old boots that had holes in them. 




116 CHAPTER 7 



□ Exercise 23. Listening. (Chart 7-7) 

if]} A and an can be hard to hear. Listen to each sentence and choose the word you hear. If you 

G@ do not hear a or an, circle 0. 

CD 1 



Example: You will hear: That's an excellent idea. 







You will choose: a 




0 




1. 


a 


an 


0 


5. a 


an 


0 


2. 


a 


an 


0 


6. a 


an 


0 


3. 


a 


an 


0 


7. a 


an 


0 


4. 


a 


an 


0 


8. a 


an 


0 



Exercise 24. Game. (Charts 7-4 > 7-7) 

A favorite game played with a group of people is called "My Grandfather's Store." Each 
person begins his/her turn by saying "I went to my grandfather's store and bought . . . ." The 
first person names something that begins with the letter "A." The second person repeats what 
the first person said, and then names something that begins with the letter "B." The game 
continues to the letter "Z" the end of the alphabet. The people in the group have to listen 
carefully and remember all the items previously named. 

Assume that "grandfather's store" sells just about anything anyone would ever think of. 
Pay special attention to the use of a/an and some. 

Example: 

Speaker A: I went to my grandfather's store and bought an apple. 
Speaker B: I went to my grandfather's store and bought an apple and some bread. 
Speaker C: I went to my grandfather's store and bought an apple, some bread, and a 
camel. 

Speaker D: I went to my grandfather's store and bought an apple, some bread, a camel, 
and some dark socks. 

Etc. 

Alternative beginnings: 

Tomorrow I'm going to {name of a place). In my suitcase, I will pack .... 
My friends are having a party. I'm going to bring .... 



□ Exercise 25. Warm-up. (Chart 7-8) 

Correct the errors. 

1. Oh, look at moon! It's beautiful tonight. 

2. I saw a cat and a bird outside my window. Cat was trying to catch a bird, but it didn't 
succeed. Bird flew away. 

3. The birds have the wings. Many insects have wings too. 

4. We all look for the happiness. 

5. I have book. 



Nouns 117 



7-8 General Guidelines for Article Usage 



(a) The sun is bright today. 

Please hand this book to the teacher. 
Please open the door. 
Omar is in the kitchen. 


guideline: Use the when you know or assume that your 
listener is familiar with and thinking about the same 
specific thing or person you are talking about. 


(b) Yesterday 1 saw some dogs. The dogs were 

chasing a cat. The cat was chasing a mouse. The 
mouse ran into a hole. The hole was very small. 


guideline: Use the for the second mention of an indefinite 
noun.* In (b): first mention = some dogs, a cat, a 
mouse, a hole; second mention = the dogs, the cat, the 
mouse, the hole 


(c) correct: Apples are my favorite fruit. 
incorrect: The apples are my favorite fruit. 

(d) correct: Gold is a metal. 
incorrect: The- gold is a metal. 


guideline: Do not use the with a plural count noun (e.g., 
apples) or a noncount noun (e.g., gold) when you are 
making a generalization. 


(e) correct: (1) I drove a car. 1 1 drove the car. 

(2) 1 drove that car. 

(3) 1 drove his car. 

incorrect: 1 drove car. 


guideline: A singular count noun (e.g., car) is always 
preceded by: 

(1) an article (a/an or the); or 

(2) this/that; or 

(3) a possessive pronoun. 



*The is not used for the second mention of a generic noun. Compare: 

(1) \Vliat color is a banana (generic noun)? A banana (generic noun) is yelloio. 

(2) Joe offered me a banana (indefinite noun) or an apple. I chose the banana (definite noun). 



J Exercise 26. Looking at grammar. (Charts 7-7 and 7-8) 

Complete the dialogues with a, an, or the. Capitalize as necessary. 

1. A: I have an idea. Let's go on a picnic Saturday. 
B: Okay. 

2. A: Did you have fun at the picnic yesterday? 
B: Sure did. And you? 

3. A: You'd better have good reason for being late! 

B: I do. 

4. A: Did you think reason Mike gave for being late was believable? 

B: Not really. 

5. A: Where's my blue shirt? 

B: It's in washing machine. 

A: That's okay. I can wear different shirt. 

6. A: I wish we had washing machine. 

B: So do I. It would make it a lot easier to do our laundry. 

7. A: Have you seen my boots? 

B: They're in closet in front hallway. 



118 CHAPTER 7 



8. A: Can you repair my car for me? 
B: What's wrong with it? 

A: radiator has leak, and one of 

windshield wipers doesn't work. 

B: Can you show me where leak is? 

9. A: What happened to your bicycle? front wheel is bent. 

B: I ran into parked car when I swerved to avoid big pothole. 

A: Did you damage car? 

B: A little. 

A: What did you do? 

B: I left note for owner of car. 

A: What did you write on note? 

B: My name and address. I also wrote apology. 

□ Exercise 27. Looking at grammar. (Charts 7-7 and 7-8) 

Complete the sentences with a, an, the, or 0. Capitalize as necessary. 



3 

1 . 0 ,beef is a kind of 0 meat. 

2. The beef we had for dinner last night was excellent. 

3. Lucy is wearing a straw hat today. 

4. Lucy likes to wear hats. 

5. hat is article of clothing. 

6. hats are articles of clothing. 

7. brown hat on that hook over there belongs to Mark. 



8. Everyone has problems in life. 

9. That book is about life of Helen Keller.* 

10. The Brooklyn Bridge was designed by engineer. 

1 1 . John Roebling is name of engineer who designed the Brooklyn 

Bridge. He died in 1869 from infection before bridge was 

completed. 



*The first blind and deaf person to graduate from college, Helen Keller (1880-1968) overcame her double handicap to become a 
noted American author, activist, and lecturer. 




Nouns 119 



□ Exercise 28. Grammar and speaking. (Charts 7-7 and 7-8) 

Complete the sentences with a, an, the, or 0. Do you agree or disagree with the statements? 
Circle yes or no. Share some of your answers with the class. Capitalize as necessary. 



1 

1 . 


Rveryone needs to have cell phone. 


yes 


no 


z. 


If you have a cell phone, you don't need to wear watch. 


yes 


no 


"X 
D . 


cell phones are replacing watches. 


yes 


no 


A. 
Hi. 


One key to healthy life is daily physical exercise. 


yes 


no 


) . 


ii)u ci iiKe it) reaci a iiook anour ine ann arr in i amo i lcasso. 


yes 


no 


0. 


jewelry looks good on both men and women. 


yes 


no 


7 


Rnglish is easy language to learn. 


yes 


no 


Q 
O. 


beings similar to human beings exist somewhere in universe. 


yes 


no 


9. 


Listening to loud rock music is fun. 


yes 


no 


10. 


music you like best is rock 'n roll. 


yes 


no 


11. 


vocabulary in this exercise is easy. 


yes 


no 



□ Exercise 29. Looking at grammar. (Charts 7-7 and 7-8) 

Complete the sentences with a, an, the, or 0. Capitalize as necessary. 

1. We need to get new phone. 

2. Alex, would you please answer phone? 

3. people use plants in many different ways. Plants supply us with 

oxygen. They are a source of lifesaving medicines. We use plant products to build 

houses and to make paper and textiles. 

4. The biggest bird in the world is the ostrich. It eats just about 

anything it can reach, including stones, glass, 

and keys. It can kill person with one kick. 

5. In recent newspaper article, I read about 

Australian swimmer who was saved from shark by 

group of dolphins. When shark attacked 

swimmer, dolphins chased it away. They saved 

swimmer's life. 




120 CHAPTER 7 



CD 1 
Track 39 



□ 



6. I heard on the radio that there is 



evidence that 



dolphins suffer in 



nature live around 40 years. Captive dolphins 



captivity. Dolphins that are free in 

live average of 12 years. It is believed that some captive dolphins commit 



suicide. 

7. Look. There's fly walking on 

suppose fly was flying rightside up and flipped over at the last second, or was it 



flying upside down when it landed on 



ceiling. It's upside down. Do you 
flipped 
ceiling? 



□ Exercise 30. Listening. (Charts 7-7 and 7-8) 

f)} Listen to this informal talk with your book closed. Then open your book and listen again. 
& Complete the sentences with a, an, or the. 




Computer Bugs 



When there is 



problem with 



computer, we often say we have 



"computer bug." Of course, it's not 
we are having. 



real insect. It refers to 



4 5 
expression actually goes back to Thomas Edison, who was 



technical difficulty 



6 7 

famous inventor. When he was working on his first phonograph, he had a lot of problems. He 



attributed 



problems to 



imaginary insect that had hidden inside 



machine. He is quoted in 



n 



newspaper as saying there was " 



12 



phonograph. This was in 1889, and it is 



first recorded use of 



13 



14 



10 

bug" in his 

word bug in such 



context. 



15 



Exercise 31. Warm-up. (Chart 7-9) 

Before you look at the next chart, try this exercise. Draw a line through the words/expressions 
that cannot be used to complete the sentences. 



Example: I bought _ 
1. some 



furniture. 



2. -a-couple of- 

3. several- 

4. too much 

5 . too-many- 



Nouns 121 



/ received letters. 


/ received mail. 


1. 


two 


16. 


two 


2. 


n ponnlp of 


17. 


n ponnlp of 


3. 


both 


18. 


both 


4. 


cpvprn 1 

. 1 V, V V i. Cl 1 


19. 


spvprn 1 

J\> V C~ I Cl I 


5. 


some 


20. 


some 


6. 


a lot of 


21. 


a lot of 


7. 


plenty of 


22. 


plenty of 


8. 


too manv 


23. 


too manv 

lvivi ill ci 1 1 y 


9, 


too mnrli 


24. 


too miirh 

L W W 1 1 1 C 1 1_ 1 1 


10. 


a few 


25. 


a few 


11. 


a little 


26. 


a little 


12. 


a rnimhpr of 


27. 


a numhpr of 

Cl llUlllCvl V/JL 


13. 


a great deal of 


28. 


a great deal of 


14. 


hardly any 


29. 


hardly any 


15. 


no 


30. 


no 



7-9 Expressions of Quantity Used with Count and Noncount Nouns 


Expressions of 
Quantity 


Used with Count 
Nouns 


Used with 
Noncount Nouns 




(a) one 
each 
every 


one apple 
each apple 
every apple 


0* 

0 

0 


An expression of quantity may 
precede a noun. 

Some expressions of quantity are 
used only with count nouns, as in (a) 
and (b). 


(b) two, etc. 
both 

a couple of 
a few 
several 
many 

a number of 


two apples 

both apples 

a couple of apples 

a few apples 

several apples 

many apples 

a number of apples 


0 
0 
0 
0 
0 
0 


(c) a little 
much 

a great deal of 


0 
0 
0 


a little rice 
much rice 
a great deal of rice 


Some are used only with noncount 
nouns, as in (c). 


(d) no 

hardly any 

some/any 

a lot of/lots of 

plenty of 

most 

all 


no apples 
hardly any apples 
some/any apples 
a lot of/ lots of apples 
plenty of apples 
most apples 
all apples 


no rice 

hardly any rice 
some/any rice 
a lot of/ lots of rice 
plenty of rice 
most rice 
all rice 


Some are used with both count and 
noncount nouns, as in (d). 



*0 = not used. For example, one is not used with noncount nouns. You can say "I ate one apple" but NOT "I ate one rice." 



122 CHAPTER 7 



J Exercise 32. Looking at grammar. (Chart 7-9) 

Draw a line through the expressions that cannot be used to complete the sentences. The first 
column has been started for you. 



Jake has homework. 


Isabel has assii 


1. 


three 


13. 


three 


2. 


several- 


14. 


several 


3. 


some 


15. 


some 


4. 


a lot of 


16. 


a lot of 


5. 


too much 


17. 


too much 


6. 


too many 


18. 


too many 


7. 


a few 


19. 


a few 


8. 


a little 


20. 


a little 


9. 


a number of 


21. 


a number of 


10. 


a great deal of 


22. 


a great deal of 


11. 


hardly any 


23. 


hardly any 


12. 


no 


24. 


no 



□ Exercise 33. Looking at grammar. (Chart 7-9) 

Complete the sentences with much or many. Also write the plural form of the nouns as 
necessary. In some sentences, you will need to choose the correct verb in parentheses. 



cities 

1. I haven't visited many city in the United States. 




Nouns 123 



6. I can't go with you because I have too 

7. A: How side does a pentagon have? 

B: Five. 



work to do. 



8. I couldn't find 

9. I haven't met . 
10. How 



information in that book. 



people since I came here. 



postage does this letter need? 

11. I think there (is, are) too violence on television. 



12. I don't have 



13. The doctor has so 

14. A: How 



patience with incompetence. 

patient that she has to work at least twelve hours a day. 



B: Thirty-two. 
1 5 . There (isn 't } aren 't) 



tooth does the average person have? 



international news in the local paper. 



J Exercise 34. Looking at grammar. (Chart 7-9) 

If the given noun can be used to complete the sentence, write it in its correct form (singular or 
plural). If the given noun cannot be used to complete the sentence, write 0. 



1 . Helen bought several 

lamp lamps 

furniture 0 

jewelry 0 

necklace necklaces 



3. Jack bought too much 

shoe 

salt 



equipment 
tool 



2. Sam bought a lot of 
stamp 



rice 

stuff 

thing 



4. Alice bought a couple of 

bread 

loaf of bread 

honey 

jar of honey 



124 CHAPTER 7 



5. / read a few . 9. Nick has a number of 

novel shirt 



woman 



literature homework 

poem pen 

poetry chalk 



6. I bought some . 10. I don't have a great deal of 

orange juice patience 



light bulb wealth 

hardware friend 

computer pencil 

software 

7. We need plenty of . 11. / need a little 

sleep money 

information advice 

fact time 

help minute 



8. Isaioboth . 12. The author has many 

idea 



movie theory 

scene hypothesis 

scenery knowledge 

□ Exercise 35. Let's talk: interview. (Chart 7-9) 

Interview two other students. Ask them to complete the given sentences. Share some of their 
answers with the class. 

1 . I have a number of ... . 

2. I need to have a lot of ... . 

3. Teachers need to have a great deal of ... . 

4. People in {name of a country) have too much / too many .... 



Nouns 125 



u Exercise 36. Warm-up. (Chart 7-10) 

Choose the correct answers. 



1. Which sentence gives a negative meaning of "not many people"? 

a. Deserts are largely uninhabited. Very fezv people live in the middle of a desert. 

b. We had a good time. We met a fezv people and had some nice conversations. 

2. Which sentence gives a negative meaning of "not much water"? 

a. It's hot today. You should drink a little zvater. 

b. A desert is a dry place. There is little zvater in a desert. 





count: (a) We sang a few songs. 
noncount: (b) We listened to a little music. 


A few and few are used with plural count 
nouns, as in (a). 

A little and little are used with noncount 
nouns, as in (b). 


(c) She has been here only two weeks, but she has already made a few 

friends. 

(Positive idea: She has made some friends.) 

(d) I'm very pleased. I've been able to save a little money this month. 
(Positive idea: 1 have saved some money instead of spending all of it.) 


A few and a little give a positive idea; 
they indicate that something exists, is 
present, as in (c) and (d). 


(e) 1 feel sorry for her. She has {very) few friends. 

(Negative idea: She does not have many friends; she has almost 
no friends.) 

(f ) 1 have {very) little money. 1 don't even have enough money to buy 
food for dinner. 

(Negative idea: 1 do not have much money; 1 have almost no money.) 


Few and little (without a) give a negative 
idea; they indicate that something is 
largely absent, as in (e). 

Very {+ few/ little) makes the negative 
stronger, the number/amount smaller, as 
in (f). 



□ Exercise 37. Looking at grammar. (Chart 7-10) 

Without changing the meaning of the sentence, replace the italicized words with a fevo, {very) 
few, a little, or {very) little. 

a little 

1 . I think that some lemon juice on fish makes it taste better. 

(very) few 

2. Many people are multilingual, but -not-memy- people speak more than ten languages. 

3. Some sunshine is better than none. 

4. January is a cold and dreary month in the northern states. There is not much sunshine 
during that month. 

5. My parents like to watch TV. Every evening they watch tzvo or three programs on TV before 
they go to bed. 

126 CHAPTER 7 



6. I don't watch TV very much because there are hardly any television programs that I enjoy. 

7. If a door squeaks, several drops of oil in the right places can 
prevent future trouble. 

8. If your door squeaks, put some oil on the hinges. 

9. Mr. Adams doesn't like to wear rings on his fingers. He wears 
almost no jewelry. 

Exercise 38. Looking at grammar. (Chart 7-1 0) 

Complete the sentences with a few, {very) few, a little, or (very) little. 

1. Do you have a few minutes? I'd like to ask you a few 

questions. I need a little more information. 

2. Diana's previous employer gave her a good recommendation because she makes 

(very) few mistakes in her work. 

3. Ben is having a lot of trouble adjusting to high school. He seems to be unpopular. 
Unfortunately, he has friends. 

4. We're looking forward to our vacation. We're planning to spend days 

with my folks and then days with my husband's folks. After that, 

we're going to go to a fishing resort in Canada. 

5. I was hungry, so I ate nuts. 

6. Because the family is very poor, the children have toys. And the 

parents have to work two jobs, so they have time to spend with their 

children. 

7. Into each life, rain must fall.* 

8. Natasha likes sweet tea. She usually adds honey to her tea. 

Sometimes she adds milk too. 



*This is a common English saying that means "no life is perfect." 




Nouns 127 



J Exercise 39. Listening. (Chart 7-10) 

£jj Choose the sentence (a. or b.) that best describes the situation you hear. 

CD 1 Example: You will hear: Rosie was still hungry. She wanted some more rice. 

Track 40 1 J 

You will choose: (a.) Rosie wanted a little rice. 



1. 



b. Rosie wanted little rice. 



a. I add a little salt to my food. 

b. I add little salt to my food. 



2. a. I packed a few sandwiches 
b. I packed few sandwiches. 

3. a. Mr. Hong knows a little English, 
b. Mr. Hong knows little English. 

4. a. His daughter knows a little English, 
b. His daughter knows little English. 



5. a. Linda has a few problems, I'd say. 
b. Linda has few problems in her life. 

6. a. Billy has a few problems, I'd say. 

b. Billy has very few problems, I'd say. 

7. a. A few people like working for him. 
b. Few people like working for him. 



□ Exercise 40. Let's talk. (Charts 7-9 and 7-10) 

Read the list of the food in Dan and Eva's kitchen. Do they have enough food for the next 
week? Give your opinion using the given expressions of quantity. Work in pairs, in small 
groups, or as a class. 

Example: 36 eggs 

> They have too many eggs. 



too much* too little (not) enough 

too many too few (not) nearly enough 



just the right amount of 
just the right number of 



The food in Dan and Eva 's kitchen: 
40 apples 
1 banana 
6 oranges 

1 quart of orange juice 
4 gallons of ice cream 



10 bags of rice 
20 cans of tomatoes 

0 fresh vegetables 

1 bottle of olive oil 
1 cup of sugar 



1 kilo of coffee 

2 teabags 

1 box of breakfast cereal 

2 slices of bread 

5 pounds of cheese 



□ Exercise 41 . Warm-up. (Chart 7-1 1) 

Notice the words in blue. Complete the sentences with country or countries. 



1. One 

2. One of the 



I'd like to visit every 
Each 



I would like to visit is Malaysia. 

my wife would like to visit is Brazil. 

in the world before I die. 



is special. 



I've had wonderful experiences in each of the 
during my travels. 



I've visited 



*In spoken English, too is often modified by ivay or far: They have way/far too many eggs. They have ivay/far too fezv teabags. 
128 CHAPTER 7 





(a) One student was late to class. 

(b) Each student has a schedule. 

(c) Every student has a schedule. 


One, each, and every are followed immediately by singular 
count nouns (never plural nouns, never noncount nouns). 


(d) One of the students was late to class. 

(e) Each (one) of the students has a schedule 

(f) Every one of the students has a schedule. 


One of, each of, and every one of* are followed by specific 
plural count nouns (never singular nouns; never noncount 
nouns). 



*Compare: 

Every one (two words) is an expression of quantity (e.g., / have read every one of those boohs). 

Everyone (one word) is an indefinite pronoun. It has the same meaning as everybody (e.g., Everyone/Everybody has a schedule). 



Note: Each and every have essentially the same meaning. 

Each is used when the speaker is thinking of one person/thing at a time: Each student has a schedule. = Mary has a schedule. 
Hiroshi has a schedule. Carlos has a schedule. Sabrhia has a schedule. Etc. 

Every is used when the speaker means all: Every student has a schedule. = All of the students have schedules. 

□ Exercise 42. Looking at grammar. (Chart 7-1 1) 

Complete the sentences. Use the singular or plural form of the nouns in parentheses. 

1. There is only one (girl) girl on the sixth-grade soccer team. 

2. Only one of the (girl) in the sixth grade is on the soccer team. 

3. Each of the (child) got a present. 

4. Mr. Hoover gave a present to each (child) . 

5. We invited every (member) of the club. 

6. Every one of the (member) came. 

7. One (student) stayed after class to ask a question. 

8. One of the (student) stayed after class. 

9. All of the students enjoyed the debate. The teacher was very excited when every (student) 
in the class participated in the discussion. 

10. Each of the (student) joined the conversation. 



□ Exercise 43. Check your knowledge. (Chart 7-1 1) 

Correct the errors. Some of the sentences do not contain any errors. 

student 

1 . It's important for every -students- to have a book. 

2. Each of the students in my class has a book, (no change) 

3. The teacher gave each of students a test paper. 

4. Every student in the class did well on the test. 



Nouns 129 



5. Spain is one of the country I want to visit. 

6. Every furniture in that room is made of wood. 

7. One of the equipment in our office is broken. 

8. I gave a present to each of the woman in the room. 

9. One of my favorite place in the world is an island in the Caribbean Sea. 

10. Each one of your suitcases will be checked when you go through customs. 

11. It's impossible for one human being to know every languages in the world. 

12. I found each of the error in this exercise. 

j Exercise 44. Warm-up. (Chart 7-1 1) 

Complete the sentences with of or 0. How do you know when to use of in expressions 
of quantity? 

I sazv 

1. some 0 students. 

2. some of the students. 

3. several students. 

4. several the students. 

5. several your students. 

6. most your students. 

7. most them. 

I knozo 

8. many students. 

9. many those students. 

10. many them. 

11. a lot students. 

12. a lot those students. 

13. none those students. 

14. none them. 



130 CHAPTER 7 



7-1 2 Using Of in Expressions of Quantity 



(a) I bought one book. 

(b) I bought many books. 



With some expressions of quantity, of is not used when the noun is 
nonspecific, as in (a) and (b). 



(c) One of those books is mine. 

(d) Some of the books are yours. 

(e) Many of my books are in Spanish. 

(f ) Most of them are paperbacks. 



Oris used with: 

• specific nouns, as in (c), (d), and (e). 

• pronouns, as in (f). 



(g) I have a lot of books. 

(h) I've read a lot of those books. 



Some expressions of quantity, like a lot of, always include of, 
whether the noun is nonspecific, as in (g), or specific, as in (h). 



Expressions of quantity 

one (of) 
two (of) 
half of 

50 percent of 
three-fourths of 
a majority of 
hundreds of 
thousands of 
millions of 



all (of) 
each (of) 
every 

almost all (of) 
most (of) 
many (of) 
much (of) 
a number of 
a great deal of 
a lot of 



some (of) 
several (of) 
(a) few (of) 
(a) little (of) 
hardly any (of) 
none of 
no 



students are hard-working. 



□ Exercise 45. Looking at grammar. (Chart 7-12) 

Complete the sentences with of or 0. 

1 . I know several of Jack's friends. 

2. I've made several 0 friends lately. 

3. Some students are lazy. Most 

4. Some the students in Mrs. Gray's class are a little lazy, 

5. I usually get a lot mail. 

6. A lot the mail I get is junk mail 

7. Most books have an index. 

8. Most _ 



Ali's books are written in Arabic. 

9. I bought a few books yesterday. 

10. I've read a few those books. 




mailbox 



1 1 . I'm new here. I don't know many 



people yet. 



12. I've just moved into a new apartment. I don't know many 

13. Millions people watch World Cup soccer. 



my neighbors yet. 



Nouns 131 



□ Exercise 46. Let's talk. (Charts 7-1 1 and 7-12) 

Use the expressions of quantity in the list to make sentences about the given situation. Work in 
pairs, in small groups, or as a class. 



all of 

almost all of 
most of 



the majority of 
some of 
about half of 



several of 
a few of 
very few of 



a couple of 
hardly any of 
one of 



Situation: There are 15 students taking a basic Chinese language class. 

Example: Three have studied Chinese before. 

Speaker A: Several of them have studied Chinese before. 

Speaker B: Most of them have never studied Chinese before. 

1 . Thirteen speak English as their native language. 

2. One speaks Thai, and one speaks Arabic. 

3. No one speaks Spanish. 

4. Two have studied several languages already. 

5. Fifteen think Chinese is very difficult. 

6. Fourteen are enjoying the class. 

7. Five have already bought the textbook. 

8. Four are men; eleven are women. 

J Exercise 47. Let's talk: interview. (Charts 7-9 > 7-12) 

Conduct a poll among your classmates and report your findings. 

Part I. Prepare five yes/no questions that ask for opinions or information about your 
classmates' likes, dislikes, habits, or experiences. Record their responses. 

Sample questions: 

Do you read an English-language newspaper every day? 

Do you like living in this city? 

Do you have a car? 

Have you ever ridden a horse? 

Are you going to be in bed before midnight tonight? 

Part II. Report your findings to the class using expressions of quantity to make 
generalizations about what you learned. 

Sample report: 

Only a few of the people in this class read an English newspaper every day. 
Most of them like living in this city. 
Three of the people in this class have cars. 

About half of them have ridden a horse at some time in their lives. 
Almost all of them are going to be in bed before midnight tonight. 



132 CHAPTER 7 



J Exercise 48. Let's talk. (Charts 7-9 ► 7 12) 

Most of the statements are overgeneralizations. Make each statement clearer or more accurate 
by adding an expression of quantity. Add other words to the sentences or make any other 
changes you wish. Work in pairs, in small groups 3 or as a class. 

Example: My classmates are from Japan. 

> Most of my classmates are from Japan. 

> All (of) my classmates are from Japan.* 

> One of my classmates is from Japan. 

> Hardly any of my classmates are from Japan. 

> None of my classmates is from Japan. 

1 . My classmates speak Arabic. 

2. People are friendly. 

3. The pages in this book contain illustrations. 

4. Babies are born bald. 

5. The students in my class are from South America. 

6. People like to live alone. 

7. The people I know like to live alone. 

8. The countries in the world are in the Northern Hemisphere. 

9. The citizens of the United States speak English. 

10. Children like to read scary stories. 

11. The children in my country go to school. 

12. Airplanes depart and arrive precisely on time. 

13. The rivers in the world are polluted. 

14. The pollution in the world today is caused by human beings. 

□ Exercise 49. Let's talk. (Charts 7-9 ► 7-12) 

As a clasSj make a list of controversial topics (i.e., topics that generate opinions not everyone 
agrees with) that you think are interesting. From this list, choose topics that you would like to 
discuss with your classmates, then, divide into groups to talk about them. 

At the end of the discussion time, the leader of each group will report on the opinions of 
his or her group using expressions of quantity to make generalizations (e.g. 3 Most of us believe 
that ... OR Only afezu of us think that . . .). The number of topics you choose to discuss 
depends on the time available. 

Sample topics: 

physician-assisted suicide for terminally ill patients 
birth control education in public schools 
a current war or other political crisis 
the dangers posed by global warming 



*Using of after all is optional with a specific noun. 
correct: All of my classmates .... 
correct: All my classmates are ... . 



Nouns 133 



□ Exercise 50. Check your knowledge. (Chapter 7) 

Correct the errors. 

1 . That book contain many different kind of story and article. 

2. In my country 3 there is alot of schools. 

3. She is always willing to help her friends in every possible ways. 

4. In the past 3 horses was the principal mean of transportation. 

5. He succeeded in creating one of the best army in the world. 

6. There are a lot of equipments in the research laboratory 3 but undergraduates are not 
allowed to use them. 

7. I have a five years old daughter and a three years old son. 

8. Most of people in my apartment's building is friendly. 

9. Everyone seek the happiness in the life. 

10. Writing compositions are very hard for me. 

1 1 . Almost of the student in my class are from Asia. 

12. It's difficult for me to understand English when people uses a lot of slangs. 



134 CHAPTER 7 




Chapter 8 

Pronouns 



u Exercise 1. What do I already know? (Chart 8-1 ) 

Correct the errors in pronoun usage. 

1 . My friends and I ordered Indian food at the restaurant. I wasn't very hungry, but I ate 
most of them. 

2. When we were in school, my sister and me used to play tennis after school every day. 

3. If you want to pass you're exams, you had better study very hard for it. 

4. A hippopotamus spends most of it's time in the 
water of rivers and lakes. 

5. After work, Mr. Gray asked to speak to Mona and I about the company's new policies. He 
explained it to us and asked for ours opinions. 

6. My friends asked to borrow my car because their's was in the garage for repairs. 




□ Exercise 2. Warm-up. (Chart 8-1) 

Talk about names, paying special attention to pronouns. 

Part I. Use personal pronouns to refer to people in the classroom. Begin your sentence with 
the given pronoun. 

Examples: She > She is Marika. 

Their ► Their names are Marika, Carlos, and Talal. 



1. He 

2. They 

3. I 

4. We 



5. Their 

6. Our 

7. You (singular) 

8. You (plural) 



9. Her 

10. His 

11. She 

12. Your 



Part II. Discuss these topics. Listen for pronouns. 

1 . In many cultures, first names have special meanings. For example, in Japanese, Akira 
means "intelligent." In Spanish, Amanda means "loveable." In Chinese, Liang means 
"kindhearted." Does your name have a special meaning? 

2. What kind of names do people in your culture give pets? What are some common names? 



135 











Subject 
Pronoun 


Object 
Pronoun 


Possessive 
Pronoun 


Possessive 
Adjective 


Singular 


/ 

you 

she, he, it 


me 
you 

her, him, it 


mine 
yours 

hers, his, its 


my (name) 

your (name) 

her, his, its (name) 


Plural 


we 

you 

they 


us 

you 

them 


ours 

yours 

theirs 


our (names) 
your (names) 
their (names) 


( a ) 1 read a book. It was good. 

i iii 

t 1 

(b) 1 read some books. They were good. 

i iii 

A 


A pronoun is used in place of a noun. The noun it 
refers to is called the "antecedent." 

In (a): The pronoun it refers to the antecedent noun 
book. 

A singular pronoun is used to refer to a singular noun, 
as in (a). A plural pronoun is used to refer to a plural 
noun, as in (b). 


(c) / like tea. Do you like tea too? 


Sometimes the antecedent noun is understood, not 
explicitly stated. 

In (c): / refers to the speaker, and you refers to the 
person the speaker is talking to. 


s 

( d ) John has a car. He drives to work. 


subject pronouns are used as subjects of sentences, 
as he in (d). 


o 

(e) John works in my office. 1 know him well. 

o 

( f ) 1 talk to him every day. 


object pronouns are used as the objects of verbs, 
as him in (e), or as the objects of prepositions, as 
him in (f). 


(g) That book is hers. 
Yours is over there. 

(h) incorrect: That book is -her-s-. 

Your's is over there. 


possessive pronouns are not followed immediately by 
a noun; they stand alone, as in (g). 

Possessive pronouns do not take apostrophes, as 
in (h). 

(See Chart 7-2, p. 105, for the use of apostrophes 

with nr\ccocci\/o nni inc \ 
Willi pUoocoblvc IIOUI \i>.) 


( i ) Her book is here. 

Your book is over there. 


possessive adjectives are followed immediately by a 
noun; they do not stand alone. 


( j ) A bird uses its wings to fly. 

( k) incorrect: A bird uses -it's- wings to fly. 

( 1 ) It's cold today. 

(m) The Harbour Inn is my favorite old hotel. It's been in 
business since 1933. 


compare: Its has no apostrophe when it is used as a 
possessive, as in (j). 

It's has an apostrophe when it is used as a 
contraction of It is, as in (I), or It has when has is 
part of the present perfect tense, as in (m). 

note: It's vs. /7s is a common source of error for 
native speakers of English. 



136 CHAPTER 8 



□ Exercise 3. Looking at grammar. (Chart 8-1) 

Identify the personal pronouns and their antecedents. 

1. Jack has a part-time job. He works at a fast-food restaurant. 

■> {he = a pronoun; Jack — the antecedent) 

2. Most monkeys don't like water, but they can swim well when they have to. 

3. The teacher graded the students' papers last night. She returned them during class today. 

4. Nancy took an apple with her to work. She ate it at lunchtime. 

5. A dog makes a good pet if it is properly trained. 

6. Yuri's cat is named Maybelle Alice. She* is very independent. She never obeys Yuri. His 
dogSj on the other hand, obey him gladly. They like to please him. 

□ Exercise 4. Looking at grammar. (Chart 8 1) 

Choose the words in italics that are grammatically correct, note: A number of native English 
speakers commonly use subject pronouns after and, even when the grammatically correct 
choice is an object pronoun. 

1 . My parents always read bedtime stories to my sister and / / me. 

2. Just between you and / / me, I think Ms. Lucas is going to lose her job. 

3. There's Kevin. Let's go talk to him. I need to tell you and he I him something. 

4. Mrs. Minski needs to know the truth. I'm going to tell Mr. Chang and she I her the truth 3 
and you can't stop me. 

5. Alex introduced Sally and / / me to his cousin from Mexico City. 

□ Exercise 5. Looking at grammar. (Chart 8 i) 

Complete the sentences in each situation with pronouns for the word in italics. 
Situation 1 : There's Sarah. 

1. I need to go talk to her 

2. and I have been friends since high school. 

3. I went to elementary school with brother and . 

4. parents are best friends with my parents. 

5. is getting married next month. Another friend and I are taking on a 

short trip before marriage. 

6. Being with is a lot of fun. We laugh a lot. 

7. always has a good time with friends. 



*If the sex of a particular animal is known, usually she or he is used instead of if. 



Pronouns 137 



Situation 2: Fm not feeling well. I think I'd better stay home today. 

8. My friends and were planning to volunteer at our local food bank* today. 

9. The food bank often asks my friends and to help them with various projects. 

10. But my friends will have to go without 

11. I'd better call friend Sami to tell him I can't come today. 

12. Could I use your cell phone? I don't have with 



□ Exercise 6. Looking at grammar. (Chart 8-1) 

Choose the correct words in italics. 

1 . This is (my) / mine umbrella. 0four) /Yours umbrella 
is over there. 



2. This umbrella is my I mine. The other one is 
your I yours. 

3. Mary and Bob have their I theirs books. In other 
words, Mary has her I hers, and Bob has his I him. 

4. Our I Ours house is almost the same as our I ours 
neighbors' house. The only difference in appearance is that our I ours is gray and 
their I theirs is white. 




□ Exercise 7. Let's talk. (Chart 8-1) 

Place a pen or pencil on your desk. Your teacher will say a sentence. One student will repeat 
the sentence, indicating the person(s) the sentence refers to. Close your book for this activity. 

Example: 

Teacher: This one is mine, and that one is hers. Ahmed? 

Ahmed: {Ahmed points to his pen and gestures tozuard himself): This one is mine. {Ahmed points 
to another pen and gestures toward Anita): And that one is hers. 



1 . This pen is mine, and that pen is yours. 

2. This pen is hers, and that pen is his. 

3. These are ours, and those are theirs. 



4. This one is yours, and that one is his. 

5. Their pens are there, and her pen is here. 

6. This isn't hers. It's his. 



□ Exercise 8. Looking at grammar. (Chart 8-1) 

Complete the sentences with its or it's. 

1 . Are you looking for the olive oil? It'5 on the top shelf. 

2. A honeybee has two wings on each side of body. 



*food bank = a place that receives donations of food and gives them away to needy people. 
138 CHAPTER 8 



3. Tom has a pet. 
for several years. 



name is Squeak. 



a turtle. 



been his pet 



4. A nation that does not educate 



children has no future. 

5. All of us can help create peace in the world. Indeed, our responsibility to do so. 

Exercise 9. Looking at grammar. (Chart 8-1) 

Choose the correct words in italics. 

When I was in Florida, I observed an interesting bird 
called an anhinga. (h^s) I Its a fish eater. It I They dives I dive 
into the water and spears/spear its I it's prey on its I it's long, 
pointed bill. After emerging from the water, it I they 
tosses I toss the fish into the air and catches I catch 
it I them in mid-air, and then szvallozvs I szvallozv 
it I them headfirst. Its I It's interesting to watch anhingas in 
action. I enjoy watching it I them a lot. 

Exercise 10. Listening. (Chart 8-1) 

Pronouns can be hard to hear in spoken English because they are usually unstressed. 
Additionally, if the pronoun begins with "h," the IhJ sound is often dropped in rapid, relaxed 
speech. Complete each conversation with the words you hear. 




1. Where's Kim? 

A: I don't know. I haven't seen 

B: I think in the restroom. 



this morning. 



C: I'm looking for 
D: Ask 



too. 



assistant. He'll know. 

E: Have you tried looking in office? I know 



not there 



much, but maybe 



surprise you. 



The Nelsons are giving their daughter a motorcycle for graduation. 

A: Hmmm. like motorcycles that much? 

B: Really? a motorcycle rider? 

C: That's an odd gift. I wonder what were thinking. 



D: That's what the Smiths gave 
an accident. 



son. I think 



already had 



E: I'm not a fan of motorcycles. Cars just don't see . 

F: I think a wonderful gift! I've had 

been great. 



in traffic. 
_ for years, and 



Pronouns 1 39 



J Exercise 1 1 . Warm-up. (Chart 8-2) 

Pretend you are writing an article about seat belts. Which sentence would you choose to 
include? Why? note: All the sentences are correct. 

1 . A driver should put on his seat belt as soon as he gets in his car. 

2. A driver should put on her seat belt as soon as she gets in her car. 

3. A driver should put on his or her seat belt as soon as he or she gets in his or her car. 

4. Drivers should put on their seat belts as soon as they get in their cars. 



8-2 Personal Pronouns: Agreement with Generic Nouns and 
Indefinite Pronouns 


(a) A student walked into the room. She was 
looking for the teacher. 

(b) A student walked into the room. He was 
looking for the teacher. 


In (a) and (b): The pronouns refer to particular individuals 
whose gender is known. The nouns are not generic. 


(c) A student should always do his assignments. 

(d) A student should always do his or her 
assignments. 


A generic noun* does not refer to any person or thing in 
particular; rather, it represents a whole group. 

In (c): A student is a generic noun; it refers to anyone who is a 
student. 

With a generic noun, a singular masculine pronoun has been 
used traditionally, but many English speakers now use both 
masculine and feminine pronouns to refer to a singular generic 
noun, as in (d). 


(e) Students should always do their assignments. 


Problems with choosing masculine and/or feminine pronouns 
can often be avoided by using a plural rather than a singular 
generic noun, as in (e). 


Indefinite pronouns 

everyone someone anyone no one** 
everybody somebody anybody nobody 
everything something anything nothing 


(f ) Somebody left his book on the desk. 

(g) Everyone has his or her own ideas. 

(h) informal: 

Somebody left their book on the desk. 
Everyone has their own ideas. 


In formal English, the use of a singular pronoun to refer to an 
indefinite pronoun is generally considered to be grammatically 
correct, as in (f) and (g). 

In everyday, informal English (and sometimes even in more 
formal English), a plural personal pronoun is usually used to 
refer to an indefinite pronoun, as in (h). 



*See Chart 7-7, p. 114, for basic article usage. 
**No one can also be written with a hyphen in British English: No-one heard me. 



□ Exercise 12. Looking at grammar. (Chart 8-2) 

Change the sentences by using plural instead of singular generic nouns where possible. 
Change pronouns and verbs as necessary. Discuss the advantages of using plural rather than 
singular generic nouns. 

1. When a student wants to study, he or she should find a quiet place. 
> Wlien students want to study, they should find a quiet place. 



140 CHAPTER 8 



2. I talked to a student in my chemistry class. I asked to borrow her notes from the class I 
missed. She gave them to me gladly, (no change) 

3. Each student in Biology 101 has to spend three hours per week in the laboratory where he 
or she does various experiments by following the directions in his or her lab manual. 

4. A citizen has two primary responsibilities. He should vote in every election, and he should 
serve willingly on a jury. 

5. We listened to a really interesting lecturer last night. She discussed her experiences as an 
archeologist in Argentina. 

u Exercise 13. Looking at grammar. (Chart 8-2) 

Complete each sentence with the pronoun(s) that seems appropriate to the given situation. 
Choose the correct verbs in parentheses as necessary. Discuss formal vs. informal pronoun 
usage. 

1. One classmate to another: Look. Somebody left their* book on my desk. Is it yours? 

2. One friend to another: Of course you can learn to dance! Anyone can learn how to dance if 
(wants, want) to. 

3. Business textbook: An effective corporate manager must be able to motivate 

employees. 

4. One roommate to another: If anyone asks where I am, tell you don't know. 

I want to keep my meeting with Jim a secret. 

5. Son to his mother: Gosh, Mom, everyone who came to the class picnic was supposed to 

bring own food. I didn't know that, so I didn't have anything to eat. I'm 

really hungry! 

6. A university lecture: I will end my lecture today by saying that I believe a teacher needs to 
work in partnership with students. 

7. A magazine article: People do not always see things the same way. Each person has 
own way of understanding a situation. 

□ Exercise 14. Warm-up. (Chart 8-3) 

All the pronouns in blue refer to the noun team. Discuss how the pronouns in the two 
sentences are different. NOTE: Both sentences are correct. 

1 . When the soccer team won in the closing moments of the game, they ran to the player 
who had scored the winning goal and lifted him on their shoulders. 

2. A basketball team is relatively small. It doesn't have as many members as a baseball team. 



*also possible: his; his or her; her or his. 



Pronouns 141 



8-3 Personal Pronouns: Agreement with Collective Nouns 


(a) My family is large. It is composed of 
nine members. 


When a collective noun refers to a single impersonal unit, a singular 
gender-neutral pronoun (/'/, its) is used, as in (a). 


(b) My family is loving and supportive. 
They are always ready to help me. 


When a collective noun refers to a collection of various 
individuals, a plural pronoun (they, them, their) is used, as in (b).* 


Examples of collective nouns 

audience couple 
class crowd 
committee faculty 


family public 
government staff 
group team 


*Note: When the collective noun refers to a collection of individuals, the verb may be either singular or plural: My family is OR are 



loving and supportive. A singular verb is generally preferred in American English. A plural verb is used more frequently in British 
English, especially with the words government or public. (American: The government is planning many changes. British: The 
government are planning many changes.) 

J Exercise 15. Looking at grammar. (Chart 8-3) 

Complete the sentences with pronouns. In some of the sentences 3 there is more than one 
possibility. Choose the correct singular or plural verb in parentheses as necessary. 



them 



very much 3 and 



they 



1 . I have a wonderful family. I love _ 
(loves, love) me. 

2. I looked up some information about the average American family I found out that 



(consists, consist) of 2.3 children. 



3. The audience clapped enthusiastically. Obviously 
concert. 

4. The crowd at the soccer game was huge. 



had enjoyed the 



exceeded 100,000 people. 



5. The crowd became more and more excited as the premier's motorcade approached. 
began to shout and wave flags in the air. 




142 CHAPTER 8 



6. The audience filled the room to overflowing. (zvas, were) larger than 

I had expected. 

7. The class is planning a party for the last day of school. (is, are) going to 

bring many different kinds of food and invite some of friends to celebrate 

with . 

8. The class is too small. (is } are) going to be canceled. 



Exercise 16. Warm-up. (Chart 8-4) 

Draw a picture of yourself. Show it to the rest of the class. Answer the questions in complete 
sentences. Your teacher will supply student names in items 1 and 5. 



1. (■ 



what did you draw? 



2. Who drew a picture of herself? Name someone. 

3. Who drew a picture of himself? Name someone. 

4. Who drew pictures of themselves? Name them. 

5. ( ), did you and ( ) draw pictures of yourselves? 






; Singular Plural 

myself ourselves 
yourself yourselves 
herself, himself, itself, oneself themselves 


(a) Larry was in the theater. / saw him. 
1 talked to him. 

(b) 1 saw myself in the mirror. / looked at 
myself for a long time. 

(c) incorrect: 1 saw me in the mirror. 


Compare (a) and (b): Usually an object pronoun is used as the 
object of a verb or preposition, as him in (a). (See Chart 8-1 .) 

A reflexive pronoun is used as the object of a verb or preposition 
when the subject of the sentence and the object are the same 
person, as in (b).* /and myself are the same person. 


— Did someone email the report to Mr. Lee? 

— Yes. 

— Are you sure? 

(d) — Yes. / myself emailed the report to 

him. 

(e) — /emailed the report to him myself. 


Reflexive pronouns are also used for emphasis. 

In (d): The speaker would say "I myself" strongly, with emphasis. 

The emphatic reflexive pronoun can immediately follow a noun 
or pronoun, as in (d), or come at the end of the clause, as in (e). 


(f ) Anna lives by herself. 


The expression by + a reflexive pronoun means "alone." 



*Sometimes an object pronoun is used as the object of a preposition even when the subject and object pronoun are the same person. 
Examples: / took my books ivith tue. Bob brought his books with him. I looked mound me. She kept her son close to her. 



Pronouns 143 



□ Exercise 17. Looking at grammar. (Chart 8-4) 

Complete the sentences with appropriate reflexive pronouns. 

1 . Everyone drew self-portraits. I drew a picture of myeelf 

2. Rosa drew a picture of . 

3. Yusef drew a picture of 

4. The children drew pictures of 

5. We drew pictures of . 

6. Olga, you drew a picture of , didn't you? 

7. All of you drew pictures of , didn't you? 

8. When one draws a picture of , it is called a self-portrait. 

□ Exercise 18. Looking at grammar. (Chart 8-4) 

Complete the sentences with appropriate reflexive pronouns. 

1. Tommy told a lie. He was ashamed of himself . 

2. Masako cut while she was chopping vegetables. 

3. People surround with friends and family during holidays. 

4. Omar thinks Oscar is telling the truth. So does Ricardo. I don't 

believe Oscar's story for a minute! 

5. Now that their children are grown, Mr. and Mrs. Grayson live by . 

6. A: Should I marry Steve? 

B: No one can make that decision for you, Ann. Only you can make 

such an important decision about your own life. 

7. Emily and Ryan, be careful! You're going to hurt ! 

8. A: I hate my job. 

B: Me too. I envy Jacob. He's self-employed. 

A: Yeah. I'd like to work for too. 

9. Jason, you need to eat better and get more exercise. You should take better care of 

. Your father takes care of , and I take care of 

. Your father and I are healthy because we take good care of 

. People who take care of have a better chance 

of staying healthy than those who don't. 



144 CHAPTER 8 



Exercise 19. Looking at grammar. (Chart 8-4) 

Complete each sentence with a word or expression from the list and an appropriate reflexive 
pronoun. Use each word/expression only one time. 



angry at introduced promised 

enjoy killed proud of 

entertained laugh at talking to 

feeling sorry for pat / taught 



1. Karen Williams never took lessons. She taught hereeW how to play the piano. 

2. Did Roberto have a good time at the party? Did he 

3. All of you did a good job. You should be 

4. You did a good job, Barbara. You should on the back. 

5. A man down the street committed suicide. We were all shocked by the news that he had 

6. The children played very well without adult supervision. They 

by playing school. 

7. I had always wanted to meet HongTran. When I saw her at a party last night, I walked 
over and to her. 

8. Nothing good ever comes from self-pity. You should stop 

j George, and start doing something to solve your problems. 

9. People might think you're a little crazy, but is 

one way to practice using English. 

10. Humor can ease the problems we encounter in life. Sometimes we have to be able to 



1 1. Carol made several careless mistakes at work last week, and her boss is getting impatient 
with her. Carol has to do better work in the future. 




Pronouns 145 



□ Exercise 20. Listening. (Chart 8-4) 

Listen to the beginning of each sentence. Choose the correct completion. 
CD 1 Example: You will hear: We wanted to save money 3 so we painted the inside of our 

Track 42 

apartment . 

You will circle: myself <^QurselveT) yourselves 



1. 


himself 


herself 


yourself 


2. 


yourself 


myself 


ourselves 


3. 


ourselves 


themselves 


myself 


4. 


themselves 


himself 


herself 


5. 


ourselves 


yourselves 


themselves 


6. 


himself 


herself 


myself 




j Exercise 21. Looking at grammar. (Chapters 6 >8) 

Choose the correct words in italics. 

1. {Penguin, ( ^rigid np) are interesting (creature, (cr eatine s)). They are (bird, birds), but 
(it, they) cannot fly. 

2. (Million, Millions) of (year, years) ago 3 they had (zving, wings). (This, These) wings changed 
as the birds adapted to (its, their) environment. 

3. (Penguin's, Penguins') principal food (was, zvere) (fish, fishes). Penguins needed to be able 
to swim to find their food 3 so eventually their (zving, zvings) evolved into (flipper, flippers) 
that enabled (it, them) to swim through water with speed and ease. 

4. Penguins (spends, spend) most of their lives in (zvatet; zuaters). However^ they lay their 
(egg, eggs) on (land, lands). 

5. Emperor penguins have interesting egg-laying (habit, habits). 

6. The female (lays, lay) one (egg, eggs) on the (ice, ices) in Antarctic regions and then 
immediately (returns, return) to the ocean. 

7. After the female lays the egg 3 the male (takes, take) over. 
(He, They) (covers, cover) the egg with (his, their) body until 
(she, he, it, they) (hatches, hatch). 

8. (This,These) process (takes, take) seven to eight (week, weeks). 
During (this, these) time 3 the male (doesn't, don't) eat. 

9. After the egg (hatches, hatch), the female returns to take care 
of the chick, and the male (goes, go) to the ocean to find food 
for (himself, herself), his mate 3 and their (offspring, offsprings). 

10. (Penguin, Penguins) live in a harsh (environment, environments). (He, They) (need, needs) 
endurance to survive. 




146 CHAPTER 8 



□ Exercise 22. Warm-up. (Chart 8-5) 

Read the dialogue. Discuss the pronouns in blue. Who or what do they refer to? 

Mrs. Cook: Jack Woods bought a used car. Did you hear? 

Mr. Cook: Yes, I heard all about his car. He paid next to nothing for it. 

Mrs. Cook: Right. And now it doesn't run. 

Mr. Cook: Well, as they say, you get what you pay for. 

Mrs. Cook: That's certainly true. One gets what one pays for. 



8-5 Using Youy One, and They as Impersonal Pronouns 


(a) One should always be polite. 

(b) How does one get to Fifth Avenue from here? 

(c) You should always be polite. 

(d) How do you get to Fifth Avenue from here? 


In (a) and (b): One means "any person, people in general." 
In (c) and (d): You means "any person, people in general." 

One is much more formal than you. Impersonal you, rather 
than one, is used more frequently in everyday English. 


(e) Iowa is an agricultural state. They grow a lot 
of corn there. 


They is used as an impersonal pronoun in spoken or very 
informal English to mean "people in general" or "an 
undefined group of people." 

They has no stated antecedent. Often the antecedent is 
implied. 

In (e): They = farmers in Iowa 



□ Exercise 23. Looking at grammar. (Chart 8-5) 

Discuss the meanings of the pronouns in italics. 

1. I agree with Kyung's decision to quit his corporate job and go to art school. I think you 
need to follow your dreams. 

> The pronouns refer to everyone, anyone, people in general, all of us. 

2. Jake, if you really want my advice, I think you should find a new job. 

> The pronouns refer to Jake, a specific person. 

3. Wool requires special care. If jvom wash wool in hot water, it will shrink. You shouldn't 
throw a wool sweater into a washing machine with your cottons. 

4. Alex, I told you not to wash your sweater in hot water. Now look at it. It's ruined! 

5. Generosity is its own reward. You always get back more than you give. 

6. Sonya, let's make a deal. If you wash the dishes, I'll take out the garbage. 

7. The earth's environmental problems are getting worse all the time. They say that the 
ozone layer is being depleted more and more every year. 

8. Memory is selective. Often you remember only what you want to remember, liyou ask 
two people to tell you about an experience they shared, they might tell you two different 
stories. 

9. I would have loved to have gone to the concert last night. They played Beethoven's 
Seventh Symphony I heard it was wonderful. 

10. I've grown to dislike airplane travel. They never give you enough room for your legs. And if 
the person in front of you puts his seat back, you can barely move. You can't even reach 
down to pick up something from the floor. 



Pronouns 147 



□ Exercise 24. Let's talk. (Chart 8-5) 

Discuss the meanings of these common English sayings. Work in pairs, in small groups, or 
as a class. 

1. "You can't teach an old dog new tricks." 

2. "You are what you eat." 

3. "If you're not part of the solution, you're part of the problem." 

4. "You can fool some of the people all of the time, and you can fool all of the people some of 
the time, but you can't fool all of the people all of the time." — Abraham Lincoln 



□ Exercise 25. Warm-up. (Charts 6) 

Match each sentence to the picture it describes. 

1. Some of the crows are flying. The others are sitting on a fence. 

2. Some of the crows are flying. Others are sitting on a fence. 




Picture A 




Picture B 



8-6 I 








Adjective 


Pronoun 




Singular 
Plural 


another book (is) 
other books (are) 


another (is) 
others (are) 


Forms of other are used as either adjectives or pronouns. 
Notice: 

• Another is always singular. 

• A final -s is used only for a plural pronoun {others). 


Singular 
Plural 


the other book (is) 
the other books (are) 


the other (is) 
the others (are) 


(a) The students in the class come from many 
countries. One of the students is from Mexico. 
Another student is from Iraq. Another is 
from Japan. Other students are from Brazil. 
Others are from Algeria. 


The meaning of another: "one more in addition to or 
different from the one(s) already mentioned." 

The meaning of other/others (without the): "several 
more in addition to or different from the one(s) already 
mentioned." 


(b) 1 have three books. Two are mine. The other 
book is yours. ( The other is yours.) 

(c) 1 have three books. One is mine. The other 
books are yours. {The others are yours.) 


The meaning of the other{s): "all that remains from a 
given number; the rest of a specific group." 


(d) 1 will be here for another three years. 

(e) 1 need another five dollars. 

(f ) We drove another ten miles. 


Another is used as an adjective with expressions of time, 
money, and distance, even if these expressions contain 
plural nouns. Another means "an additional" in these 
expressions. 



148 CHAPTER 8 



j Exercise 26. Looking at grammar. (Chart 8-6) 

Complete the sentences with a form of other. 

1 . I got three letters. One was from my father. Another one was from my 

sister. The other letter was from my girlfriend. 

2. Look at your hand. You have five fingers. One is your thumb. is 

your index finger. is your middle finger. 

finger is your ring finger. And finger (the last of the five) is your 

little finger. 

3. Look at your hands. One is your right hand. is your left hand. 

4. I lost my dictionary^ so I bought . 

5. Some people have red hair. have brown hair. 

6. Some people have red hair. people have brown hair. 

7. I have four children. One of them has red hair. children have 

brown hair. 

8. I have four children. One of them has red hair. have brown hair. 

□ Exercise 27. Looking at grammar. (Chart 8-6) 

Read each pair of sentences and answer the question that follows. 

1 . a. One North African country Helen plans to visit is Algeria. Another is Morocco, 
b. One North African country Alex plans to visit is Tunisia. The other is Algeria. 

Question: Who is planning to visit more than two countries in North Africa? 

2. a. Purple is one of Mai's favorite colors. The others she likes are blue and green, 
b. Purple is one of Elaine's favorite colors. Others she likes are blue and green. 

Question: Who has only three favorite colors? 

3. a. Kazuo took a cookie from the cookie jar and ate it. Then he took another one and 

ate it too. 

b. Susie took a cookie from the cookie jar and ate it. Then she took the other one and 
ate it too. 

Question: Whose cookie jar had only two cookies? 

4. a. Some of the men at the business meeting on Thursday wore dark blue suits. Others 

wore black suits. 

b. Some of the men at the business meeting on Friday wore dark blue suits. The others 
wore black suits. 

Question: Mr. Anton wore a gray suit to the business meeting. Which day did he 
attend the meetings Thursday or Friday? 



Pronouns 1 49 



□ Exercise 28. Looking at grammar. (Chart 8-6) 

Complete the sentences with a form of other. 

1 . There are two women standing on the corner. One is Helen Jansen 3 and 

the other is Pat Hendricks. 

2. They have three children. One has graduated from college and has a job. 
is at Yale University. is still living at home. 

3. I would like some more books on this subject. Do you have any 

that you could lend me? 

4. I would like to read more about this subject. Do you have any 

books that you could lend me? 

5. Marina reads the NewYork Times every day. She doesn't read any 

newspapers. 

6. Some people prefer classical music 3 but prefer rock music. 

7. I'm almost finished. I just need five minutes. 

8. One of the most important inventions in the history of the world was the printing press. 

was the electric light. were the telephone 3 

the television, and the computer. 

9. Some babies begin talking as early as six months; don't speak until 

they are more than two years old. 

10. One common preposition is from. common one is in. 

are by, for, and of The most frequently used prepositions in 

English are at, by, for, from, in, of, to, and zvith. What are some 

prepositions? 

11. That country has two basic problems. One is inflation 3 and is the 

instability of the government. 

12. I have been in only three cities since I came to the United States. One is NewYork 3 and 
are Washington, D.C 3 and Chicago. 

13. When his alarm went off this morning 3 Toshi shut it off 3 rolled over 3 and slept for 
hour. 

14. Individual differences in children must be recognized. Whereas one child might have a 

strong interest in mathematics and science 3 child might be more 

artistic. 



150 CHAPTER 8 



□ Exercise 29. Let's talk. (Chart 8 6) 

Complete the sentences, using an appropriate form of other. Work in pairs, in small groups, 
or as a class. 

Example: 

Speaker A (book open): There are two books on my desk. One is ... . 
Speaker B (book closed): One is red. The other is blue. 

1. I speak two languages. One is ... . 

2. I speak three languages. One is ... . 

3. I lost my textbook, so I had to buy .... 

4. Some people have brown hair, but .... 

5. Hawaii is a popular tourist destination. Italy is ... . 

6. I have two books. One is ... . 

(Change roles if zvorking in pairs.) 

7. Some TV programs are excellent, but .... 

8. Some people need at least eight hours of sleep each night, but .... 

9. Only two of the students failed the quiz. All of ... . 

10. There are three colors that I especially like. One is ... . 

11. I have two candy bars. I want only one of them. Would you like . . . ? 

12. There are three places in particular I would like to see when I visit (a city/country). 
One is ... . 

□ Exercise 30. Listening. (Chart 8-6) 

Complete each sentence with the form of other you hear. 



0 

col 1. This coffee is delicious. Could I please have cup? 

Track 43 

2. The coffee isn't in this grocery bag, so I'll look in one. 

3. There are supposed to be ten chairs in the room, but I count only five. Where are 
? 

4. No, let's not use this printer. Let's use one. 

5. Bob is a nickname for Robert. are Rob and Robbie. 

6. The sky is clearing. It's going to be beautiful day. 

□ Exercise 31. Warm-up. (Chart 8-7) 

Read about Kate and Lisa. Are the statements about them true? Circle "T" for true and "F" 
for false. 

Situation: Lisa and Kate talk to each other every other day. Kate saw Lisa the other day at 
the park. Lisa was with her five children. They were walking behind her, one after the other. 

1. Kate talks to Lisa often. T F 

2. Kate talked to Lisa today. She'll talk to her again tomorrow. T F 

3. Kate last saw Lisa a few weeks ago. T F 

4. Lisa's children were walking in a line. T F 



Pronouns 151 



8-7 Common Expressions with Other 



(a) Mike and 1 write to each other every week. 
We write to one another every week. 


Each other and one another indicate a reciprocal 

IfcMculUl lbl lip. 

In (a): 1 write to him every week, and he writes to me every 
week. 


(b) Please write on every other line. 


Every other can give the idea of "alternate." 
The meaning in (b) means: 

Write on the first line. 

Do not write on the second line. 

Write on the third line. 

Do not write on the fourth line. (Etc.) 


(c) — Have you seen Ali recently? 

— Yes. 1 saw him just the other day. 


The other is used in time expressions such as the other day, 
the other morning, the other week, etc., to refer to the recent 
past. 

In (c): the other day means "a few days ago, not long ago." 


(d) The ducklings walked in a line behind the 
mother duck. Then the mother duck slipped 
into the pond. The ducklings followed her. 
They slipped into the water one after the other. 

(e) They slipped into the water one after another. 


In (d): one after the other expresses the idea that separate 
actions occurred very close in time. 

In (e): one after another has the same meaning as one after 
the other. 




(f ) No one knows my secret other than Rosa. 

(g) No one knows my secret except (for) Rosa. 


Other than is usually used after a negative to mean "except," 
as in (f). 

Example (g) has the same meaning as (f). 


(h) Fruit and vegetables are full of vitamins and 
minerals. In other words, they are good for you. 


In (h): In other words is used to explain, usually in simpler or 
clearer terms, the meaning of the preceding sentence(s). 



*In typical usage, each other and one another are interchangeable; there is no difference between them. Some native speakers, 
however, use each other when they are talking about only two persons or things, and one another when there are more than two. 



□ Exercise 32. Looking at grammar. (Charts 8-6 and 8-7) 

Complete the sentences with a form of other. 

1. Two countries border on the United States. One is Canada. The other is 

Mexico. 

2. One of the countries I would like to visit is Sweden. is Malaysia. 

Of course, besides these two countries, there are many places I 

would like to see. 



152 CHAPTER 8 



3. Louis and I have been friends for a long time. We've known since 

we were children. 

4. A: I talked to Sam day. 

B: Oh? How is he? I haven't seen him for ages. 

5. In the Southwest there is a large area of land that has little or no rainfall, no trees, and very 

few plants than cactuses. In words, this 

area of the country is a desert. 

6. Thank you for inviting me to the picnic. I'd like to go with you, but I've already made 
plans. 

7. Some people are tall; are short. Some people are fat; 

are thin. Some people are nearsighted; 

people are farsighted. 

8. Mr. and Mrs. Jay love They support 

They like In words, they are a happily 

married couple. 

9. A: How often do you travel to Portland? 

B: Every month I go there to visit my grandmother in a nursing 

home. 

10. Could I borrow your pen? I need to write a check, but I have nothing to write with 
than this pencil. 

1 1 . My niece, Kathy, ate one cookie after until she finished the whole 

box. That's why she had a bad stomachache. 




Pronouns 153 



j Exercise 33. Looking at grammar. (Charts 8-6 and 8-7) 

Complete the sentences with your own words. Use a form of other where indicated. 

Example: Some people like while {other) prefer . 

► Some people like coffee zvhile others prefer tea. 

1 . I have two One is 3 and (other) is 

2. One of the longest rivers in the world is (other) is 

3. Some people like to in their free time, (other) prefer 

4. There are three that I especially like. One is (other) is (other) 

is . 

5. There are many kinds of Some are 3 (other) are 3 and (other) 

are 

Exercise 34. Listening. (Chart 8-7) 

Listen to the way other and except are used. Choose the sentence that is closest in meaning 
to the one you hear. 

Example: You will hear: I spend a lot of time with my grandmother. We enjoy each other's 

company. 

You will choose: a. My grandmother and I like to spend time with others, 
(b?) I enjoy spending time with my grandmother. 

1. a. All of the students had the wrong answer, 
b. Some students had the wrong answer. 

2. a. The Clarks each see others on weekends, 
b. The Clarks spend time together on weekends. 

3. a. Susan spoke with him a while ago. 
b. Susan spoke with him recently. 

4. a. Three people know about the engagement, 
b. Four people know about the engagement. 

5. a. Jan knows about the party, 
b. Jan doesn't know about the party. 

□ Exercise 35. Check your knowledge. (Chapters 6 -> 8) 

Correct the errors. 

are e e 

1 . There -is- many different kind A of animal A in the world. 

2. My cousin and her husband moved to other city because they don't like a cold weather. 

3. I like to travel because I like to learn about other country and custom. 

4. Collecting stamps is one of my hobby. 

5. I came here three and a half month ago. I think I have made a good progress in English. 



154 CHAPTER 8 



6. When I lost my passport, I had to apply for the another one. 

7. When I got to class, all of the others students were already in their seats. 

8. English has borrowed quite a few of word from another languages. 

9. There is many student from differents countries in this class. 

10. Thousand of athlete take part in the Olympics. 

11. Education is one of the most important aspect of life. Knowledges about many different 
things allow us to live fuller lives. 

12. All of the students names were on the list. 

13. I live in a two rooms apartment. Its too small for my family. 

14. Many of people prefer to live in small towns. Their attachment to their communities 
prevent them from moving from place to place in search of works. 

15. Todays news is just as bad as yesterdays news. 

16. Almost of the students in our class speaks English well. 

17. The teacher gave us several homework to hand in next Tuesday. 

18. In today's world, womans work as doctor, pilot, archeologist, and many other thing. Both 
my mother and father are teacher's. 

19. Every employees in our company respect Mr. Ward. 

20. A child needs to learn how to get along with another people, how to spend their time 
wisely, and how to depend on yourself. 

Exercise 36. Let's write. (Chapters 6 > 8) 

Write a paragraph on one of the given topics. Write as quickly as you can. Write whatever 
comes into your mind. Try to write 100 words in ten minutes. 

When you finish your paragraph, exchange it with a classmate. Correct each other's errors 
before giving it to your teacher. 



Topics: 



food 
English 
this room 
animals 



computers 
families 



holidays 



movies 



Pronouns 1 55 



□ Exercise 37. Let's write and talk. (Chapters 6 > 8) 

Choose an object and write a short paragraph about it. Do NOT include the name of the 
object in your writing; always use a pronoun to refer to it, not the noun itself. 

Describe the object (What does it look like? What is it made of? What does it feel like? 
Does it make a noise? Does it have a smell? Etc.), and explain why people use it or how it is 
used. Begin with its general characteristics; then gradually get more specific. 

Finally, read your paragraph aloud to the class or to a small group of classmates. They will 
try to guess what the object is. 

Example: It is usually made of metal. It is hollow. It is round on one end. It can be very 

small — small enough to fit in your pocket — or large, but not as large as a car. It is 
used to make noise. It can be used to give a signal. Sometimes it's part of an orchestra. 
Sometimes it is electric and you push a button to make it ring. What is it? 

□ Exercise 38. Let's talk. (Chapters 6 -> 8) 

Think of the best present you have ever been given. Maybe it was something for your birthday, 
maybe for an anniversary, or maybe it wasn't for any special occasion at all. It could be an 
object, an activity, or perhaps something someone did for you. Describe it to the class or a 
small group. Include what it looked like, how it made you feel, and why it was special. The 
class or group will try to guess what it was. 

Example: The best present I ever received was something my son gave me. He had to work 
hard in order to be able to give me this gift. When he was 18, he decided to go to 
college. That made me very happy. Many times he didn't think he could finish, but I 
told him that a good education would be his key to success in life. He studied very 
hard and never quit. This present took place on one day. I was there and watched 
him with tears in my eyes. What was this gift? 

Answer: Your son's graduation from college. 



156 CHAPTER 8 



Chapter 9 

Modals, Part I 




Exercise 1. Warm-up. (Chart 9-1) 

Correct the errors in verb forms. 



1 



eee 

She can -saw- it. 



2. She can to see it. 

3. She cans see it. 

4. She can sees it. 



5. Can pass you the rice, please? 

6. Do you can see it?* 

7. They don't can go there.** 

8. They aren't able pay their rent. 



9-1 Basic Modal Introduction 



Modal auxiliaries generally express speakers' attitudes. For example, modals can express that a speaker feels 
something is necessary, advisable, permissible, possible, or probable; and, in addition, they can convey the strength of 
those attitudes. Each modal has more than one meaning or use. See Chart 10-10, p. 204-205, for a summary overview 
of modals. 



Modal auxiliaries in English 










can had better 


might 


ought (to) 


should 


would 


could may 


must 


shall 


will 




Modal Auxiliaries 



You 
He 
She 
It 

We 
You 
They 



can do it. 
could do it. 
had better do it. 
may do it. 
might do it. 
must do it. 
ought to do it. 
shall do it. 
should do it. 
will do it. 
would do it. 



Modals do not take a final -s, even when the subject is she, he, or it. 

correct: She can do it. 
incorrect: She -cans- do it. 



Modals are followed immediately by the simple form of a verb. 

correct: She can do it. 
incorrect: She can -to- do it. / She can -does- it. / She can -did it. 

The only exception is ought, which is followed by an infinitive {to + the 
simple form of a verb). 

correct: He ought to go to the meeting. 



Phrasal Modals 



be able to do it 
be going to do it 
be supposed to do it 
have to do it 
have got to do it 



Phrasal modals are common expressions whose meanings are similar to 
those of some of the modal auxiliaries. For example: be able to is similar to 
can; be going to is similar to will. 

An infinitive (to + the simple form of a verb) is used in these similar 
expressions. 



*See Appendix Chart B-l for question forms with modals. 
^See Appendix Chart D-l for negative forms with modals. 



157 



□ Exercise 2. Warm-up. (Charts 9-2 and 9-3) 

Complete the requests with / or you. Which sentences have essentially the same meaning? 



1. Could 

2. Could 

3. May _ 

4. Can _ 



5. Can _ 

6. Would 

7. Will _ 



see that book? Thanks, 
hand me that book? Thanks. 



see that book? Thanks, 
hand me that book? Thanks, 
see that book? Thanks. 
hand me that book? Thanks. 



please hand me that book? Thanks. 

itjwal 1 






May 1 
Could 1 


(a) May 1 borrow your pen (please)? 

(b) Could 1 (please) borrow your pen? 


May 1 and could 1 are used to request permission. They 
are equally polite, but may / sounds more formal.* 

note in (b): In a polite request, could has a present or 
future meaning, not a past meaning. 


Can! 


(c) Can 1 borrow your pen? 


Can / is used informally to request permission, 
especially if the speaker is talking to someone she/he 
knows fairly well. 

Can 1 is usually considered a little less polite than may 1 
or could 1. 




TYPICAL RESPONSES 

Certainly. Yes, certainly. 
Of course. Yes, of course. 
informal: Sure. 


Often the response to a polite request is an action, such 
as a nod or shake of the head, or a simple "uh-huh," 
meaning "yes." 



*Might is also possible: Might I borrow your pen? Alight I is quite formal and polite; it is used much less frequently than tttay I 
or could I. 



158 CHAPTER 9 



9-3 Polite Requests with "You" as the Subject 



Would you 
Will you 



(a) Would you pass the salt (please)? 

(b) Will you (please) pass the salt? 



The meaning of would you and will you in a polite 
request is the same. Would you is more common 
and is often considered more polite. The degree of 
politeness, however, is often determined by the 



speaker's tone of voice. 



Could you 



(c) Could you pass the salt (please)? 



Basically, could you and would you have the same 

meaning. The difference is slight. 

Would you = Do you want to do this please? 

Could you = Do you want to do this please, and is it 

possible for you to do this? 

Could you and would you are equally polite. 



Can you 



(d) Can you (please) pass the salt? 



Can you is often used informally. It usually sounds a 
little less polite than could you or would you. 



TYPICAL RESPONSES 

Yes, I'd (I would) be happy to / be glad to. 

Certainly. 

informal: Sure. 



A person usually responds in the affirmative to a polite 
request. If a negative response is necessary, a 
person might begin by saying, "I'd like to, but . . ." (e.g., 
"I'd like to pass the salt, but I can't reach it."). 



(e) incorrect: May -you pass the salt? 



May is used only with / or we in polite requests. 



□ Exercise 3. Let's talk. (Charts 9-2 and 9-3) 

Ask and answer polite questions. Speaker A presents the situation to Speaker B. Speaker B 
makes a polite request using Would I Could y on, and Speaker A gives a typical response. Work 
in pairs or as a class. 

Example: 

Speaker A {book open): You and I are co-workers. We don't know each other well. 

We're at a lunch table in a cafeteria. You want the pepper. 
Speaker B {book closed): WouldlCould you please pass me the pepper? {Will is also possible 

because the speaker uses please, but can is probably not appropriate in 

this situation.) 

Speaker A {book open): Certainly. I'd be glad to. Here you are. 

1. You and I are good friends. We're in my apartment. You want to use the phone. 

2. I'm your instructor. You want to leave class early. 

3. I'm a student in your class. You hand me some papers. You want me to pass them out to 



{Change roles ifzvorking in pairs.) 

4. I'm your supervisor at work. You knock on my half-open office door. I'm sitting at my 
desk. You want to come in. 

5. I'm Dr. North's assistant. You want to make an appointment to see Dr. North. 

6. You are running toward the elevator. I'm already inside. The door is closing. You ask me 
to hold it open. 



the class. 



Modals, Part 1 1 59 



□ Exercise 4. Warm-up. (Chart 9-4) 

In each dialogue, choose the speaker (A or B) who is going to turn down the heat. 

1 . A: Would you mind turning down the heat? 
B: No, not at all. 

2. A: Would you mind if I turned down the heat? 
B: No, not at all. 



9-4 Polite Requests with Would You Mir 



Asking Permission 



(a) Would you mind if I closed the window? 

(b) Would you mind if I used the phone? 

TYPICAL RESPONSES 

No, not at all. 
No, of course not. 
No, that would be fine. 



Notice in (a): Would you mind if I is followed by the simple 
past.* 

The meaning in (a): May I close the window? Is it all right 
if I close the window? Will it cause you any trouble or 
discomfort if I close the window? 

Notice that the typical response is "no." "Yes" means Yes, I 
mind. In other words: It is a problem for me. Another 
typical response might be "unh-uh," meaning "no." 



Asking Someone to Do Something 



(c) Would you mind closing the window? 

(d) Excuse me. Would you mind repeating that? 

TYPICAL RESPONSES 

No. I'd be happy to. 

Not at all. I'd be glad to. 

informal: No problem. / Sure. / Okay. 



Notice in (c): Would you mind is followed by the 
-ing form of a verb (a gerund). 

The meaning in (c): / don't want to cause you any trouble, 
but would you please close the window? Would that cause 
you any inconvenience? 

The informal responses "Sure" and "Okay" are common but 
not logical. The speaker means No, I wouldn't mind but 
seems to be saying the opposite: Yes, I would mind. 
Native speakers understand that the response "Sure" or 
"Okay" in this situation means that the speaker agrees to 
the request. 



*Sometimes, in informal spoken English, the simple present is used: Would yon mind if I close the window? 
Note: The simple past does not refer to past time after would you mind; it refers to present or future time. See Chart 20-3, 
p. 419, for more information. 



□ Exercise 5. Looking at grammar. (Chart 9-4) 

Make sentences using Would you mind. 

1. a. I want to leave early. > Would you mind if I left early? 

b. I want you to leave early. > Would you mind leaving early? 

2. a. I want you to speak with John, 
b. I want to speak with John. 

3. a. I want to turn on the air conditioner. 

b. I want you to turn on the air conditioner. 



160 CHAPTER 9 



□ Exercise 6. Looking at grammar. (Chart 9-4) 

Complete the sentences with the verbs in parentheses. Use if I + the past tense OR the 
-ing form of the verb. In some of the sentences 3 either response is possible 3 but the meaning 
is different. 

1 . A: I'm very tired and need to sleep. Would you mind (go) if I went to bed? 

B: I'm sorry. I didn't understand what you said. Would you mind (repeat) 

repeating that? 

2. A: Are you coming with us? 

B: I know I promised to go with you 3 but I'm not feeling very good. Would you mind 

(stay) home? 

A: Of course not. 

3. A: It's getting hot in here. Would you mind (open) the window? 

B: No. 

4. A: This is probably none of my business 3 but would you mind (ask) 

you a personal question? 
B: It depends. 

5. A: Would you mind (smoke) 

B: I'd really rather you didn't. 

6. A: Excuse me. Would you mind (speak) 

a little more slowly? I didn't catch what you said. 

B: Oh 3 of course. I'm sorry. 

7. A: I don't like this TV program. Would you mind (change) the 

channel? 
B: Unh-uh. 




□ Exercise 7. Listening. (Chart 9-4) 

Listen to each request. Choose the expected response (a. or b.). In relaxed speech 3 the you 
$@ in would you may sound like "iu" or "juh." 

CD ! 

Example: You will hear: This room is stuffy. Would you mind if I opened the door? 
You will choose: (a?)No 3 of course not. b. Yes. 



1. 


a. 


Yes. 


b. 


Not at all. I'd be glad to. 


2. 


a. 


Yes. 


b. 


No 3 that would be fine. 


3. 


a. 


Yes. 


b. 


No 3 I'd be happy to. 


4. 


a. 


Sure. 


b. 


Yes. 


5. 


a. 


Yes. 


b. 


No problem. 



U Exercise 8. Let's talk: pairwork. (Chart 9-4) 

Work with a partner. Read each situation and create a dialogue. Partner A makes a polite 
request using Would you mind. Partner B gives a typical response. 

Example: You have a library book. You want the other person to take it back to the library 
for you. 

Partner A: Are you going to the library? 
Partner B: Yes. 

Partner A: This book is due. Would you mind taking it back to the library for me? 
Partner B: Not at all. I'd be glad to. 

1. You've finished dinner. You're about to wash the dinner dishes. You want the other person 
to dry them. 

2. You're feeling tired. A friend has arrived to pick you up for a party, but you've decided not 
to go. 

3. One of you says that you're going to a particular store. The other one also wants 
something from that store but doesn't have time to go there. 

4. One of you wants to ask the other a personal question. 

5. You've bought a new cell phone. You don't know how to send a text message, but your 
friend does. You want to learn how to do it. 



Exercise 9. Looking at grammar. (Charts 9-2 9-4) 

Complete the polite requests with your own words. Try to imagine what the speaker might say 
in the given situation. 

1 . Jack: What's the trouble, Officer? 
Officer: You made an illegal U-turn. 

Jack: I did? 

Officer: Yes. May / eee your driver e licenee ? 

Jack: Certainly. It's in my wallet. 

Officer: Would you please remove it from your wallet ? 

2. Waiter: Good evening. Are you ready to order? 

Customer: No, we're not. Could ? 



Waiter: Certainly. I'll be back shortly. 

3. Sally: Are you driving to the meeting tonight? 

Sam: Uh-huh, I am. 

Sally: Could 



Sam: Sure. I'll pick you up at 7:00. 
Mr. Penn: Something's come up, and I can't meet with you Tuesday. Would you mind 



Ms. Gray: Let me check my calendar. 



162 CHAPTER 9 



5. Mechanic: What seems to be the trouble with your car? 

Customer: Something's wrong with the brakes, I think. Could ? 

Mechanic: Sure. Just pull the car into the garage. 

6. Shelley: Are you enjoying the movie? 

Mike: Yeah, you? 

Shelley: Yes, but I can't see over the man in front of me. Would you mind ? 

Mike: Not at all. I see two empty seats across the aisle. 

u Exercise 10. Let's talk: pairwork. (Charts 9-2 > 9-4) 

Work with a partner. Make up a short dialogue for each situation. The dialogue should 
contain a polite request and a response to that request. 

Example: Janet and Sara are roommates and good friends. Janet doesn't have enough money to 

go to a movie tonight. She wants to borrow some from Sara. 
Janet: There's a movie I really want to see tonight, but I'm running a little low on money right 

now. Could I borrow a few dollars? I'll pay you back Friday. 
Sara: Sure. No problem. How much do you need? 

1. Rashid is walking down the hall of his office building. He needs to know what time it is. 
He asks Elena, a co-worker he's seen before but has never met. 

2. Larry is trying to study. His roommate, Matt, is playing a CD very loudly. This is bothering 
Larry, who is trying to be polite even though he feels frustrated and a little angry. 

3. Ms. Jackson is in the middle of the city. She's lost. She's trying to find the bus station. 
She stops a friendly-looking stranger on the street to ask for directions. 

4. Paul just arrived at work and remembered that he left his stove on in his apartment. His 
neighbor Mrs. Wu has a key to the front door, and Paul knows that Mrs. Wu hasn't left for 
work yet. Anxiously, he telephones Mrs. Wu for help. 



Exercise 1 1 . Let's talk. (Charts 9 2 > 9 4) 

What are some polite requests you have heard (or have said) in the given locations? Create 
typical dialogues. 

1. in this classroom 3. at a restaurant 5. on the telephone 

2. at an airport 4. at a grocery store 6. at a clothing store 



□ Exercise 12. Warm-up. (Chart 9-5) 

Read the statements. Choose the more typical context (a. or b.) for the words in blue. Discuss 
their meanings. 

1. Gosh! Look at the time. I've got to go. I have class in five minutes! 

a. everyday conversation b. formal writing 

2. All applicants must be 18 years of age and must have a valid driver's license. 

a. everyday conversation b. formal writing 

3. We have to prepare a research paper on global warming in Dr. Chen's seminar this term. I 
think it'll be interesting. 

a. everyday conversation b. formal writing 



Modals. Part 1 163 





Must, Have To 


(a) All applicants must take an entrance exam. 

(b) All applicants have to take an entrance exam. 


Must and have to both express necessity. The meaning 
is the same in (a) and (b): // is necessary for every 
applicant to take an entrance exam. There is no other 
choice. The exam is required. 


(c) I'm looking for Sue. 1 have to talk to her about 
our lunch date tomorrow. 1 can't meet her for 
lunch because 1 have to go to a business 
meeting at 1:00. 

(d) Where's Sue? I must talk to her right away. 
I have an urgent message for her. 


In everyday statements of necessity, have to is used 
more commonly than must. 

Must is usually stronger than have to and can indicate 
urgency or stress importance. 

The meaning in (c): / need to do this, and 1 need to do 
that. 

The meaning in (d) is stronger: This is very important! 

Because it is a strong word, must (meaning necessity) is 
relatively rare in conversation. It is usually found in legal 
or academic writing. 


(e) I have to ("hafta") be home by eight. 

(f) He has to ("hasta") go to a meeting tonight. 


note: Native speakers often say "hafta" and "hasta," as 
in (e) and (f). 


Have Got To 




(g) I have got to go now. I have a class in ten 
minutes. 

(h) I have to go now. I have a class in ten minutes. 


Have got to also expresses the idea of necessity: (g) 
and (h) have the same meaning. 

Have got to is informal and is used primarily in spoken 
English. 

Have to is used in both formal and informal English. 


(i) I have got to go ("I've gotta go / 1 gotta go") now. 


The usual pronunciation of got to is "gotta." Sometimes 
have is dropped in speech: "1 gotta do it." 


Past Necessity 




(j) PRESENT Or FUTURE 

I have to 1 have got to 1 must study tonight. 

(k) PAST 

1 had to study last night. 


Had to expresses past necessity. 

In (j): had to = needed to: 1 needed to study last night. 

There is no other past form for must (when it means 
necessity) or have got to. 



□ Exercise 13. Let's talk. (Chart 9-5) 

Answer the questions in complete sentences using must, have to, had to, or have got to. 
Work in pairs, in small groups, or as a class. 

1 . What are some things you have to do after class today? 

2. What have you got to do before you go to bed tonight? Is there any place you have got to 
go later today? 

3. Think about everyday life. What are some things you must have in order to survive? 

4. Think about your plans for the next week. What are some things you have to do? 

5. Think about your activities last week. What were some things you had to do? 

6. Think of the job of a doctor. What kinds of things must a doctor know about? What are 
some things a doctor has to do every day? 



164 CHAPTER 9 



□ Exercise 14. Warm-up. (Chart 9-6) 

Choose the sentences that Speaker B might say in response to Speaker A. 

Speaker A: The meeting starts in an hour. We have plenty of time. 
Speaker B: 1 . We must not hurry. 

2. We don't have to hurry. 

3. We don't need to hurry. 



9-6 Lack of Necessity and Prohibition: Have To and Must 
in the Negative 


Lack of Necessity 




(a) Tomorrow is a holiday. We don't have to go 
to class. 

(b) 1 can hear you. You don't have to shout* 


When used in the negative, must and have to have 
different meanings. 


Monatiwo form* c\r\ nnf fiiii/o tr\ — lQr*lf c\i nor*occit\/ 
INUydllVU lUilll. L/C/ HUl llaVU l\J — IdUiS Ul 1 ItJOtJoolly. 

The meaning in (a): We don't need to go to class 
tomorrow because it is a holiday. 


Prohibition 




(c) You must not tell anyone my secret. Do you 
promise? 


must not = prohibition (do not do this!) 

The meaning in (c): Do not tell anyone my secret. 1 forbid 
it. Telling anyone my secret is prohibited. 

Negative contraction: mustn't. (The first "t" is silent: 
"muss-ant.") 


(d) Don 't tell anyone my secret. 

(e) You can 't tell anyone my secret. 

(f) You 'd better not tell anyone my secret. 


Because must not \s so strong, speakers also express 
prohibition with imperatives, as in (d), or with other 
modals, as in (e) and (f). 



*Lack of necessity may also be expressed by need not + the simple form of a verb: You needn't shout. The use of needn't as an 
auxiliary is chiefly British except in certain common expressions such as You needn't worry. 



□ Exercise 1 5. Looking at grammar. (Chart 9-6) 

Complete the sentences with must not or do/does not have to. 

1 . I've already finished all my work, so I don't have to study tonight. I think I'll 
read for a while. 

2. In order to be a good salesclerk, you be rude to customers. 

3. You introduce me to Dr. Gray. We've already met. 

4. A person become rich and famous in order to live a successful life. 

5. If you encounter a growling dog, you show any signs of fear. If a dog 

senses fear, it is more likely to attack a person. 



Modals, Part 1 165 



6. I go to the doctor. I'm feeling much better. 

7. We go to the concert if you don't want to 3 but it might be good. 

8. A person get married in order to lead a happy and fulfilling life. 

□ Exercise 16. Let's talk. (Chart 9 6) 

What do you look for in a leader? What qualities do you think a leader needs in order to be 
effective? Complete the sentences with must, must not, has to, or doesn't have to. 
Discuss your answers. 

An effective leader of a country . . . 

1. be well educated. 

2. be flexible and open to new ideas. 

3 . be wealthy. 

4. have a family (spouse and children). 

5. have a military background. 

6. use his or her power for personal financial gain. 

7. ignore the wishes of the majority of the people. 

8. be a good public speaker. 

□ Exercise 17. Listening. (Chart 9-6) 

fjj Complete the sentences with must, must not, or don't have to using the information you 
^ hear. Finish the first situation before moving on to the second. 



CD 1 
Track 46 



Situation 1 : Class registration 

1. New students register in person. 

2. Returning students register in person. 

3. New students forget their ID. 

Situation 2: Class changes and tuition 

4. All students make class changes in person. 

5. Students pay their tuition at the time of registration. 

6. Students pay their tuition late. 



□ Exercise 18. Warm-up. (Chart 9-7) 

Read the situation. What advice would you gi 
Situation: Amir has a bad toothache. 

1 . He should see a dentist immediately. 

2. He should wait and see if the pain 
goes away. 

3. He should call an ambulance. 



Amir? 

4. He should put an ice-pack on his cheek. 

5. He should take some pain medicine. 

6. He should get his cousin to pull the tooth 
right away. 



166 CHAPTER 9 



9-7 Advisability: Should, Ought To, Had Better 



(a) You should study harder. 
You ought to study harder. 

(b) Drivers should obey the speed limit. 
Drivers ought to obey the speed limit. 


Should and ought to both express advisability. Their 
meaning ranges in strength from a suggestion (This is a 
good idea) to a statement about responsibility or duty 
(This is a very important thing to do). 

The meaning in (a): This is a good idea. This is my advice. 

In (b): This is an important responsibility. 


(c) You shouldn't leave your keys in the car. 


Negative contraction: shouldn't* 

note: the l\l is often hard to hear in relaxed, spoken 
English. 


(d) 1 ought to ("otta") study tonight, but 1 think I'll 
watch TV instead. 


Native speakers often pronounce ought to as "otta" in 
informal speech. 


(e) The gas tank is almost empty. We had better stop 
at the next gas station. 

(f) You had better take care of that cut on your hand 
soon, or it will get infected. 


In meaning, had better \s close to should and ought to, 
but had better is usually stronger. Often had better implies 
a warning or a threat of possible bad consequences. 

The meaning in (e): If we don't stop at a service station, 
there will be a bad result. We will run out of gas. 

Notes on the use of had better: 

• It has a present or future meaning. 

• It is followed by the simple form of a verb. 

• It is more common in speaking than writing. 


(g) You tf better take care of it. 

(h) You better take care of it. 


Contraction: 'd better, as in (g). 

Sometimes in speaking, had is dropped, as in (h). 


(i) You 'd better not be late. 


Negative form: had better + not 



*Onght to is not commonly used in the negative. If it is, the to is sometimes dropped: You oughtn't (to) leave your keys in the car. 



□ Exercise 19. Looking at grammar. (Chart 9-7) 

Complete the dialogues with your own words. Use should, ought to, or had better to 
give advice. 

1. A: The shoes I bought last week don't fit. 

B: You 

2. A: Have you gotten your airplane ticket? 
B: No, not yet. 

A: Flights fill up fast near the holidays. You 

3. A: Yikes! My class starts in five minutes. I wasn't watching the time. 

B: You 

4. A: I have the hiccups. 

B: You 

5. A: I bought these organic apples, and all of them are rotten inside. 

B: You 



Modals, Part 1 1 67 



□ Exercise 20. Let's talk: pairwork. (Chart 9-7) 

Work with a partner. Partner A presents the problem. Partner B gives advice using should, 
ought to, or had better. 

Example: 

Partner A {book open): I have a test tomorrow. 

Partner B (book closed): You should / ought to / had better study tonight. 

1 . I can't see the board when I sit in the back row. 

2. My roommate snores, and I can't get to sleep. 

3. Pam's younger brother, who is 18 3 is using illegal drugs. How can she help him? 
Change roles. 

4. My apartment is a mess, and my mother is coming to visit tomorrow! 

5. I have six months to improve my English. 

6. The Taylors' daughter is very excited about going to Denmark for a vacation. 

□ Exercise 21 . Let's talk: pairwork. (Chart 9 7) 

Work with a partner. Complete the dialogues with your own words. 

1. A: Oops! I spilled coffee on my shirt. 

B: You'd better run it under hot water before the etain eete. 

2. A: My doctor said I should , but I 

B: Well, I think you'd better 



A: I've been studying for three days straight. 
B: I know. You should 



A: Do you think I ought to or 

B: I think you'd better 

If you don't, 



A: Lately I can't seem to concentrate on anything. I feel 
B: Maybe you should 



Or have you thought about 



□ Exercise 22. Let's talk. (Charts 9 5 > 9-7) 

Which sentence in each pair is stronger? Discuss situations in which a speaker might say these 
sentences. 



a. 


You should go to a doctor. 


4. 


a. 


I have to go to the post office. 


b. 


You 'd better go to a doctor. 




b. 


I should go to the post office. 


a. 


Mary should go to work today. 


5. 


a. 


We shouldn't go into that room. 


b. 


Mary must go to work today. 




b. 


We must not go into that room. 


a. 


We'-ye got to go to class. 


6. 


a. 


You'd better not go there alone. 


b. 


We ought to go to class. 




b. 


You shouldn't go there alone. 



168 CHAPTER 9 



Exercise 23. Looking at grammar. (Charts 9-5 ► 9 7) 

Complete the sentences with should or must/have to. In some sentences either one is 
possible, but the meaning is different. Discuss the difference in meanings. 

1 . A person muet / hae to 



A person 



should 



eat in order to live, 
eat a balanced diet. 



If you want to become a doctor, you 
many years. 



go to medical school for 



4. I don't have enough money to take the bus, so I 

5. Walking is good exercise. You say you want to get more exercise. You 



walk home. 



6. We 



walk to and from work instead of taking the bus. 
go to Colorado for our vacation. 



7. According to my advisor, I 



8. Rice 



have water in order to grow. 



take another English course. 



9. This pie is very good. You 
try a piece. 

10. This pie is excellent! You . 
try a piece.* 




CD 1 
Track 47 



Exercise 24. Listening. (Charts 9-5 ► 9-7) 

Listen to each sentence and choose the answer (a. or b.) that has the same meaning. In some 
cases both answers are correct. 

Example: You will hear: During the test, do not look at your neighbor's paper. 
You will choose: a. You don't have to look at you neighbor's paper. 

(b) You must not look at your neighbor's paper. 

1 . a. You don't have to lock the door, 
b. You must not lock the door. 

2. a. You must show proof of citizenship, 
b. You have to show proof of citizenship. 

3. a. You ought to arrive early, 
b. You should arrive early. 

4. a. To enter the boarding area, passengers should have boarding passes, 
b. To enter the boarding area, passengers must have boarding passes. 



*Sometimes in speaking, must has the meaning of a very enthusiastic should. 



Modals, Part 1 1 69 



□ Exercise 25. Warm-up. (Chart 9 8) 

Choose the student (Jason or Jim) who said this sentence: "I should have studied." 




Jason Jim 





(a) 1 had a test this morning. 1 didn't do well on the test 
because 1 didn't study for it last night. 1 should have 
studied last night. 

(b) You were supposed to be here at 10:00 p.m., but you 
didn't come until midnight. We were worried about you. 
You should have called us. (You did not call.) 


Past form: should have + past participle* 

The meaning in (a): / should have studied = 
Studying was a good idea, but 1 didn't do it. 1 made a 
mistake. 

Usual pronunciation of should have: "should-av" or 
"should-a." 


(c) My back hurts. I should not have carried that heavy 
box up two flights of stairs. (I carried the box, and now 
I'm sorry.) 

(d) We went to a movie, but it was a waste of time and 
money. We should not have gone to the movie. 


The meaning in (c): / should not have carried = 1 
carried something, but it turned out to be a bad idea. 1 
made a mistake. 

Usual pronunciation of should not have: 
"shouldn't-av" or "shouldn't-a." 



*The past form of ought to is ought to have + past participle (/ ought to have studied.). It has the same meaning as the past form of 
should. In the past, should is used more commonly than ought to. Had better is used only rarely in a past form (e.g., He had 
better have taken care of it.) and usually only in speaking, not writing. 



□ Exercise 26. Listening. (Chart 9-8) 




Listen to each situation and choose the best advice (a. or b.). In some cases, both answers 
are correct. 



CD 1 



Example: You will hear: Your report had spelling errors because you didn't run a spellcheck. 
You will choose: (a) I should have run a spellcheck. 

b. I shouldn't have run a spellcheck. 

1. a. She should have spent more money. 

b. She shouldn't have spent so much money. 

2. a. I should have gone with them, 
b. I shouldn't have stayed home. 



170 CHAPTER 9 



3. a. He shouldn't have had so much coffee, 
b. He should have had more coffee. 



4. a. She shouldn't have been dishonest, 
b. She should have been more honest. 



□ Exercise 27. Let's talk. (Chart 9-8) 

Speaker A presents the given situation. Speaker B comments on it using should I shouldn't 
have + past participle. Work in pairs, in groups, or as a class. 

Example: 

Speaker A (book open): I didn't invite Sonya to my party. That made her feel bad. I'm sorry I 

didn't invite her. 

Speaker B (book closed): You should have invited Sonya to your party. 

1 . Tim made a mistake yesterday. He left the door to his house open, and a bird flew in. 
He had a terrible time catching the bird. 

2. There was an important meeting yesterday afternoon, but you decided not to go. That was 
a mistake. Now your boss is angry 

3. Emily didn't feel good a couple of days ago. I told her to see a doctor, but she didn't. 
That was a mistake. Now she is very sick. 

4. Nick signed a contract to buy some furniture without reading it thoroughly. Now he has 
discovered that he is paying a higher interest rate than he expected. He made a mistake. 



□ Exercise 28. Let's talk: pairwork. (Chart 9-8) 

Work with a partner. Partner A presents the situation. Partner B comments on it using 
should I shouldn't have + past participle. 

Example: 

Partner A (book open): You failed the test because you didn't study. 
Partner B (book closed): I should have studied. 

1 . You are cold because you didn't wear a coat. 

2. Your friend is upset because you didn't return his call. 

3. The room is full of flies because you opened the window. 

4. You don't have any food for dinner because you didn't go to the grocery store. 

5. You bought a friend a box of candy for her birthday, but she doesn't like candy. 

Change roles. 

6. John loved Marta, but he didn't marry her. Now he is unhappy. 

7. John loved Marta, and he married her. But now he is unhappy. 

8. The weather was beautiful yesterday, but you stayed inside all day. 

9. You lent your car to your friend, but she had an accident because she was driving on the 
wrong side of the road. 

10. You overslept this morning because you didn't set your alarm clock. 



Modals, Parti 171 



□ Exercise 29. Let's talk or write. (Chart 9-8) 

Discuss or write what you think the people in the given situations should have done or 
shouldn't have done. 

Example: Tom didn't study for the test. During the exam, he panicked and started looking 
at other students' test papers. He didn't think the teacher saw him, but she did. She 
warned him once to stop cheating, but he continued. As a result, the teacher took 
Tom's test paper, told him to leave the room, and failed him on the exam. 

-» Tom should have studied for the test. 

— > He shouldn't have looked at other students' papers during the test. 
— > He shouldn't have started cheating. 

— > He should have known the teacher ivould see him cheating. 
—> He should have stopped cheating after the first learning. 

— > The teacher should have ripped up Tom's paper and sent him out of the room the first 
time she sazv him cheating. 

Kazu and his wife, Julie, had good jobs as professionals in New York City. Kazu was 
offered a high-paying job in Chicago, which he immediately accepted. Julie was shocked 
when he came home that evening and told her the news. She liked her job and the people 
she worked with. She didn't want to move away and look for another job. 

For three years, Donna had been saving her money for a trip to Europe. Her brother, 
Hugo, had a good job, but he spent all of his money on expensive cars, clothes, and 
entertainment. Suddenly, Hugo was fired from work and had no money to support 
himself while he looked for another job. Donna lent him nearly all of her savings, and 
within three weeks he spent it all on his car, more clothes, and expensive restaurants. 

□ Exercise 30. Warm-up. (Chart 9 9) 

Correct the errors in the form of be supposed to. 

1 . The building custodian A supposed to* unlock the doors every morning. 

2. We're not suppose to open that door. 

3. I have a meeting at seven tonight. I suppose to be there a little early to discuss the agenda. 

4. I'm suppose to be at the meeting. I suppose* I'd better go. 

5. Where have you been? You suppose be here an hour ago! 



*Compare: He is supposed to = He is expected to. 

I suppose = I guess, I think, I believe. 



172 CHAPTER 9 



9-9 Obligation: Be Supposed To 



(a) The game is supposed to begin at 1 0:00. 

(b) The committee is supposed to vote by secret ballot. 


Be supposed to expresses the idea that someone (/, we, 
they, the teacher, lots of people, my father, etc.) expects 
something to happen. 

Be supposed to often expresses expectations about 
scheduled events, as in (a), or correct procedures, as in (b). 


(c) I am supposed to go to the meeting. My boss told 
me that he wants me to attend. 

(d) The children are supposed to put away their toys 
before they go to bed. 


Be supposed to also expresses expectations about 
behavior. 

The meaning is the same in (c) and (d): Someone else 
expects (requests or requires) certain behavior. 


(e) Jack was supposed to call me last night. I wonder 
why he didn't. 


Be supposed to in the past (was/were supposed to) 
expresses unfulfilled expectations. 

The meaning in (e): / expected Jack to call, but he didn't. 



□ Exercise 31 . Let's talk. (Chart 9 9) 

Answer the questions in complete sentences. Use be supposed to. Work in pairs, in small 
groups, or as a class. 

Example: 

Speaker A (book open): If you're driving and a traffic light turns red, what are you supposed 

to do? 

Speaker B (book closed): You're supposed to come to a complete stop.* 

1 . What are you supposed to do if you're involved in a traffic accident? 

2. What are you supposed to do prior to takeoff in an airplane? 

3. What are some things athletes in training are supposed to do, and some things they're not 
supposed to do? 

4. If you're driving and an ambulance with flashing lights and blaring sirens comes up behind 
you, what are you supposed to do? 

(Change roles if zvorking in pairs). 

5. Can you think of something you were supposed to do yesterday (or sometime in the past) 
but didn't do? 

6. What are we supposed to be doing right now? 

7. Tell me about any job you've had. What were you supposed to do on a typical day? 

8. In the place you live or work, who is supposed to do what? In other words, what are the 
duties or responsibilities of the people who live or work with you? 



*Note the use of impersonal you. See Chart 8-5, p. 147. 



Modals, Part 1 1 73 



□ Exercise 32. Looking at grammar. (Charts 9-5 > 9-9) 

Which sentence in each pair is stronger? 



a. 


You had better wear a seat belt. 


4. 


a. 


We 


are supposed to bring pens. 


b. 


You ought to wear a seat belt. 




b. 


We 


have to bring pens. 


a. 


You must zvear a seat belt. 


5. 


a. 


We 


ought to bring pens. 


b. 


You had better zvear a seat belt. 




b. 


We 


have got to bring pens. 


a. 


You have to wear a seat belt. 


6. 


a. 


We 


had better bring pens. 


b. 


You are supposed to wear a seat belt. 




b. 


We 


should bring pens. 



□ Exercise 33. Let's talk or write. (Charts 9-5 > 9-9) 

Choose an occupation from the list or any other occupation of your choosing. Make sentences 
about it using the given verbs. 

Example: teacher — > A teacher should be very patient. 



should have to be not supposed to 

be supposed to have got to had better not 

ought to must do not have to 

had better shouldn't must not 



Occupations: 



1. 


tour guide 


2. 


engineer 


3. 


nurse 


4. 


taxi driver 


5. 


salesclerk 


6. 


plumber 


7. 


artist 


8. 


veterinarian 




Exercise 34. Let's write or talk. (Charts 9-5 > 9-9) 

Choose one (or more) of the topics for writing, group discussion, or role-playing. Try to 
include the words from the given list on the next page. 

Example: Pretend that you are the supervisor of a roomful of young children. The children are 
in your care for the next six hours. What would you say to them to make sure they 
understood your expectations and your rules, so that they would be safe and 
cooperative? 

— > You should pick up your toys zvhen you are finished playing with them. 
— > You have to stay in this room. Do not go outside without my permission. 
— > You're supposed to take a short nap at one o'clock. 
Etc. 



174 CHAPTER 9 



should have to be not supposed to 

be supposed to have got to had better not 

ought to must do not have to 

had better shouldn't must not 



Topics: 

1 . Pretend that you are a travel agent and you are helping two students who are traveling 
abroad for a vacation. You want them to understand the travel arrangements you have 
made, and you want to explain some of the local customs of the countries they will be 
visiting. 

2. Pretend that you are the supervisor of a cafe and you are talking to two new employees. 
You want to acquaint them with their jobs and your expectations. 

3. Pretend that you are instructing the person who will watch your three young children while 
you are out for the evening. They haven't had dinner, and they don't like to go to bed 
when they're told to. 




Exercise 35. Warm-up. (Chart 9 -10) 

Circle yes if the speaker is expressing an intention or plan; circle no if not. In which of these 
sentences do you know for sure that the speaker did not complete the plan? 

intention/plan? 

1. I am going to call you at 9:00 tomorrow. yes no 

2. I was going to call you, but I couldn't find your phone number. yes no 

3. I was going to class when I ran into a friend from childhood. yes no 

4. I was planning to go to college right after high school but then decided 

to work for a year first. yes no 

5. I was working at my computer when the electricity went off. yes no 

6. I had planned to talk to my manager today about a raise, but she was 

out sick. yes no 



Modals, Part 1 1 75 



9-10 Unfulfilled Intentions: Was /Were Going To 


(a) 1 'm going to go to the concert tomorrow. 
I'm really looking forward to it. 


Am/is/are going to is used to talk about intentions for 
future activities, as in (a). 


(b) Jack was going to go to the movie last night, but he 
changed his mind. 


Was/were going to talks about past intentions. Usually, 
these are unfulfilled intentions, i.e., activities someone 
intended to do but did not do. 

The meaning in (b): Jack was planning to go to the 
concert, but he didn't go. 


(c) 1 was planning to go, but 1 didn't. 

1 was hoping to go, but 1 couldn't. 
1 was intending to go, but 1 didn't. 
1 was thinking about going, but 1 didn't. 

(d) 1 had hoped \o go, but 1 couldn't. 
1 had intended \o go, but 1 didn't. 

1 had thought about going, but 1 didn't. 

1 had planned \o go, but 1 changed my mind. 


Other ways of expressing unfulfilled intentions are to use 
plan, hope, intend, and think about in the past 
progressive, as in (c), or in the past perfect, as in (d). 



□ Exercise 36. Looking at grammar. (Chart 9-1 0) 

Restate each sentence in two other ways. 

Example: I was going to call you, but I couldn't get cell phone reception. 

— > / had planned to call you, but I couldn't get cell phone reception. 
— » / zvas intending to call you, but I couldn't get cell phone reception. 

1 . I was going to stay home on my day off, but I had too much work at the office. 

2. I was going to surprise you with jewelry for your birthday, but I wasn't sure what you'd like. 

3. I was going to reply to your email right away, but I got distracted by my children. 

□ Exercise 37. Let's talk. (Chart 9 10) 

Take turns completing the sentences. Work in pairs or small groups. Share some of your 
answers with the class. 

1 . I was going to get up early this morning, but .... 

2. I had intended to meet you at the restaurant, but .... 

3. I was planning to visit you this weekend, but .... 

4. I had hoped to see you one more time before you left, but .... 

5. We had thought about inviting the Smiths to our party, but .... 

6. I was going to call you on your birthday, but .... 

7. We were hoping to see that movie in a theater, but .... 

□ Exercise 38. Warm-up. (Chart 9 1 1) 

Imagine that next Tuesday you have a holiday. You and your roommate are making plans. 
Read the list of activities. Which ones sound good to you? 

Activities: 

1. Let's go to a movie. 4. Why don't we fly to Paris for lunch? 

2. Why don't we study grammar all day? 5. Let's play video games. 

3. Let's go shopping. 6. Why don't we clean and do the laundry? 



176 CHAPTER 9 



9-11 Making Suggestions: Let's, Why Don% Shall 1/ We 


(a) Let's go to a movie. 


let's = /ef i/s 

Lef 's is followed by the simple form of a verb. 


(b) Let's not go to a movie. 
Let's stay home instead. 


Negative form: let's + not + simple verb 
Let's means / have a suggestion for us. 


(c) Why don 't we go to a movie? 

(d) Why don't you come around seven? 

Icj Wily UfJII 1 1 yivtt Ivlctl y d Udll : 


Why don't is used primarily in spoken English to make a 
friendly suggestion. 

The meaning in (c): Let's go to a movie. 

In (d): / suggest that you come around seven. 

In (e): Should 1 give Mary a call? Do you agree with my 

suggestion? 


(f) Shall 1 open the window? Is that okay with you? 

( r\\ Q/ii?// \Md at \\mc\0 Ic that nka\/9 
Of leaf I Wt7 ft? a v ell IWU r lb Ll leu Ul\dy : 


When shall is used with / or we in a question, the speaker 
is usually making a suggestion and asking another person 
if she/he agrees with this suggestion, as in (f) and (g). 
The use of shall + l/we is relatively formal and infrequent 
in American English. 


(h) Let's go, shall we? 

(i) Let's go, okay? 


Sometimes shall we? is used as a tag question after 
let's, as in (h). More informally, okay? is used as a tag 
question, as in (i). 



□ Exercise 39. In your own words. (Chart 9-1 1) 

Complete the conversations with your own words. 

1. A: A new Japanese restaurant just opened downtown. T ,er's eat there tonight. 

B: Great idea! I'd like some good sushi. 

A: Why don't you call and make a reeervation? Make it for about 7:30. 
B: No, let's make it for 3:00. I'll be working until 7:30 tonight. 

2. A: I don't feel like staying home today. 

B: Neither do I. Why don't 

A: Hey, that's a great idea! What time shall 

B: Let's leave in an hour. 

3. A: Shall or first? 

B: Let's first; then we can take our time over dinner. 

A: Why don't 

B: Good idea. 

4. A: Let's over the weekend. 

The fresh air would do us both good. 

B: I agree. Why don't 

A: No. Sleeping in a tent is too uncomfortable. Let's 

It won't be that expensive, and we'll have hot water and all the comforts of home. 



Modals, Part 1 177 



□ Exercise 40. Warm-up. (Chart 9-1 2) 

Read the conversation. Whose suggestion seems stronger Alice's or Roberto's? 




Carl Alice Roberto 





— What should we do tomorrow? 

(a) Why don't we go on a picnic? 

(b) We could go on a picnic. 


Could can be used to make suggestions. 

The meanings in (a) and (b) are similar: The speaker is 
suggesting a picnic. 


— I'm having trouble in math class. 

(c) You should talk to your teacher. 

(d) Maybe you should talk to your teacher. 

— I'm having trouble in math class. 

(e) You could talk to your teacher. 

Or you could ask Ann to help you with your math 
lessons. Or 1 could try to help you. 


Should gives definite advice and is stronger than could. 

The meaning in (c): / believe it is important for you to do 
this. This is what 1 recommend. 

In (d), the use of maybe softens the strength of the 
advice. 

Could offers suggestions or possibilities. 

The meaning in (e): / have some possible suggestions for 
you. It is possible to do this. Or it is possible to do that* 


— / failed my math class. 

(f) You should have talked to your teacher and gotten 
some help from her during the term. 

— / failed my math class. 

(g) You could have talked to your teacher. 

Or you could have asked Ann to help you with your 
math. Or 1 could have tried \o help you. 


Should have (past form) gives "hindsight" advice.** 

The meaning in (f): It was important for you to talk to the 
teacher, but you didn't do it. You made a mistake. 

Could have (past form) offers "hindsight" possibilities. 

The meaning in (g): You had the chance to do this or that. 
It was possible for this or that to happen. You missed 
some good opportunities. 



* Might (but not may) can also be used to make suggestions (You might talk to your teacher.), but could is more common. 



**Hi)idsight refers to looking back at something after it happens. 



178 CHAPTER 9 



j Exercise 41. Looking at grammar. (Chart 9-12) 

Discuss Speaker B's and C's use of should and could. What are the differences in meaning? 

1. A: Ted doesn't feel good. He has a bad stomachache. What do you think he should do? 
B: He should see a doctor. 

C: Well, I don't know. He could call a doctor. He could call Dr. Sung. Or he could call 
Dr. Jones. Or he could simply stay in bed for a day and hope he feels better tomorrow. 

2. A: I need to get to the airport. 

B: You should take the airport bus. It's cheaper than a taxi. 

C: Well, you could take the airport bus. Or you could take a taxi. Maybe Matt could take 
you. He has a car. 

3. A: I took a taxi to the airport, and it cost me a fortune. 
B: You should have taken the airport bus. 

C: You could have taken the airport bus. Or maybe Matt could have taken you. 

□ Exercise 42. Let's write: pairwork. (Chapter 9) 

Work with a partner. Write a letter to an advice columnist in a newspaper. Make up a 
personal problem for the columnist to solve. Then give your letter to another pair, who will 
write an answer. 

Example letter: 
Dear Annie, 

My husband and my sister had an argument over a year ago, and they haven't spoken to each 
other since. My husband accused my sister of insulting him about his baldness. Then he told my 
sister that her hair looked like straw. He said he'd rather be bald than have that kind of hair. My 
sister insists on an apology. My husband refuses until she apologizes to him first. 

The problem is that I'm planning a graduation party for my daughter. My husband insists that I 
not invite my sister. I tell him I have to invite her. He says he'll leave the party if my sister walks in 
the door. My daughter is very close to my sister and very much wants her to come to the 
celebration. 

What should I do? I feel I must include my sister in the graduation party, but I don't want to 
anger my husband. 

Yours truly, 
Confused and Torn 

Example response: 

Dear Confused and Torn, 

Tell your husband that this party is your daughter's time to have her whole family around her and 
that you're going to invite your sister to the family celebration. This is certainly a time he has to put 
his daughter's needs first. 

And you should tell both your husband and your sister that it's time to get past their silly 
argument and act like grownups instead of ten-year-olds. You could offer to serve as an 
intermediary to get them together to apologize to each other. If you present a reasonable, adult 
way of handling the problem, they may start behaving like adults. Good luck. 

Annie 



Modals, Part 1 1 79 



Chapter 10 

Modals, Part 2 




□ Exercise 1. Warm-up. (Chart 10-1) 

A man walked into Ramon's apartment and stole his guitar. The thief accidentally left his hat in 
the apartment. A policewoman at the scene asks Ramon, "Whose hat is this?" How would he 
answer her question? Match Ramon's thoughts in Column A to his statements in Column B. 



Column A 

Ramon thinks the hat looks familiar, 
but he's not certain whose it is. 
Ramon thinks he recognizes the hat. 
He's almost sure he knows the owner. 
Ramon has no doubts. He knows 
whose hat it is. 



Column B 

a. "It is Joe Green's hat." 

b. "It could belong to Joe Green. It 
might be Al Goldberg's. Or it may 
belong to Mr. Perez across the hall. 

c. "It must be Joe Green's hat." 



10-1 Degrees of Certainty: Present Time 


— Why isn't John in class? 
1 00% sure: He is sick. 
95% sure: He must be sick. 

(He may be sick. 
50% sure or less: \ He might be sick. 

1 He could be sick. 
note: These percentages are approximate. 


Degree of certainty refers to how sure we are — what we 
think the chances are — that something is true. 

If we are sure something is true in the present, we don't 
need to use a modal. For example, if I say, "John is sick," I 
am sure; I am stating a fact that I am sure is true. My 
degree of certainty is 100%. 


— Why isn't John in class? 

' (a) He must be sick. (Usually he is in class every day, 
but when I saw him last night, he wasn't feeling good. 
So my best guess is that he is sick today. I can't think 
of another possibility.) 


Must expresses a strong degree of certainty about a 
present situation, but the degree of certainty is still less 
than 100%. 


In (a): The speaker is saying, "Probably John is sick. I 
have evidence to make me believe that he is sick. That is 
my logical conclusion, but I do not know for certain." 


— Why isn't John in class? 

(b) He may be sick. 

(c) He might be sick. 

(d) He could be sick. (I don't really know. He may be at 
home watching TV. He might be at the library He 
could be out of town.) 


May, might, and could express a weak degree of 
certainty. 


In (b), (c), and (d): The meanings are all the same. The 
speaker is saying, "Perhaps, maybe,* possibly John is 
sick. I am only making a guess. I can think of other 
possibilities." 



*Maybe (one word) is an adverb: Maybe he is sick. May be (two words) is a verb form: He may be sick. 



180 



Exercise 2. Looking at grammar. (Chart 10-1) 

Complete the sentences by using must or may I might I could with the expressions in the list 
or your own words. 



/be very proud fit Jimmy miss them very much 

be at a meeting have the wrong number 

1 . A: I've heard that your daughter recently graduated from law school and that your son has 

gotten a scholarship to the state university. You muet be very proud of them. 
B: We are. 

2. A: Hello? 

B: Hello. May I speak to Ron? 

A: I'm sorry. You 

There's no one here by that name. 




3. A: Where's Ms. Adams? She's not in her office. 

B: I don't know. She 3 or maybe she's in the 

employee lounge. 

4. A: This winter jacket is still in good shape, but Brian has outgrown it. Do you think it 

would fit one of your sons? 
B: Well, it's probably too small for Danny too, but it 

5. A: How long has it been since you last saw your family? 
B: More than a year. 

A: You 



Modals, Part 2 181 



Exercise 3. Let's talk. (Chart 10 -l) 

Make your best guess from the given information. Use must in your answers. Work in pairs, 
in small groups, or as a class. 

Example: 

Speaker A {book open): Alice always gets the best grades in the class. Why? 
Speaker B {book closed): She must study hard. / She must be intelligent. 

1 . The students are yawning. Why? 

2. Carol is shivering and has goose bumps. Why? 

3. Lisa's stomach is growling. Why? 

4. Bob is scratching his arm. Why? 

{Change roles if working in pairs.) 

5. The teacher is smiling. Why? 

6. Mrs. Allen is crying. Why? 

7. The fans are jumping up and down and clapping. Why? 

8. Don't look at a clock. What time is it? 

Exercise 4. Let's talk. (Chart 10-1) 

Answer the questions with / don't know + may I might I could. 

Example: 

Speaker A {book open): Amy's grammar book isn't on her desk. Where is it? 
Speaker B {book closed): I don't know. It may/might/could be in her backpack. 

1. {name of a student) isn't in class today. Where is she/he? 

2. Where does {name of a student) live? 

3. What do you think I have in my briefcase/pocket/purse? 

4. What kind of cell phone does our teacher have? 

5. I can't find my pen. Do you know where it is? 

6. How old do you think {someone famous) is? 

Exercise 5. Warm-up. (Chart 10-2) 

Anna is checking some figures in her business records: 3,456 + 7,843 = 11,389. How certain 
is Anna in each of the sentences? Is she 100%, 99%, 95%, or 50% sure? 

1. At first glance, she says to herself, "Hmmm. That may not be right." 

2. Then she looks at it again and says, "That must not be right. 6 + 3 is 9, but 5 + 4 isn't 8." 

3. So she says to herself, "That couldn't be right!" 

4. Finally, she adds the figures herself and says, "That isn't right." 



82 CHAPTER 10 



10-2 Degrees of Certainty: Present Time Negative 




100% sure: Sam isn 't hungry. 

99% sure: (Sam couldn't be hungry. 

\ Sam can t be hungry. 

95% sure: Sam must not be hungry 

™% <5urP nr Ipqq- / Sam ma V n0t be hun 9 rv - 
ou/o sure or less. s „ . , . . , , 

\ Sam might not be hungry. 

note: These percentages are approximate. 


(a) Sam doesn't want anything to eat. He isn't hungry. 
He told me his stomach is full. I heard him say that 
he isn't hungry. I believe him. 


In (a): The speaker is sure that Sam is not hungry 


(b) Sam couldn't/ can 't be hungry. That's impossible. I 

h iQt Qflw him ppt a hunt* mfipl He* hao alrfipHw oatfin 
juoi oavv i in 1 1 cai ct i luytJ iiiucti. i i c i lao all cauy caicii 

enough to fill two grown men! Did he really say he'd 
like something to eat? 1 don't believe it. 


In (b): The speaker believes that there is no possibility 

that .^pm iq hiinnrw ^hiit thp Qnpakpr nnt 100°/* Qllrp^ 
u id, i oaiii 10 i iui lyi y ^uui u ic opca r\c i ioiilh ivjvj/oouicj. 

When used in the negative to show degree of certainty, 
couldn't and can 't forcefully express the idea that the 
speaker believes something is impossible. 


(c) Sam isn't eating his food. He must not be hungry 
That's the only reason 1 can think of. 


In (c): The speaker is expressing a logical conclusion, a 
"best guess." 


(d) 1 don't know why Sam isn't eating his food. He may 
not/ might not be hungry right now. Or maybe he 
doesn't feel well. Or perhaps he ate just before he 
got here. Who knows? 


In (d): The speaker uses may not/might not to mention 
a possibility. 



□ Exercise 6. Let's talk. (Charts 10-1 and 10-2) 

Answer the questions based on the speakers' opinions of the given situation. 

Situation: Tim is talking about Ed and says 3 "Someone told me that Ed quit his job 3 sold his 
house 3 and moved to an island in the Pacific Ocean." 

Opinions: Lucy says 3 "That may not be true." 

Linda says 3 "That must not be true." 
Hamid says 3 "That can 't be true." 
Rob saySj "That isn't true." 

1 . Who is absolutely certain? 

2. Who is almost certain? 

3. Who has an open mind and hasn't decided? 

□ Exercise 7. Let's talk. (Chart 10 2) 

Complete the sentences with your best guess. Work in pairs 3 in small groups 3 or as a class. 

1 . A: Yuko has flunked every test so far this semester. 
B: She must not . . . —» She must not study very hard. 

2. A: Who are you calling? 
B: Tarek. The phone is ringing 3 but there's no answer. 
A: He must not . . . 




Modals, Part 2 1 83 



3. A: I'm trying to be a good host. I've offered Rosa a glass of water, a cup of coffee or tea, 

and a soft drink. She doesn't want anything. 
B: She must not . . . 

4. A: I offered Mr. Chang some nuts, but he refused them. Then I offered him some candy, 

and he accepted. 
B: He must not . . . 

5. A: Mrs. Garcia seems very lonely to me. 
B: I agree. She must not . . . 

□ Exercise 8. Let's talk: pairwork. (Chart io-2) 

Work with a partner. Give possible reasons for Speaker B's conclusions. 

Example: A: Someone is knocking at the door. It might be Mary. 
B: It couldn't be Mary. 

{Reason? Mary is in Moscozv. I Mary went to a movie tonight. I Etc.) 

1 . A: Someone left this wool hat here. I think it belongs to Alex. 
B: It couldn't belong to him. {Reason?) 

2. A: Someone told me that Karen is in Norway. 

B: That can't be right. She couldn't be in Norway. {Reason?) 

3. A: Look at that big animal. Is it a wolf? 
B: It couldn't be a wolf. {Reason?) 

4. A: Someone told me that Marie quit her job. 

B: You're kidding! That can't be true. {Reason?) 

□ Exercise 9. Listening. (Charts 10-1 and 10-2) 

^ Listen to the conversation and write the verbs you hear. 

Trad; 49 Situation: Tom and his young son Billy hear a noise on the roof. 

TOxM: I wonder what that noise is. 

Billy: It a bird. 

1 

TOxM: It a bird. It's running across the roof. Birds 

2 3 

across roofs. 

Billy: Well, some birds do. It a big bird that's running fast. 

4 

Tom: No, I think it some kind of animal. It a 

5 6 

mouse. 

Billy: It sounds much bigger than a mouse. It a dragon! 

7 

Tom: Son, it a dragon. We don't have any dragons around here. 

8 

They exist only in storybooks. 



184 CHAPTER 10 




Exercise 10. Let's talk: pairwork. (Charts 10-1 and 10-2) 

Work with a partner. Create a dialogue based on the given situation. Role-play your dialogue 
for the class or a group of classmates. 

Situation: You and your friend are at home. You hear a noise. You discuss the noise: What 
may I might I could I must I may not I couldn't I must not be the cause. Then you finally find out 
what is going on. 



Exercise 11. Warm-up. (Chart 10-3) 

Decide which past modal in the list best completes each sentence. One of the modals is not 
appropriate for any of the sentences. 

must have left couldn't have left should have left might have left 

Situation: Jackie can't find her sunglasses. 

1 . Laura thinks it's possible that Jackie left them on the table at the restaurant. She says, 

"You them on the table at the restaurant, but I'm just 

guessing." 

2. Sergio disagrees. He looked at everything on the table before they left and doesn't 
remember seeing her sunglasses there. He thinks it is impossible that Jackie left them 

there, so he says, "You them there. I'm sure they are 

somewhere else. Did you check your purse?" 

3. Maya disagrees with Sergio. She remembers seeing the sunglasses on the table, so she 

says, "You them there. That's the only logical explanation 

I can think of." 



Modals, Part 2 1 85 



10-3 Degrees of Certainty: Past Time 




Past Time: Affirmative 



— Why wasn't Mary in class? 

(a) 100%: She was sick. 

(b) 95%: She must have been sick. 

{She may have been sick. 
She might have been sick. 
She could have been sick. 



In (a): The speaker is sure. 

In (b): The speaker is making a logical 
conclusion, e.g., "I saw Mary yesterday and 
found out that she was sick. I assume that is the 
reason why she was absent. I can't think of any 
other good reason." 

In (c): The speaker is mentioning one possibility. 



Past Time: Negative 



— Why didn't Sam eat? 
(d) 100%: Sam wasn't hungry. 

( Sam couldn't have been hungry. 
\ Sam can't have been hungry. 

95%: Sam must not have been hungry. 



(e) 
(0 



99% 



(g) 50% sure or less: ( ^ am ™y" ot h ™ e *>ee n hungry. 

^ Sam might not have been hungry. 



In (d): The speaker is sure. 

In (e): The speaker believes that it is impossible 
for Sam to have been hungry. 

In (f): The speaker is making a logical 
conclusion. 

In (g): The speaker is mentioning one possibility. 



□ Exercise 12. Looking at grammar. (Chart io-3) 

Use past modals to restate each sentence in parentheses. In some cases, more than one modal 
may be possible. 

Situation 1 : The doorbell rang, but I was in bed trying to take a nap. So I didn't get up. I 
wonder who it was. 

1. (Maybe it was a friend.) It may / might / could have been a friend. 

2. (It's not possible that it was my next-door neighbor. He zvas at work.) 
It my next-door neighbor. 

3. (I'm 95% sure it zvas a delivery person. There zvas a package outside my door zuhen I got up.) 
It a delivery person. 

Situation 2: I sent my best friend a birthday present, but she never responded or thanked me. 
That's not like her. I wonder why I never heard from her. 

4. (She probably never got it. That's the only reason I can think of for her not responding to me.) 
I believe she it. 

5. (My mother thinks it's possible that it got lost in the mail, but she's just guessing.) 

My mother thinks it lost in the mail. I guess that's 

possible. 



186 CHAPTER 10 



□ Exercise 13. Let's talk. (Chart 10-3) 

Make guesses using past modals. 

Situation: Dan, David, Dylan, Dick, and Doug are all friends. One of them got engaged last 
night. Who do you think it is? 

1. Dan had a huge argument with his girlfriend last night. 

— > It couldn't/must not have been Dan because hefouglit zuith Jiis girlfriend last night. 

2. David met with his girlfriend's parents two nights ago. 

3. Dylan invited his girlfriend to dinner and took a diamond ring with him. 

4. Dick is going to wait to get married until he has a better job. 

5. Doug isn't sure if he's ready for marriage. He thinks he's a little young to be a husband. 



□ Exercise 14. Let's talk or write. (Chart 10 3) 

Give several answers for each question, orally or in writing. 

1. In 1957 the first animal (Laika, a Russian dog) went into space. How do you think she 
felt? In 1961 the Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin went into space. How do you think 
he felt? 

2. A fire started in the city park around midnight. A large crowd of people had been there 
earlier watching a fireworks display. What do you think caused the fire? 

3. While the Browns were away on vacation, the security alarm went off at their home. The 
police arrived and checked the house. No doors had been opened. No windows were broken. 
Everything looked normal. What do you think set it off? What don't you think set it off? 



□ Exercise 15. Let's talk. (Chart 10-3) 

Speaker A asks a question, and Speaker B responds with may have/might havelcould have. 
Speaker A provides more information. This time, Speaker B responds with must have. Work 
in pairs, in small groups, or as a class. 

Example: 

Speaker A: Larry was absent yesterday afternoon. Where was he? 

Speaker B: I don't know. He may have been at home. He might have gone to a movie. He 
could have decided to go to the zoo because the weather was so nice. 

Speaker A: Then you overhear him say, "My sister's plane was late yesterday afternoon. I had 
to wait almost three hours." Now what do you think? 

Speaker B: He must have gone to the airport to meet his sister's plane. 

1. AtoB: Beth didn't stay home last night. Where did she go? 
A TO B: Now, what if you overhear her say . . . ? 

2. A to B: How did Claudio get to school today? 
A TO B: Now, what if you hear him say . . . ? 

3. AtoB: Sami walked into class yesterday .... 

A to B: Then you overhear him say .... Now what do you think? 

4. A TO B: (name of a classmate) took a vacation in a warm .... 

Ato B: Now, what if you overhear him/her say .... Now what do you think? 



Exercise 16. Looking at grammar. (Charts 10-1 --> io-3) 

Complete the dialogues with must and the verbs in parentheses. Use not if necessary. 



4. 



A: Paula fell asleep in class this morning. 
B: She (stay up) muet have stayed up 



too late last night. 



2. A 



Jim is eating everything in the salad but the onions. He's pushed all of the onions to 
the side of his plate. 

B: He {like) 



onions. 



A: Marco had to give a speech in front of 500 people. 

B: Whew! That's a big audience. He (be) 

A: He was, but no one could tell. 



nervous. 



A: What time is it? 

B: Well, we came at seven, and I'm sure we've been here for at least an hour. So it (be) 
around eight o'clock. 

5. A: I met Ayako's husband at the reception. We said hello to each other, but when I asked 
him a question in English, he just smiled and nodded. 

B: He (speak) much English. 



A: Listen. Do you hear a buzzing sound in the kitchen? 
B: No, I don't hear a thing. 

A: You don't? Then something (be) 



wrong with your hearing. 



A: You have a black eye! What happened? 

B: I walked into a door. 

A: Ouch! That (hurt) 



A: Who is your teacher? 

B: I think his name is Mr. Rock, or something like that. 
A: Mr. Rock? Oh, you (mean) 

A: I grew up in a small town. 

B: That {be) dull. 

A: It wasn't at all. You can't imagine the fun we had. 



Mr. Stone. 



□ Exercise 17. Warm-up. (Chart io-4) 

Match each sentence to the percentage it best describes. 



1 . We might get some snow tomorrow. 

2. We will get some snow tomorrow. 

3. We may get some snow tomorrow. 

4. We should get some snow tomorrow. 

5. We could get some snow tomorrow. 









_ o ° o ° 

1 oo% 


_ o o o ° 

50% 


°/o°o >°o ° ° 

90% 



188 CHAPTER 10 



10-4 Degrees of Certainty: Future Time 



► The speaker feels sure. 

► The speaker is almost sure. 



{She may do well on the test, 
She might do well on the test. > * The speaker is guessing. 
She could do well on the test. J 



(a) Kay has been studying hard. She should do/ ought 
to do well on the test tomorrow. 


Should/ought to can be used to express expectations 
about future events. 

In (a): The speaker is saying, "Kay will probably do well 
on the test. 1 expect her to do well. That is what 1 think 
will happen." 


(b) 1 wonder why Sue hasn't written us. We should have 
heard/ ought to have heard irom her last week. 


The past form of should/ought to is used to mean that 
the speaker expected something that did not occur. 



1 00% sure: Kay will do well on the test. 

907 sure - / s ^ ou ^ ^° we " on tne test - \ 
0 ' \ Kay ought to do well on the test. / 



□ Exercise 18. Looking at grammar. (Chart 10-4) 

Complete the sentences with the speakers' names based on how certain they are. 

Situation: Jan asked her roommates, "What time are you going to be home tonight?" 
Certainty: Marco feels 100% sure. 

Linda is almost sure. 

Ned doesn't know. He's guessing. 

1 . said, "I might be back by ten." 

2. said, "I'll be home by eight." 

3. said, "I should be here around nine." 



J Exercise 19. Looking at grammar. (Charts 4-2, 10-1, and 10-4) 

Complete the sentences with will, should /ought to, or must. In some cases, more than one 
modal is possible. Discuss the meanings that the modals convey.* 

1. Lots of people are standing in line to get into that movie. It must be good. 

2. Let's go to the lecture tonight. It should / ought to OR will be interesting. 

3. Look. Jack's car is in front of his house. He be at home. Let's stop 

and visit him. 

4. A: Hello. May I speak to Elena? 

B: She isn't here right now, but she be home around nine or so. 



*COMPARE: Must expresses a strong degree of certainty about a present situation. (See Chart 10-1 .) Should and ought to 
express a fairly strong degree of certainty about a future situation. (See Chart 10-4.) Will indicates that there is no doubt in 
the speaker's mind about a future event. (See Chart 4-2, p. 63.) 



Modals, Part 2 189 



5. A: Who do you think is going to win the game tomorrow? 

B: Well, our team has better players, so we win, but you never know. 

Anything can happen in sports. 

6. A: It's very important for you to be there on time. 

B: I be there at seven o'clock. I promise! 

7. A: Susie is yawning and rubbing her eyes. 

B: She be sleepy. Let's put her to bed early tonight. 

8. A: Martha has been working all day. She left for work early this morning. 
B: She be really tired tonight. 

9. A: When's dinner? 

B: We're almost ready to eat. The rice be done in five minutes. 

10. Ed has been acting strangely lately. He be in love. 




11. Hmmm. I wonder what's causing the delay. Ellen's plane been 

here an hour ago. 

12. I thought I had some money in my wallet, but I don't. I spent it. 



□ Exercise 20. Looking at grammar. (Charts 10-1 > 10-4) 

Complete the sentences based on the facts of each situation. 

Situation 1: Someone's knocking at the door. I wonder who it is. 
Facts: Ross is out of town. 

Fred called half an hour ago and said he would stop by this afternoon. 
Alice is a neighbor who sometimes drops by in the middle of the day. 

1. Tr must he Fred . 

2. It couldn't be Roee 

3. I suppose it might be Alice 



190 CHAPTER 10 



Situation 2: Someone ran into the tree in front of our house. I wonder who did it. 
Facts: Stacy has a car, and she was out driving last night. 

Beth doesn't have a car and doesn't know how to drive. 

Ron has a car, but I'm pretty sure he was at home last night. 

Barb was out driving last night, and today her car has a big dent in the front. 

4. It couldn't have been 

5. It must not have been 

6. It could have been . 

7. It must have been 

Situation 3: There is a hole in the bread. It looks like something ate some of the bread. The 
bread was in a closed drawer until I opened it. 
Facts: A mouse likes to eat bread and often gets into drawers. In fact, we found one 
last week. 

A cat can't open a drawer. And most cats don't like bread. 

A rat can sometimes get into a drawer, but I've never seen one in our house. 

8. It could have been . 

9. It couldn't have been 

10. It must have been 

Situation 4: My friends Mark and Carol were in the next room with my neighbor. I heard 
someone playing a very difficult piece on the piano. 
Facts: Mark has no musical ability at all and doesn't play any instrument. 
Carol is an excellent piano player. 

I don't think my neighbor plays the piano, but I'm not sure. 

11. It couldn't have been 

12. I suppose it could have been 

13. It must have been 

Situation 5: The meeting starts in fifteen minutes. I wonder who is coming. 
Facts: I just talked to Bob on the phone. He's on his way. 
Stephanie rarely misses a meeting. 

Andre comes to the meetings sometimes, and sometimes he doesn't. 
Janet is out of town. 

14. won't be at the meeting. 

15. should be at the meeting. 

16. will be here. 

17. might come. 



Modals, Part 2 191 



□ Exercise 21. Listening. (Chapter 9 and Charts 10-1 -> 10-4) 

The spoken forms of some modals are often reduced. For example, may have gone may 
sound like "may-uv gone" or "may-uh gone." Listen for the spoken forms of modals and write 
Track 50 the non-reduced forms of the words you hear. 

Example: You will hear: You shouldn't have done that. 

You will write: You shouldn't have done that. 

WJtat's wrong? Your parents look upset. 

1. We them. 

2. We them. 

3. You them. 

4. You to find out. 

5. Maybe you out so late. 

6. You a good excuse for being late. 

7. You them what you planned to do. 

8. You your behavior would cause problems. 

□ Exercise 22. Let's talk: pairwork. (Charts 10 -l 10-4) 

Work with a partner. Choose one of the given situations and complete the dialogue. Then 
present your dialogue to the rest of the class. Try to include modals in your conversation. 

Situation 1 : Your teacher is always on time, but today it is fifteen minutes past the time class 
begins, and he/she still isn't here. You try to figure out why he/she isn't here yet and what you 
should do. 

A: Mr./Mrs./Ms.*/Miss/Dr./Professor ( ) should have been here fifteen minutes ago. 

I wonder where he/she is. Why do you suppose he/she hasn't arrived yet? 
B: I don't know .... 
Etc. 

Situation 2: The two of you are supposed to meet Anita and Pablo at the park for a picnic. 
You are almost ready to leave when the sky gets dark and the wind starts blowing very hard. 



A 
B 
A 
B 
Etc. 



Is the picnic basket all packed? 
Yes. Everything's ready. 
Wow! Do you feel that wind? 
Yeah, and look at the sky! 



*ln American English, a period is used with the abbreviations Mr. I Mrs. I Ms.; British English does not use a period with these 
abbreviations. 

American: Mr. Black/Mrs. Green/Ms. Brozvn 
British: Air Black/Mrs Green/Ms Brawn 



192 CHAPTER 10 



Situation 3: It is late at night. The roads are icy. Your eighteen-year-old son, who had gone to 
a party with some friends, was supposed to be home an hour ago. (The two of you are either a 
married couple or a parent and his/her friend.) You are getting worried. You are trying to figure 
out where he might be 3 what might or must have happened, and what you should do 3 if 
anything. 

A: It's already o'clock and isn't home yet. I'm getting worried. 

B: So am I. Where do you suppose he is? 
Etc. 

□ Exercise 23. Warm-up. (Chart 10 5) 

Do the verbs in blue express the idea that something is (or may be) in progress right now, at 
the time of speaking? Circle yes or no. 

IN PROGRESS? 

1 . Grandpa takes a nap every afternoon. yes no 

2. Grandpa may take a nap this afternoon. yes no 

3. Shhh. Grandpa is taking a nap. yes no 

4. Shhh. Grandpa may be taking a nap. yes no 



10-5 Progressive Forms of Modals 


(a) Let's just knock on the door lightly. Tom may be sleeping, 
{right now) 

(b) All of the lights in Ann's room are turned off. She must be 
sleeping, {right now) 


Progressive form, present time: 
modal + be + -ing 

Meaning: in progress right now 


(c) Sue wasn't at home last night when we went to visit her. She 
might have been studying at the library. 

(d) Joe wasn't at home last night. He has a lot of exams coming 
up soon, and he is also working on a term paper. He must 
have been studying at the library. 


Progressive form, past time: 
modal + have been + -ing 

Meaning: in progress at a time in the past 



□ Exercise 24. Looking at grammar. (Chart 10-5) 

Complete the sentences. Use the appropriate progressive forms of must, should, or 
may hnightl could and the verbs in parentheses. 

1. A: Look. Those people who are coming in the door are carrying wet umbrellas. 
B: It (rain) muet be mining . 

2. A: Why is Margaret in her room? 

B: I don't know. She (do) may I might I could be doing her homework. 

3. A: Do you smell smoke? 

B: I sure do. Something (burn) in the kitchen. 



Modals, Part 2 1 93 



4. A: 
B: 

5. A: 
B: 
A: 

6. A: 
B: 

7. A: 
B: 

8. A: 
B: 

9. A: 
B: 

10. A: 
B: 



The line's been busy for over an hour. Who do you suppose Julio is talking to? 

I don't know. He {talk) to his parents. Or he 

{talk) to his sister in Chicago. 

What's all that noise upstairs? It sounds like a herd of elephants. 

The children (play) some kind of game. 

That's what it sounds like to me too. I'll go see. 

I need to call Howard. Do you know which hotel he's staying at in Boston? 

Well, he (stay) at the Hilton, but I'm not sure. 

He (stay) at the Holiday Inn. 



What are you doing? 

I'm writing a letter to a friend, but I (study) 

test tomorrow. 

Did you know that Majid just quit school and is hitchhiking to Alaska? 
What? You (joke) ? 



. . I have a 



Did Joe mean what he said about Majid yesterday? 

I don't know. He (joke) 

who knows? 

Did Joe really mean what he said yesterday? 

No, I don't think so. I think he (joke) 



when he said that, but 



□ Exercise 25. Let's talk. (Chart 10 -5) 

Discuss what the students on the bus should and should not be doing. 

Example: The student in the middle of the bus shouldn't be climbing out of the window to the top 
of the bus. 




194 CHAPTER 10 



u Exercise 26. Looking at grammar. (Charts 9-8 and to t -> 10-5) 

Complete each sentence with the appropriate form of the words in parentheses. Add not 
if necessary. 

1 . Alex has a test tomorrow that he needs to study for. He (should + zvatch) 

ehouldn't be watch'ma TV right now. 

2. There's Mr. Chang. He's standing at the bus stop. He (must + zvait) 
for the two o'clock bus. 

3. Kathy lost her way while driving to River City. She (slwuld + leave) 
her road map at home. 

4. My leather jacket isn't in my closet. I think my roommate (might + borrow) 
it. He often borrows my clothes without asking me. 

5. When I walked into the room, the TV was on, but the room was empty. Dad 

(must + watch) TV a short while before I came 

into the room. He (must + forget) to turn it off 

before he left the room. 

6. A: Why wasn't Mai at the meeting last night? 

B: She (may + attend) the lecture at Shaw Hall. I know she 

really wanted to hear the speaker. 

7. A: Where's that cold air coming from? 

B: Someone (must + leave) the door open. 

8. A: Where's Jessica? I haven't seen her for weeks. 

B: I'm not sure. She (might + travel) in Europe. 

I think I heard her mention something about spending a few weeks in Europe this 
spring. 

9. A: When I arrived, Tarek looked surprised. 

B: He (must + expect) you. 

10. A: Why didn't Roberto answer the teacher when she asked him a question? 

B: He was too busy staring out the window. He (must + daydream) 

. He (should + pay) 



attention. He (should + stare) out the 

window during class. 



Modals, Part 2 195 



□ Exercise 27. Let's talk or write. (Charts 10-1 > io-5) 

Discuss and/or write about the people and activities in the picture. Include any factual 
information you can get from the picture and make guesses about the people: their ages, 
occupations, activities, etc. 




□ Exercise 28. Let's talk. (Charts 10-1 > 10-5) 

A man and woman are sitting at a table having a conversation. In pairs or small groups, make 
guesses about the two people and what's happening. What possibilities can you think of? 
Answer the questions and add your own to the discussion. 

Man: I don't think you should do this alone. 

Woman: But you don't understand. I have to. 

Man: Let me go with you. (taking out Jiis wallet) Just give me a minute to pay the bill. 

Woman: No, I'll be fine. 

Man: You must let me help. 

Woman: There's nothing you can do. {standing) This is something I need to do for myself. 

Man: Okay. If that's the way you want it. 

Woman: {leaving) I'll call you. 

1 . Where are the man and woman? 

2. Who are they? What is their relationship? 

3. Where's the woman going? 

4. Why does she want to go alone? 

5 . Why does the man want to go with her? 



196 CHAPTER 10 



Exercise 29. Looking at grammar. (Charts to t ► io-5) 

Choose the best completion for each sentence. 

1 . — Is Jeff a good student? 

— He I don't know him well, but I heard he got a scholarship for next year. 

(a?) must be b. could be c. is 

2. — Do you know where Eva is? 

— She at Barbara's house. She said something about wanting to visit after work 

today, but I'm really not sure. 

a. must be b. could be c. is 

3. — I stayed up all night finishing this report for the boss. 
— You really tired. 

— I do. 

a. must feel b. might feel c. feel 

4. — Where's the leftover chicken from dinner last night? 

— I just saw it when I got some ice cubes. It in the freezer. 

a. must be b. might be c. is 

5. — It's supposed to rain tomorrow. 

— I know, but the forecast wrong. Weather forecasts are far from 100 percent 

accurate. 

a. must be b. could be c. is 

6. — I heard that Junko has received a scholarship and will be able to attend the university in 

the fall. 

— Wonderful! That's good news. She very happy to have the matter finally settled. 

a. must be b. may be c. is 

7. — Excuse me. Could you tell me which bus I should take to get to City Hall? 

— Hmmm. Bus number 63 there. But you'd better ask the driver. 

a. must go b. might go c. goes 

8. — Which bus should I take to get to the main post office? 

— Bus number 39. It right to the post office. 

a. must go b. could go c. goes 

9. — Do you suppose Mrs. Chu is sick? 

— She I can't think of anything else that would have kept her from coming to this 

meeting. 

a. must be b. may be c. is 

10. — Is that Adam's brother standing with him in the cafeteria line? 

— It , I suppose. He does look a little like Adam. 

a. must be b. could be c. is 



Modals, Part 2 197 



11. — Let's be really quiet when we go into the baby's room. The baby , and we don't 

want to wake her up. 

— Okay. 

a. might sleep b. might be sleeping c. might have been sleeping 

12. — I wonder why the radio is on in the den. No one's in there. 

— Grandma to turn it off. She was in the den earlier and was probably listening 

to it. 

a. must forget b. must have forgotten c. must be forgetting 



Exercise 30. Warm-up. (Chart io-6) 

Which sentence expresses 

a. a physical ability? 

b. an acquired skill? 

c. possibility? 

d. permission? 

1 . Isabel can play chess very well. 

2. Yes, Ben, you can go outside to play, but be 

back before dinner. 

3. Dogs can hear higher-pitched sounds than 

humans can. 

4. I'm free for lunch tomorrow. I can meet you at the 

cafe around noon if you'd like. 




10-6 Ability: Can and Could 



(a) Tom is strong. He can lift that heavy box. 

(b) I can see Central Park from my apartment. 



Can is used to express physical ability, as in (a). 

Can is frequently used with verbs of the five senses: see, 
hear, feel, smell, taste, as in (b). 



(c) Maria can play the piano. She's been taking lessons 
for many years. 


Can is used to express an acquired skill. 
In (c): can play = knows how to play. 


(d) You can buy a hammer at the hardware store. 


Can is used to express possibility. 

In (d): you can buy = it is possible for one to buy. 


compare: 

(e) I'm not quite ready to go, but you can leave if you're 
in a hurry. I'll meet you later. 

(f) When you finish the test, you may leave. 


Can is used to give permission in informal situations, as 
in (e). In formal situations, may rather than can is 
usually used to give permission, as in (f). 


(g) Dogs can bark, but they cannot/can't talk. 


Negative form: cannot or can't 


(h) Tom could lift the box, but 1 couldn't. 


The past form of can meaning "ability" is could, as in (h). 
Negative form: could not or couldn't 



198 CHAPTER 10 



□ Exercise 31. Listening. (Chart 10-6) 

In spoken English, can is typically unstressed and pronounced /kan/. Can't is unstressed and 
("@ is usually pronounced /kamt/ although the "t" is often not heard. Listen to the sentences and 
Twk'si write the words you hear.* 



1. 


The secretary 


help you. 


2. 


My mother 


speak English. 


3. 


My friend 


meet you at the airport. 


4. 


Mr. Smith 


answer your question. 


5. 


We 


come to the meeting. 


6. 




you come?** 


7. 


You 


take that course. 


8. 


T 


cook. 


9. 


I 


drive a stick-shift car. 


10. 


Our son 


count to ten. 



□ Exercise 32. Let's talk. (Charts 10-4 and 10-6) 

Make sentences, answer questions, and/or discuss meanings as suggested in each item. Work in 
pairs, in small groups, or as a class. 

1 . Name a physical ability that you have and a physical ability you don't have. Name an 
acquired skill that you have and an acquired skill you don't have. 

2. There's no class tomorrow. What can you do tomorrow? What may/might you do 
tomorrow? What are you going to do tomorrow? 

3. What are the possible ways you can get to school? What are the possible ways you may get 
to school tomorrow? 

4. What is the difference in the use of can and may in the following? 

a. Sure! You can borrow five dollars from me. You can pay me back later. 

b. You may pay the bill either in person or by mail. 

5. Compare the following using can and can't: people and animals; adults and children; 
women and men. 

6. Plan your next vacation and describe what you may do on your vacation; what you can do 
on your vacation; and what you will do on your vacation. 

7. What is something you could do as a child that you can't do now? 



*Sometimes even native speakers have difficulty in distinguishing between can and can't. Also, British and American 
pronunciations of can't are different. British: can't = /kant/ (cawhnt). American: can 't = /kasnt/ (rhymes with rant). 
**Note: "t" + "you" = "chu" (can't you = /kasncu/). 



Modals, Part 2 199 



Exercise 33. Let's listen and talk. (Charts 10-1 > 10 6) 

Listen to the short talk on human behavior with your book closed. Then open your book and 
answer the questions. 

1 . Who did the researcher talk to first? 

2. Who did the researcher talk to later? 

3. What three questions did the researcher ask each group? 

4. How many people in the first group answered "yes" to the questions about their ability to 
dance, sing, and draw? 

5. What differences were there in the answers of the first group and the second group? 

6. What do you think explains these differences? 

Exercise 34. Warm-up. (Chart 10-7) 

Are the meanings of the two sentences the same or different? 

1. When I was a child, I used to play in the street with the other children. 

2. When I was a child, I would play in the street with the other children. 





(a) When 1 was a child, my father would read me a 
story at night before bedtime. 

(b) When 1 was a child, my father used to read me 
a story at night before bedtime. 


Would can be used to express an action that was 
repeated regularly in the past. When would is used to 
express this idea, it has the same meaning as used to 
(habitual past). Sentences (a) and (b) have the same 
meaning. 


(c) 1 used to live in California. 
He used to be a Boy Scout. 
They used to have a Ford. 


Used to expresses a situation that existed in the past, as 
in (c). In this case, would may not be used as an 
alternative. Would is used only for regularly repeated 
actions in the past. 



□ Exercise 35. Looking at grammar. (Chart 10-7) 

Use would and the words in parentheses to express a repeated action in the past. Use used to 
to express a past situation. 

1 . I (be) used to be very shy. Whenever a stranger came to our house, I (hide) 

would hide in a closet. 

2. I remember my Aunt Susan very well. Every time she came to our house, she (give) 
me a big kiss and pinch my cheek. 

3. Illiteracy is still a problem in my country, but it (be) 

much worse. 

4. I (be) afraid of flying. My heart (start) 

pounding every time I stepped on a plane. But now I'm used to flying and enjoy it. 



200 CHAPTER 10 



5. When I was a child, I {take) 

a flashlight to bed with me so that I could read comic 
books without my parents knowing about it. 

6. My sister {live) in Montana, 

and when I visited her, we (go) 

on weeklong backpacking trips in the mountains. Every morning, we {zuake) 

up to the sound of singing birds. During the day, we {hike) 

through woods and along mountain streams. Often we {see) 

deer. Once we saw a bear, but it went off in the opposite 

direction. 

7. I {be) an anthropology major. Once, I was a member of an 

archeological expedition. Every morning, we {get) up before 

dawn. After breakfast, we {spend) our entire day in the field. 

Sometimes one of us {find) a particularly interesting item, 

perhaps an arrowhead or a piece of pottery. When that happened, other members of the 
group {gather) around to see what had been unearthed. 




Exercise 36. Warm-up. (Chart 10-8) 

Answer the questions. Use would rather and complete sentences. 

1 . You are at school right now. Where would you rather be? 

2. What would you rather do than go to class? 

3. What did you do last night? What would you rather have done? 

4. What are you doing right now? What would you rather be doing? 



10-8 Expressing Preference: Would Rather 



(a) 1 would rather go to a movie tonight than study 
grammar. 

(b) 1 'd rather study history than (study) biology. 


Would rather expresses preference. 

In (a): Notice that the simple form of a verb follows both 
would rather and than. 

In (b): If the verb is the same, it usually is not repeated 
after than. 


— How much do you weigh? 
(c) 1 'd rather not tell you. 


Contraction: / would - I'd 
Negative form: would rather + not 


(d) The movie was okay, but 1 would rather have gone 
to the concert last night. 


The past form: would rather have + past participle. 
Usual pronunciation: "I'd rather-av" 


(e) 1 'd rather be lying on a beach in India than (be) 
sitting in class right now. 


Progressive form: would rather + be + -ing 



Modals, Part 2 201 



□ Exercise 37. Looking at grammar. (Chart 10-8) 

Complete the sentences with would rather and your own words. 

1 . A: Do you want to go to the concert tonight? 

B: Not really. I 

2. A: Did you go to the concert last night? 

B: Yes, but I 

3. A: What are you doing right now? 

B: I'm studying grammar, but I 

4. A: I than 

B: Not me. I than 

□ Exercise 38. Let's talk: interview. (Chart 10-8) 

Interview your classmates. Begin each question with Would you rather. 

Would you rather . . . 

1 . go to Paris,, Cairo,, or Bogota? Why? 

2. see a movie,, a play 3 or an opera? Why? 

3. use a bike,, a motorcycle,, or a car for transportation? Why? 

4. prepare your own meals, have someone at home prepare them,, or eat out? Why? 

5. be playing soccer, shopping for clothes,, or feeding birds in the park today? Why? 

6. have been born in an earlier century? Why? 

7. be swimming at a beach or pool right now or doing this interview? Why? 

□ Exercise 39. Warm-up. (Chart 10-9) 

Check (/) each correct sentence. 

1 . I will can stay late at the office today. 4. I may be able to stay late today. 

2. I will be able stay late today. 5. I will have to stay late today. 

3. I may have to stay late today. 6. I'm going to have to stay late today. 



10-9 Combining Modals with Phrasal Modals 


(a) incorrect: Janet will -can- help you tomorrow. 


A modal cannot be immediately followed by another modal. 

In (a): The modal will cannot be followed by can, which is 
another modal. 


(b) Janet will be able to help you tomorrow. 

(c) You will have to pick her up at her home. 


A modal can, however, be followed by the phrasal modals 
be able to and have to. 

In (b): The modal w/7/is correctly followed by the phrasal 
modal be able to. 


(d) Tom isn't going to be able to help you tomorrow. 


It is also sometimes possible for one phrasal modal to 
follow another phrasal modal. 

In (d): be going to is followed by be able to. This form is 
more common in negatives and questions. 



202 CHAPTER 10 



j Exercise 40. Looking at grammar. (Chart 10-9) 

Complete the sentences with the words in italics. 

1 . be able to \ you \ get \ will 

What time here? 

2. have to \ take \ be going to 

You algebra again next year if you 

don't pass the course this year. 

3. be able to \ attend \ be going to \ not 

I my friend 

Jess's wedding next month due to a previously scheduled business trip. 



□ Exercise 41. Looking at grammar. (Chart 10-9) 

Complete the sentences with the verb phrases in the list. In some cases, more than one 
completion may be possible. Discuss the differences in meaning. 

have to be able to must not have been able to 

should not have to would rather not have to 

/not be going to be able to 



1 . My schedule is completely full for the next few weeks. I 'm not going to be able to 
meet with you until the end of the month. 

2. You need to see a doctor you feel comfortable talking to. It's important that she knows 

how you feel. You tell her exactly 

how you're feeling. 

3. Jill just called from work. She sounded upset, but she won't tell me what's wrong. She 
was planning to ask her supervisor for a raise today. I bet that's the problem. She 
get the raise. 

4. Let's get to the movie a little late. I don't mind if we miss the previews. It's freezing 

outside, and I stand in a long line 

outdoors until the movie begins. 

5. Children, this room is a mess! I am not going to tell you again to clean it up. Really, I 
tell you this more than once! 



Modals, Part 2 203 



10-10 Summary Chart of Modals and Similar Expression; 



Auxiliary 


Uses 


Present" / Future 


Past 


may 


/ "1 \ r-\ /-> 1 i t mm loot 
\ I ) pUlllc IcLjUcbl 

(only with "1" or "we") 


IVIay 1 UUrruw yUUI [Jell: 




/Q\ formal nprmiccion 
\c.) IUI 1 1 Idl JJfcJi II HoolUII 


Voi i m^?i/ /p^)i/p thp room 

iUU 1 1 lay IcavC 11 IC 1 UUI 1 1. 




(3) 50% or less certainty 


— Where's John? 

Up mai/ of fhp lihrarv/ 
nc may t/c ai u ic nuidiy. 


He may have been at the 

lihra r\/ 
IIUI dl y. 


m in ht 

1 1 iiyi it 


("\\ ^n°/* or Iqco r»prtaint\/ 
\ I j \j\J o \J\ icoo otn idii I iy 


M/Zioro'c Inhn*? 

He m/g/7f be at the library. 


1— lo mirtht /lai/p /ippn at thp 
nc iiiiyni /idvt? L/eefi dl u le 

library. 


(0\ nolitp rpni ipct (mrc*\ 
\c. j uvjii le loLjUeoi yiaitzj 


I\/lirihf 1 Hnrtnii/ \/oi ir npn? 

IVIiyi Ik \ ml// / fir yUUI Ug||; 




should 


(1) advisability 


1 should study tonight. 


1 should have studied last 
ninht hut 1 riirin't 


(2) 90% certainty 
( (*xii(*rffifinri\ 


She should do well on the test 
tomorrow. 


She should have done well on 
thp tp^t 


ought to 


(1) advisability 


1 ought to study tonight. 


1 ought to have studied last 

ninht hi it 1 HiHn't 
iiiyiii, uui i uiui i i. 


(2) 90% certainty 

/ ovnprf^j tinn!\ 
ytzAfJtzuiaiiui if 


She ought to do well on 

thp tpct tP<morro\A/ 

11 It? ICOl IUI 1 IVJI 1 UW. 


She ought to have done well 

on thp tpct 
Ul 1 ll le leol. 


had better 


(1) advisability with 

threat of haH rpci lit 
u n edi ui uau icouu 


You had better be on time, 

p<r \a/p will |pa\/P \A/ithoi it \/oi i 
ui wc win leave will iuu i yuu. 


(past form uncommon) 


be supposed to 


(1) expectation 


Class is supposed to begin 

di i u.uu. 




i infi ilfillpH PYnPPtation 

j UlllUllllleU eA[JCL»ldllUI 1 




fNacc i/i/flc e / m r\r\G&ri tr\ Honfn 
uidoo vvdo oup^uoeu ttj uvzyiii 

at 10:00, but it began at 10:15. 


must 


("\\ ctrono npppccitx/ 
\ i J on ui iy i ic^cooi iy 


1 mitQt ctc\ \c\ place toHa\/ 
i ///l/oi yu iu uiaoo luudy. 


(\ HnH tn /in to place \/PctprHa\/ ^ 
^i / lau itj y*J iu uidoo yeoieiudy.j 


(2) prohibition 

/ rtartPi ti\/C*\ 

\i ivzyaiivcj 


You must not open that door. 




CW pprtainh/ 
yoj &o /o l»ci idii uy 


Mar\/ icn't in place Qhp 
ividi y ioi i i ii i oidoo. oi i tz 

musf be sick. 


Man/ miict Hzi\f& /lapn CIPl^ 
ividi y ///l/o( Have ut?t?ti oiurx 

yesterday. 


1 lave lU 


1 A \ npppccitx/ 
^ i j i leocooiiy 


1 hfli/o /o /"in to place toHa\/ 
i //aire ii/ l/l/ iu uiaoo luudy. 


1 HziH tn rtn to place \/PctprHa\/ 
i / lau (u L/u iu uiaoo yeoieiudy. 


/o\ lapk of npppccitx/ 
^ j idV-»i\ \J\ i igocooi iy 

(negaf/Ve) 


1 Hnn't /i^?i/p /?fo to place toHa\/ 
i uu// < iiavc ii/ y L/ iu uiaoo lUUdy. 


1 HiHn r t Hzi\f& tn an to place 
1 UIUII i nave (1/ yU IU Uldoo 

yesterday. 


have got to 


(1) necessity 


1 /7ave gof fo go to class today. 


(1 had to go to class yesterday.) 


will 


f"H 100°/* pprtaintv 
^ i ^ i uu o l»ci idii uy 


Hp i/i/;7/ Zip hprp at R*nn 
I I c win uc i ioio al u.uu. 




^ | Willi 1 lyi leoo 


1 lie pi lUtlc o / Illy II iy. 

1 7/ gef it. 




nolitp rpni ipct 

\Oj pUlllC 1 eljUeol 


\Affll \/oi I nlpaop hpln mp*? 
win yuu picaoc 1 leip Mie; 




be going to 


(1) 100% certainty 

/ r) rn W /'/"» # //-) rj\ 


He is going to be here at 6:00. 




(2) definite plan 
(intention) 


1 'm going to paint my bedroom. 




(3) unfulfilled intention 




1 was going to paint my room, 
but 1 didn't have time. 



204 CHAPTER 10 







Auxiliary 




Pvp gp ntVFiit"iit*p 


Past 


can 


(1 ) ability/possibility 


1 can run fast. 


1 could run fast when 1 was a 
child, but now 1 can't. 


(2) informal permission 


You can use my car tomorrow. 




CW informal nolitp rpmiPQt 

lul 1 1 1 IWI 1 1 ICll L/VJII ICt 1 wUUCOl 


Clan 1 hnrrnw voi ir npn? 

W CI 1 1 1 UKJI 1 L/rtf yUUI L7CI 1 ■ 




(4) impossibility 

( nc*nati\/& nnl\/\ 
i / /wWctt/ VC7 \ji tiy \ 


That can 7 Jbetrue! 


That can't have been true! 


could 


(1) past ability 




1 could run fast when 1 was a 
child. 


(2) polite request 


Could 1 borrow your pen? 

Clm ilH \ic\\\ fjp/n mp'? 
Vyuu/u yuu ( it / * 1 1 ic • 




(3) suggestion 

( affirmath/t* nnl\A 

\a 1 III 1 1 latlVtZ Lfliiyj 


— / need he/p /n maf/7. 

Voi i ilH talk to vol ir tpaohpr 

IVJU OL/u/U ICf/A LVJ yVJUl lCu\/IICI. 


You could have talked to your 

tpaphpr 


(4) 50% or less certainty 


— here's Jo/in? 

Hp mnlci Zip at hnmp 


He could have been at home. 


(5) impossibility 

f npnativp r>nlv\ 


That couldn't be true! 


That couldn't have been true! 


be able to 


(1) ability 


1 am aJb/e to help you. 

1 LVl// fip .p/l/p f/i /la/n \/oi l 

1 Will L/C CtUlKJ ILf lltZILJ yVJU. 


1 was able to help him. 


would 


(1) polite request 


Woiv/d you please help me? 

Wrtulti \/oi i minti if 1 Ipft park/ 1 ? 
rruuiu yuu 1 1 in iu ii i icii ceil ly . 




(2) preference 


1 would rather go to the park 
than sfay home. 


1 would rather have gone to the 
park. 


(3) repeated action in 
the past 




When 1 was a child, 1 would 
visit my grandparents every 

VVCCrxCl HJ . 


(4) polite for "want" 

l Wl 11 1 lll\C J 


1 would like an apple, please. 




(5) unfulfilled wish 




I would have liked a cookie, but 

thprp wptp nonp in thp hoiiQP 

II VVCIC 1 IVJI IC III LlIC 1 IUUOC. 


used to 


(1) repeated action in 

thp nact 
u [jctoi. 




1 used to visit my grandparents 

PV/PfV \A/PPl^PnH 

uvui y wccrxciiu. 


(2) past situation that 

no lonnpr pyiqIq 

1 \\J \\J\ IUC7I CAIOlO 




1 used to live in Spain. Now 1 

Ii\/p in Korpa 

IIVC III IvUICCl. 


shall 


(1) polite question to 
make a suggestion 


S/ia// 1 open the window? 




(2) future with / or we 
as subject 


1 shall arrive at nine, 
("will" = more common) 





Note: The use of modals in reported speech is discussed in Chart 12-7, p. 261. The use of modals in conditional sentences is 
discussed in Chapter 20. 



Modals, Part 2 205 



□ Exercise 42. Let's talk. (Chapters 9 and 10) 

Discuss the differences in meaning, if any, in each group of sentences. Describe situations in 
which these sentences might be used. Work in pairs, in small groups, or as a class. 

1. a. May I use your phone? 

b. Could I use your phone? 

c. Can I use your phone? 



2. a. You should take an English course. 

b. You ought to take an English course. 

c. You're supposed to take an English course. 

d. You must take an English course. 



3. a. You should see a doctor about that cut on your arm. 

b. You had better see a doctor about that cut on your arm. 

c. You have to see a doctor about that cut on your arm. 



4. a. You must not use that door, 
b. You don't have to use that door. 



5. a. I will be at your house by six o'clock. 

b. I should be at your house by six o'clock. 

6. — There is a knock at the door. Wlw do you suppose it is? 

a. It might be Wendy. 

b. It may be Wendy. 

c. It could be Wendy 

d. It must be Wendy. 



7. — There's a knock at the door. I think it's Ibrahim. 

a. It may not be Ibrahim. 

b. It couldn't be Ibrahim. 

c. It can't be Ibrahim. 

8. a. The family in the picture must be 

at a restaurant, 
b. The family in the picture are at a restaurant. 

9. — Where's Jeff? 

a. He might have gone home. 

b. He must have gone home. 

c. He had to go home. 

10. a. Each student should have health insurance, 
b. Each student must have health insurance. 




11. a. If you're having a problem, you could talk to Mrs. Ang. 

b. If you're having a problem, you should talk to Mrs. Ang. 

c. If you're having a problem, you should have told Mrs. Ang. 

d. If you're having a problem, you could have told Mrs. Ang. 



206 CHAPTER 10 



Exercise 43. Looking at grammar. (Chapters 9 and 10) 

Use a modal or phrasal modal with each verb in parentheses. More than one auxiliary may be 
possible. Use the one that seems most appropriate to you and explain why. 

1. It looks like rain. We (shut) should / had better / ought to shut 

the windows. 

2. Anya, (you, hand) me that dish? Thanks. 

3. Spring break starts on the thirteenth. We (go, not) to 

classes again until the twenty-second. 

4. The baby is only a year old, but she (say, already) a few 

words. 

5. In the United States, elementary education is compulsory. All children (attend) 
six years of elementary school. 

6. There was a long line in front of the theater. We (zvait) 

almost an hour to buy our tickets. 

7. A: I'd like to go to a warm, sunny place next winter. Any suggestions? 

B: You (go) to Hawaii or Mexico. Or how about Indonesia? 

8. A: Mrs. Wilson got a traffic ticket. She didn't stop at a stop sign. 

B: That's surprising. Usually she's a very cautious driver and obeys all the traffic laws. 
She (see, not) the sign. 

9. A: This is Steve's laptop, isn't it? 

B: It (be, not) his. He doesn't have a laptop computer, at least 

not that I know of. It (belong) to Jana or to Mindy. They 

sometimes bring their laptops to class. 

10. In my country, a girl and boy (go, not) out on a date unless they 

are accompanied by a chaperone. 

1 1 . Jimmy was serious when he said he wanted to be a cowboy when he grew up. We 
(laugh, not) at him. We hurt his feelings. 

12. A: This is a great open-air market. Look at all this wonderful fresh fish! What kind 

of fish is this? 

B: I'm not sure. It (be) salmon. Let's ask. 



Modals, Part 2 207 



Exercise 44. Listening. (Chapters 9 and 10) 

Listen to each situation and choose the statement (a. or b.) you would most likely say. In some 
cases, both answers may be possible. 

Example: You will hear: It's almost 5:00. Peter's mom will be home soon. She told him to 

clean his room today, but it's still a mess. She's going to be really 
mad. 

You will choose: a^ He might clean it up right away. 

(b?) He'd better clean it up right away. 

1. a. He should have come, 
b. He must have come. 

2. a. I am supposed to go to the mall and shop, 
b. I would rather lie in the sun and read a novel. 

3. a. He may have gotten caught in traffic, 
b. He ought to have called by now. 

4. a. He's not going to be able to go to work for a few days, 
b. He might not have to go to work today. 

5. a. She could have been daydreaming, 
b. She must have been daydreaming. 

□ Exercise 45. Check your knowledge. (Chapters 9 and 10) 

Correct the errors. 

1 . If you have a car, you can traveled around the United States. 

2. During class the students must to sit quietly. 

3. When you send for the brochure, you should included a self-addressed, stamped envelope. 

4. A film director must has control over every aspect of a movie. 

5. When I was a child, I can climb to the roof of my house and saw all the other houses and 
streets. 

6. We need to reschedule. I won't can see you at the time we scheduled for tomorrow. 

7. I used to break my leg in a soccer game three months ago. 

8. May you please help me with this? 

9. Many students would rather to study on their own than going to classes. 

10. We supposed to bring our books to class every day. 

1 1 . You can having a very good time as a tourist in my country. My country has many 
different climates, so you have better plan ahead before you came. 



12. When you visit a big city in my country, you must to be paying attention to your wallet 
when you are in a crowded place because a thief maybe try to steal it. 



□ Exercise 46. Let's talk: pairwork. (Chapters 9 and 10) 

Work with a partner. Complete the dialogues with your own words. 
Example: 

Speaker A: Why don't we . . . go to Luigi's Restaurant for lunch? 

Speaker B: Thanks, but I can't. I have to . . . stay and finish this report during lunch time. 
Speaker A: That's too bad. 

Speaker B: I should have . . . come early this morning to finish it, but I couldn't. I had to . . . drop 
my daughter off at school and meet with her teacher. 



1. A: I ... . 

B: You shouldn't have done that! 

A: I know, but .... 

B: Well, why don't . . . ? 



A: I heard that .... 
B: That can't be true! She couldn't 
A: Oh? Why not? Why do you say that? 
B: Because .... 



A: Did you hear the news? We don't 

have to ... . 
B: Why not? 
A: .... 

A: Whose . . . ? 

B: I don't know. It ... 3 or it ... . 
A: Can . . . ? 
B: I'll try. 

A: Did ... ? 

B: I would have liked to, but I . . . . 



A: Did you have to ... ? 
B: Yes. 

A: Are you going to have to do the same 
tonight? 

B: I think so. So I'm probably not going 
to be able to ... . 
But I might be able to ... . 



A: I don't want .... 
B: Well, you'd better 
A: I know, but .... 



or 



□ Exercise 47. Let's talk. (Chapters 9 and 10) 

In small groups, debate one, some, or all of the given statements. At the end of the discussion 
time, choose one member of your group to summarize for the rest of the class the main ideas 
expressed during your discussion. 

Do you agree with these statements? Why or why not? 

1 . Violence on television influences people to act violently. 

2. Cigarette smoking should be banned from all public places. 

3. Books, films, and news should be censored by government agencies. 

4. People of different religions should not marry. 

5. People shouldn't marry until they are at least 25 years old. 

6. All nuclear weapons in the possession of any nation should be destroyed. 

7. All people of the world should speak the same language. 



Modals, Part 2 209 



□ 



Exercise 48. Let's write or talk. (Chapters 9 and 10) 

Write a short paragraph on one or more of the given topics or discuss some of them in small 
groups or as a class. 



1 . Write about when, where, and why you should (or should not) have done something in 
your life. 

2. Write about a time in your life when you did something you did not want to do. Why did 
you do it? What could you have done differently? What should you have done? What 
would you rather have done? 

3. Look at your future. What will, might, or should it be like? Write about what you should, 
must, or can do now in order to make your life what you want it to be. 

4. Write about one embarrassing incident in your life. What could, should, or might you have 
done to avoid it? 

5. Look at the world situation and the relationships between nations. What could, should (or 
should not), must (or must not) be done to promote peace? 

6. Choose one of the environmental problems we are facing today. What could, should, may, 
must, or might be done to solve this problem? 



210 CHAPTER 10 



Chapter 11 

The Passive 



W 



□ Exercise 1. Warm-up. (Chart ill) 

Match the sentences to the pictures. Which sentence is grammatically incorrect? 



1. The girl hit the ball. 

2. The ball was hit by the girl. 

3. The girl was hit by the ball. 

4. The ball hit the girl. 

5. The girl was hitting the ball. 

6. The girl was hit the ball. 




Picture A Picture B 



11-1 Active vs. Passive 




subject verb object 
Active: (a) 'Mary' 'helped' 'the boy.' 

subject verb 
Passive: (b) 'The boy' 'was helped' by Mary. 


In the passive, the object of an active verb becomes the 
subject of the passive verb: the boy in (a) becomes the 
subject of the passive verb in (b). 

Notice that the subject of an active verb follows by in a 
passive sentence. The noun that follows by \s called the 
"agent." In (b): Mary is the agent. 

Sentences (a) and (b) have the same meaning. 


Passive: be + past participle 

(c) He is helped by her. 
He was helped by her. 
He will be helped by her. 


Form of the passive: be + past participle 


Active: (d) An accident happened. 
Passive: (e) (none) 


Only transitive verbs (verbs that can be followed by an 
object) are used in the passive. It is not possible to use 
intransitive verbs (such as happen, sleep, come, seem, die) 
in the passive. (See Appendix Chart A-1.) 



211 



□ Exercise 2. Looking at grammar. (Chart i i-i) 

Decide if the sentences are active (A) or passive (P). 



1. A Kate prepared the salad. 

2. P The rice was prepared by Jamal. 

3. Shirley was preparing the dessert. 

4. Andy has prepared the tea. 

5. New species of insects are discovered by scientists every year. 

6. Our papers will be collected by the teacher next week. 

7. Dinosaurs existed millions of years ago. 

8. Anna's car was stopped by the police. 

9. Mr. Brown painted our house. 

10. Hiroki came to our apartment for dinner last night. 



□ Exercise 3. Warm-up. (Chart 1 1 2) 

Complete the sentences. Change the verbs in italics from active to passive. 



1. 


Tom opens the door. 


-> The door is opened 


by Tom . 


2. 


Tom is opening the door. 


The door 


by Tom . 


3. 


Tom has opened the door. 


The door 


by Tom. 


4. 


Tom opened the door. 


The door 


by Tom. 


5. 


Tom zvas opening the door. 


The door 


by Tom . 


6. 


Tom had opened the door. 


The door 


by Tom. 


7. 


Tom will open the door. 


The door 


by Tom. 


8. 


Tom is going to open the door. 


The door 


by Tom. 


9. 


Tom zvill have opened the door. 


The door 


by Tom. 


10. 


Did Tom open the door? 


the door 


by Tom? 


11. 


Will Tom open the door? 


the door 


by Tom? 


12. 


HasTom opened the door? 


the door 


by Tom? 



212 CHAPTER 1 1 





- 2 Tense Forms of the Passive 












Active 


Passive 


(a) 


simple present 


Mary 


helps 


the boy. 


The boy 


Is 


helped 


by Mary. 


(b) 

V"'/ 


present progressive 


Mary 


is helping 


the boy. 


The boy 


is being 


helped 


by Mary. 


(c) 


present perfect* 


Mary 


has helped 


the boy. 


The boy 


has been 


helped 


by Mary. 


(d) 


simple past 


Mary 


helped 


the boy. 


The boy 


was 


helped 


by Mary. 


(e) 


past progressive 


Mary 


was helping 


the boy. 


The boy 


was being 


helped 


by Mary 


(0 


past perfect* 


Mary 


had helped 


the boy. 


The boy 


had been 


helped 


by Mary. 


(g) 


simple future 


Mary 


will help 


the boy. 


The boy 


will be 


helped 


by Mary. 


(h) 


be going to 


Mary 


is going to help 


the boy. 


The boy 


is going to be 


helped 


by Mary. 


(i) 


future perfect* 


Mary 


will have helped 


the boy. 


The boy 


will have been 


helped 


by Mary. 



( j) Was the boy helped by Mary? 

(k) Has the boy been helped by Mary? 



In the question form of passive verbs, an auxiliary verb precedes 
the subject. 



*The progressive forms of the present perfect, past perfect, and future perfect are rarely used in the passive. 



□ Exercise 4. Looking at grammar. (Charts l l-l and 1 1-2) 

Part I. Change the active to passive. 

1. Shakespeare zurote that play. > That play zuas written by Shakespeare. 

2. Waitresses and waiters serve customers. 

3. The teacher is going to explain the lesson. 

4. Two horses were pulling the farmer's wagon. 

5. Toshi zuill invi teYoko to the party. 

6. Alex is preparing that report. 

7. Kathy had returned the book to the library. 

8. Miriam has designed several public buildings. 

9. His tricks zuon'tfool me. 

10. I didn't zvrite that note. Did Jim zvrite it? 

11. Does Prof. Shapiro teach that course? No, he doesn't teach it. 

12. Mrs. Andrews hasn't signed those papers yet. Has Mr. Andrews signed them yet? 

Part II. Change the passive to active. 

13. The speech zuas given by Anwar. > Anzuar gave the speech. 

14. Our assignments are going to be corrected by the teaching assistant. 

15. Was the electric light bulb invented by Thomas Edison? 

16. The speed limit on Highway 5 isn't obeyed by most drivers. 

17. Have you been informed of the rent increase by the building manager? 




□ Exercise 5. Looking at grammar. (Charts l l-l and 1 1-2) 

Change the active verbs to passive if possible. Some verbs are intransitive and cannot 
be changed. 

1 . A strange thing happened yesterday, (no change) 

2. Jackie scored the winning goal. > The zuinning goal zuas scored by Jackie. 

3. I agree with Dr. Ikeda's theory. 

4. Dr. Ikeda developed that theory 

5. A hurricane destroyed the small fishing village. 



The Passive 213 



6. A large vase stands in the corner of our front hallway. 

7. The children seemed happy when they went to the zoo. 

8. After class, one of the students always erases the board. 

9. The solution to my problem appeared to me in a dream. 

10. Our plan succeeded at last. 

1 1 . Barbara traveled to Uganda last year. 

12. A special committee is going to settle the dispute. 

13. Did the police catch the thief? 

14. This room is a mess. What happened? 



□ Exercise 6. Warm-up. (Chart 1 1-3) 

Tell the class where something that you're wearing or own was made (e.g., your shoes, shirt, 
cell phone, etc.). Do you know who made these items? Is it important to know? 





(a) Rice is grown in India. 

(b) Our house was built \n 1980. 

(c) This olive oil was imported from Crete. 


Usually the passive is used without a by-phrase. The passive is 
most frequently used when it is not known or not important to 
know exactly who performs an action. 

In (a): Rice is grown in India by people, by farmers, by someone. 
It is not known or important to know exactly who grows rice in 
India. 

Examples (a), (b), and (c) illustrate the most common use of the 
passive, i.e., without the by-phrase. 


(d) My aunt made this rug. {active) 


If the speaker knows who performs an action, usually the active is 
used, as in (d). 


(e) This rug was made by my aunt. 
That rug was made by my mother. 

(f) Life on the Mississippi was written by 
Mark Twain. 


Sometimes, even when the speaker knows who performs an 

action, he/she chooses to use the passive with the 

by-phrase in order to focus attention on the subject of a sentence. 

In (e): The focus of attention is on two rugs. 

In (f): The focus is on the book, but the by-phrase is included 
because it contains important information. 



□ Exercise 7. Looking at grammar. (Charts ill > 1 1-3) 

Discuss why passive was chosen for these sentences instead of active. 

1. My sweater zoas made in England. 

— > The speaker or zvriter probably uses the passive here because he or she doesn't know who made 
the svoeater. Using an active sentence (Someone made my sweater in England) zuouldn't add 
any important information. 

2. The new highway zoill be completed sometime next month. 

3. The World Cup soccer games are being televised all over the world this year. 

4. This composition zoas zoritten by Ali. That one was zvritten by Mariko. 

5. The Washington Monument is visited by hundreds of people every day. 

6. Bananas originated in Asia but now are grozon in the tropics of both hemispheres of the 
world. They zvere introduced to the Americas in 1516. 



214 CHAPTER 11 



□ Exercise 8. Reading and grammar. (Charts 1 1-1 > 1 1-3) 

Read the paragraph. Underline the passive verbs. Discuss why the writer chose to use passive 
rather than active. Answer the questions in complete sentences. 

Early Writing Materials 

The chief writing material of ancient times was papyrus. It was used in Egypt, Greece, and 
other Mediterranean lands. Parchment, another writing material that was widely used in 
ancient times, was made from the skins of animals, such as sheep and goats. After the hair had 
been removed, the skins were stretched and rubbed smooth to make a writing surface. Paper, 
the main writing material today, was invented by the Chinese. 

Ink has been used for writing and drawing throughout history. No one knows when the first 
ink was developed. The ancient Egyptians and Chinese made ink from various natural 
substances such as berries, soot, and tree bark. Through the centuries, thousands of different 
formulas have been developed for ink. Most ink today is made from synthetic chemicals. 

1 . Before paper was invented, what materials were used for writing? 

2. What was parchment made from? 

3. What three things were done to animal skins to make writing material? 

4. Who first used paper? 

5. When was ink first used? 

6. In ancient times, what ingredients did the Egyptians and Chinese use for ink? 

7. What substances are in ink today? 

□ Exercise 9. Looking at grammar. (Charts l l-i > 1 1-3) 

Make complete sentences with the given words. Use the simple past. Some are active and 
some are passive. 

1 . We \ allow, not \ to go to the park alone when we were young 

> We zveren't allowed to go to the park alone when zee were young. 

2. A package \ deliver \ to our apartment yesterday 

3. Maria \ teach \ her son to read when he was three 

4. When I was in elementary school, we \ require \ to wear uniforms 

5. As we watched, the airplane \ disappear \ into the clouds 

6. I \ agree \ with your decision yesterday 

7. Timmy \ drop \ a plate after dinner last night 

8. The plate \ fall \ to the floor with a crash 

9. What \ happen \ yesterday 

10. Something very sad \ happen \ yesterday 

1 1 . My cat \ hit \ by a speeding truck 

12. She \ kill \ instantly 

13. She \ die \ instantly 



The Passive 215 



□ Exercise 10. Listening. (Charts n-i > n-3) 

,fJl Choose the sentence (a. or b.) that has the same meaning as the one you hear. 

CD 1 Example: You will hear: The assistant manager interviewed Mr. Evans for the sales job. 

Track 54 

You will choose: (ay Mr. Evans was interviewed. 

b. The assistant manager was interviewed. 

1. a. Someone would like the architect to design the new library, 
b. A famous architect would like to design the new library. 

2. a. The kids told others to leave, 
b. Someone told the kids to leave. 

3. a. I ignored the salesclerk. 

b. The salesclerk ignored me. 

4. a. The speaker will be asked questions, 
b. The audience will be asked questions. 

5. a. A party is being planned by Dr. Wilson, 
b. A party is being planned by the staff. 

6. a. Natural habitats have altered human development. 

b. Natural habitats have been altered by human development. 

□ Exercise 1 1 . Looking at grammar. (Charts ill ► n-3) 

Change each news headline into a complete sentence. Work in pairs, in small groups, or as 
a class. 

1 . 5 PEOPLE KILLED BY TORNADOES 

Five people yesterday. 

2. DECISION ON TAX INCREASE TO BE ANNOUNCED SOON 

A decision on a tax increase soon. 

3. MORE THAN 2 BILLION CUPS OF COFFEE CONSUMED WORLDWIDE 

More than two billion cups of coffee worldwide each day. 

4. 200,000 CARS RECALLED FOR BRAKE DEFECTS SINCE LAST YEAR 

Two hundred thousand cars for brake defects since last year. 

5. NEW HIGH-SPEED COMPUTER CHIPS DELAYED 

New high-speed computer chips until next year. 

□ Exercise 12. Game. (Charts l l-l -> 1 1-3) 

Work in teams with your books closed. Your teacher will say a sentence. Change it to 
passive if possible. Use the by -phrase only if necessary. Your team wins one point for each 
correct sentence. 

1 . Someone invited you to a party. 

2. People grow rice in many countries. 

3. Someone is televising the tennis match. 



216 CHAPTER 11 



4. Someone told you to be here at ten. 

5. Someone is going to serve dinner at six. 

6. Someone has made a mistake. 

7. An accident happened at the corner of Fifth and Main. 

8. Ivan's daughter drew that picture. My son drew this picture. 

9. The judges will judge the applicants on their creativity. 

10. My sister's plane will arrive at 10:35. 

11. Is Professor Rivers teaching that course this semester? 

12. The mail carrier had already delivered the mail by the time I left for school this morning. 

13. When is someone going to announce the results of the contest? 

14. After the concert was over, hundreds of fans surrounded the rock star outside the theater. 



Exercise 13. Let's talk. (Charts l l-i > 1 1-3) 

Your teacher will read each sentence and the question that follows. Student A will change the 
sentence to the passive. Student B will answer the question with the information provided by 
Student A. Close your book for this activity. 

Example: To A: People speak Arabic in many countries. To B: Is Arabic a common language? 
Teacher (book open): People speak Arabic in many countries. 
Student A (book closed): Arabic is spoken in many countries. 
Teacher (book open): Is Arabic a common language? 
Student B (book closed): Yes. It is spoken in many countries. 



1. To A 

2. To A 

3. To A 



Someone stole your pen. To B: What happened to ( )'s pen? 

People play soccer in many countries. To B: Is soccer a popular sport? 

Someone returned your letter. To B: ( ) sent a letter last week, but he/she put 



the wrong address on it. What happened to the letter? 

4. To A: Someone robbed the bank. To B: What happened to the bank? 

5. To A: The police caught the bank robber. To B: Did the bank robber get away? 

6. To A: A judge sent the thief to jail. To B: What happened to the thief? 

7. To A: The government requires international students to have visas. 
To B: Is it necessary for international students to have visas? 

8. To A: Someone had already made the coffee by the time you got up this morning. 
To B: Did ( ) have to make the coffee when he/she got up? 

9. To A: Someone discovered gold in California in 1848. 
To B: What happened in California in 1848? 

10. To A: People used candles for light in the 17th century. 
To B: Was electricity used for light in the 17th century? 

11. To A: There is a party tomorrow night. Someone invited you to go. 
To B: Is ( ) invited to the party? 

12. To A: You wanted to buy a chair, but you needed time to make up your mind. Finally you 
decided to buy it, but someone had already sold it by the time you returned to the store. 
To B: Did ( ) buy the chair? 



The Passive 217 



Exercise 14. Looking at grammar. (Charts 11-1 > n-3) 

Complete the sentences with the passive form of the verbs in the list. Use any appropriate 
tense. 

build divide /invent order surprise 

cause expect kill report surround 

confuse frighten offer spell wear 

1. The electric light bulb wae Invented by Thomas Edison in 1879. 

2. An island by water. 

3. The -ing form of sit with a double "t." 

4. Even though construction costs are high, a new dormitory 



next year. 

5. The class was too large last semester, so it into two sections. 

6. A bracelet around the wrist. 

7. The Johnsons' house burned down. According to the inspector, the fire 

by lightning. 

8. Al got a ticket for reckless driving. When he went to traffic court, he 

to pay a large fine. 

9. I read about a hunter who accidentally by another 

hunter. 

10. The hunter's fatal accident in the newspaper yesterday. 

11. I didn't expect Lisa to come to the meeting last night, but she was there. I 

to see her. 

12. Last week I a job at a local bank, but I didn't accept it. 

13. The children in the middle of the night when they heard 

strange noises in the house. 

14. Could you explain this math problem to me? Yesterday in class I 

by the teacher's explanation. 

15. A: Is the plane going to be late? 

B: No. It to be on time. 



8 CHAPTER 1 1 



□ Exercise 15. Listening. (Charts l l-i ■> n-3) 

ffj Listen to the report about chocolate with your book closed. Then open your book and listen 
again. Complete the sentences with the verbs you hear. 



CD 1 
Track 55 



Chocolate 



How Chocolate Is Made 

from the seeds of roasted cocoa beans. After the seeds 

into a liquid. This 



liquid 
which 



., the inside of the seed 

chocolate liquor. The liquor 

from the liquor. After this _ 



fat, 



., a solid 



.. This solid, which 



as cocoa cake, 



10 



up and becomes unsweetened cocoa. This is a very bitter 



chocolate. To make it taste better, other substances such as cocoa butter and sugar 

later. 

11 

□ Exercise 16. Looking at grammar. (Charts ll-i and n-3) 

Complete the sentences with the active or passive form of the verbs in parentheses. Use any 
appropriate tense. 

1. Gold (discover) was discovered in California in 1848. 

2. The Amazon valley is extremely important to the ecology of the earth. Forty percent of 



the world's oxygen (produce) 



there. 



Right now Roberto is in the hospital.* He (treat) 

for a bad burn on his arm. 

In my country, certain prices, such as the price of medical supplies, (control) 
by the government. Other prices (determine) 



by how much consumers are willing to pay for a product. 



Richard Anderson is a former astronaut. Several years ago, when he was 52, Anderson 

(inform) by his superior at an aircraft corporation that he could no 

longer be a test pilot. He (tell) that he was being relieved of his 

duties because of his age. Anderson took the corporation to court for age discrimination. 

Frostbite may occur when a person's skin (expose) to extreme 

cold. It most frequently (affect)** the skin of the cheeks, chin, 

ears, fingers, nose, and toes. 



*in the hospital = American English; in hospital = British English. 

**Note: affect = a verb (e.g.. The weather affects my moods.). 

effect = a noun (e.g.. The weather has an effect on my moods.). 



The Passive 219 



Since the beginning of the modern industrial age, 
many of the natural habitats of plants and animals 



(destroy) by =^^3^^ 

industrial development and pollution. *^ 

8. Carl Gauss (recognize) ^fl^^^^^^ 

as a mathematical genius when he was ten. One day a 

professor gave him an arithmetic problem. Carl (ask) to add up 

all the numbers from 1 to 100 (1 +2 + 3 + 4 + 5, etc.). It (take) 

him only eight seconds to solve the problem. How could he do it so quickly? Can you do 
it quickly? 

9. Carl could do it quickly because he (k)iozu) that each pair of numbers 

(1 + 100, 2 + 99, 3 + 98, and so on to 50 + 51) equaled 101. So he (multiply) 
50 times 101 and (come) up with the answer: 5,050. 

□ Exercise 17. Warm-up. (Chart 114) 

Complete the sentences with your own words. Are the verbs active or passive? 

1. Children should be taught to be kind to animals. 

2. should be expected to be in class on time. 

3. can't be grozun in a desert. 

4. must be treated with kindness. 



11-4 The Passive Form of Modals and Phrasal Modals 



Passive form: 


modal* + 


be 


+ past participle 


(a) Tom 


will 


be 


invited 


to the picnic. 


(b) The window 


can't 


be 


opened. 




(c) Children 


should 


be 


taught 


to respect their elders. 


(d) 


May 1 


be 


excused 


from class? 


(e) This book 


had better 


be 


returned 


to the library before Friday. 


(f) This letter 


ought to 


be 


sent 


before June 1st. 


(g) Mary 


has to 


be 


told 


about our change in plans. 


(h) Fred 


is supposed to 


be 


told 


about the meeting. 



Past-passive form: modal + have been + past participle 



(i) The letter 

(j) This house 

(k) Eric 

(I) Jill 



should have been sent last week. 

must have been built over 200 years ago. 

couldn't have been offered the job. 

ought to have been invited to the party. 



*See Chapters 9 and 10 for a discussion of the form and use of modals and phrasal modals. 
220 CHAPTER 1 1 



Exercise 18. Looking at grammar. (Chart n-4) 

Complete the sentences with the words in parentheses. Use the appropriate form; active 
or passive. 

1. James {should + tell) ehould be told the news as soon as possible. 

2. Someone {should + tell) ehould tell James the news immediately. 

3. James {should + tell) ehould have been told the news a long time ago. 

4. Meat {must + keep) in a refrigerator or it will spoil. 

5. You {})iust + keep) meat in a refrigerator or it will spoil. 

6. We tried; but the window {couldn't + open) 

It was painted shut. 

7. I tried; but I {couldn't + open) the window. 

8. Good news! I {may + offer) a job soon. I had an interview at 

an engineering firm yesterday. 

9. Chris has good news. The engineering firm where she had an interview yesterday 
{may + offer) her a job soon. 

10. I hope Chris accepts our job offer; but I know she's been interviewing with several 

companies. She {may + already + offer)* 



a job by a competing firm before we made our offer. 

11. A competing firm {may + already + offer) 

Chris a job before we made our offer. 

12. The class for next semester is too large. It {ought to + divide) 



in half; but there's not enough money in the budget to hire another 



teacher. 



13. Last semester's class was too large. It {ought to + divide) 

in half. 

14. These books {have to + return) to the library by 

tomorrow. 

15. Polly {have to + return) these books by next Friday. If she 

doesn't return them; she {zvill + have to + pay) 

a fine to the library. 



*A midsentence adverb such as already may be placed after the first auxiliary (e.g., might already have come) or after the 
second auxiliary (e.g., might have already come). 



The Passive 221 



16. A: Andy, your chores (had better + finish) 

by the time I get home, including taking out the garbage. 
B: Don't worry, Mom. I'll do everything you told me to do. 

17. A: Andy, you (had better + finish) your chores before 

Mom gets home. 
B: I know. I'll do them in a minute. I'm busy right now. 

18. This application (be supposed to + send) 

to the personnel department soon. 

19. Ann's birthday was on the 5th, and today is the 8th. Her birthday card (should + send) 

a week ago. Maybe we'd better give her a call to 

wish her a belated happy birthday. 

20. A: Yoko didn't expect to see her boss at the labor union meeting. 

B: She (must + surprise) when she saw him. 

A: She was. 



Exercise 19. Looking at grammar. (Chart 1 1-4) 

Make complete sentences with the given words. 



Example: must 



a. Seat belts \ wear \ during takeoff and landing 

-> Seat belts must be worn during takeoff and landing. 

b. All passengers \ wear \ their seat belts during takeoff and landing 

■> All passengers must wear their seat belts during takeoff and landing. 



1. will 



a. Many lives \ save \ with the new medical procedure 

b. The procedure \ save \ many lives 



can 



a. Shoppers \ look for \ product information on the internet every day 

b. Product information \ find \ on the internet 



3. should 



a. People \ check \ smoke alarm batteries once a month 

b. Smoke alarm batteries \ test \ once a month 



4. may 



a. The typhoon \ kill \ hundreds of villagers yesterday 

b. Hundreds of villagers \ kill \ in the typhoon yesterday 

c. Hundreds of villagers \ die \ in the typhoon yesterday 



5. had better a. Medical supplies \ deliver \ soon 

b. Villagers \ receive \ medical supplies soon 



CHAPTER 1 1 



Exercise 20. Let's talk. (Chart 1 1-4) 

Use passive modals to restate the computer lab rules. Make at least two sentences for each 
rule. Work in pairs or small groups. 

Example: Do not bring food into the lab. 

-> Food must not be brought into the Jab. 
> Food cannot be brought into the Jab. 
-> Food must be left outside. 

Computer Jab rules: 

1 . Turn off cell phones. 

2. Computers are for school use only. 

3. Do not play computer games. 

4. Do not download music from the internet. 

5. Use the printer for schoolwork only. 



Exercise 21. Looking at grammar. (Chart 1 1-4) 

Complete the sentences with the verbs in parentheses. Use the modal or phrasal modal that 
sounds best to you. All of the sentences are passive. 

1 . The entire valley (see) can be eeen from the mountain top. 

2. He is wearing a gold band on his fourth finger. He (marry) 

3. According to our teacher, all of our compositions (write) 

in ink. He won't accept papers written in pencil. 

4. I found this book on my desk when I came to class. It (leave) 

by one of the students in the earlier class. 

5. Your daughter has a good voice. Her interest in singing (encourage) 

6. Some UFO sightings (explain, not) easily. They are 

inexplicable. 




7. Try to speak slowly when you give your speech. If you don't, some of your words 
(misunderstand) 



The Passive 223 



8. What? You tripped over a chair at the party and dropped your plate of food into a woman's 
lap? You {embarrass) . 

9. The hospital in that small town is very old and can no longer serve the needs of the 
community. A new hospital (build) years ago. 

10. Blue whales and other endangered species (save) from 

extinction. Do you agree? 



□ Exercise 22. Listening and grammar. (Charts il l > n -4) 

Part I. Listen to the lecture on the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami with your book closed. Then 
open your book and choose all the grammatically correct sentences in each group. 



CD 1 
Track 56 



1. (a?) An earthquake hit the Indian Ocean. 

(b?) The Indian Ocean was hit by an earthquake, 
c. An earthquake was hit the Indian Ocean. 

2. a. Millions of lives were changed forever by the earthquake, 
b. Millions of lives changed forever by the earthquake. 

3. a. The quake followed by giant tsunami waves. 

b. The quake was followed by giant tsunami waves. 

c. Giant tsunami waves were followed the earthquake. 

d. Giant tsunami waves followed the earthquake. 

4. a. Thousands of people swept out to sea. 

b. Thousands of people were swept out to sea. 

c. The tsunami wave swept thousands of people out to sea. 

5. a. Nearly 300,000 people died. 

b. Nearly 300,000 people were died. 

c. Nearly 300,000 people were killed. 

d. Nearly 300,000 people killed. 

6. a. The damage could have been lessened by a tsunami early-warning system. 

b. A tsunami early-warning system could have lessened the damage. 

c. A tsunami early-warning system could have been lessened the damage. 

7. a. An early-warning system already exists for the Pacific Ocean. 

b. An early-warning system already is existed for the Pacific Ocean. 



224 CHAPTER 1 1 



Part II. Listen again. Complete the sentences with the verbs you hear. 

The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami 

In 2004, several countries that border the Indian Ocean, including Indonesia, Thailand, India, 

Malaysia, and Somalia, by an earthquake and subsequent tsunami. 

l 

(As you may already know, a tsunami is a giant ocean wave.) In just a few short hours, millions 
of lives forever. The earthquake 



2 3 
at 9.3 on the Richter scale. It was the fourth largest earthquake since 1900 and the second 

largest that on the Richter scale. 

4 

The quake by four giant waves as high as 100 feet 

5 

(or 30 meters). Whole villages . Thousands of people 

6 

out to sea, and many others due to lack of 



7 

medical care. In total, almost 300,000 people , and 1.3 million 

9 

people homeless. Aftershocks from the earthquake 

10 

for several days. 



n 

Tragically, the damage if there had been a 

12 

tsunami early-warning system. Such a system already for the Pacific 

13 

Ocean, but it to the Indian Ocean. Since the tsunami disaster, 

14 

governments together to develop an early-warning system 

15 

so that Southeast Asia such destruction again from a tsunami. 

16 

Exercise 23. Looking at grammar. (Charts ll-i -> n-4) 

Change the verbs to the passive as appropriate. Discuss why you decided that certain verbs 
should be in the passive but that others should remain active. 

It is ueed 

(1) Paper is a common material. People use it everywhere in the world. Throughout 
history, people have made it from various plants such as rice and papyrus, but today wood is the 
chief source of paper. In the past, people made paper by hand, but now machines do most of 
the work.* Today people make paper from wood pulp by using either a mechanical or a 
chemical process. 



*\Vhether or not to use the passive in the second half of this sentence is a stylistic choice. Either the active or the passive can 
appropriately be used. Some writers might prefer the passive so that both halves of the sentence are parallel in structure. 



The Passive 225 



(2) In the mechanical process, someone grinds the wood into small chips. During the 
grinding, someone sprays it with water to keep it from burning from the friction of the grinder. 
Then someone soaks the chips in water. 

(3) In the chemical process, first someone washes the wood, and then someone cuts it into 
small pieces in a chipping machine. Then someone cooks the chips in certain chemicals. After 
someone cooks the wood, someone washes it to get rid of the chemicals. 

(4) The next steps in making paper are the same for both the mechanical and the chemical 
processes. Someone drains the pulp to form a thick mass, bleaches it with chlorine, and then 
thoroughly washes it again. Next someone puts the pulp through a large machine that squeezes 
the water out and forms the pulp into long sheets. After the pulp sheets go through a drier and 
a press, someone winds them onto rolls. These rolls of paper are then ready for use. 

(5) The next time you use paper, you should think about its origin and how people make it. 
And you should ask yourself this question: What would the world be like without paper? If you 
can imagine how different today's world would be without paper, you will immediately 
understand how essential paper has been in the development of civilization. 

□ Exercise 24. Let's write. (Charts l l-i > 1 1-4) 

Write about how something is made. Choose one of these topics. 
Topics: 

1. Write about something you know how to make. Possible subjects: a kite, a ceramic pot, a 
bookcase, a sweater, a bead necklace, a special kind of food, etc. 

2. Use a reference tool such as the internet to find out how something is made, and then 
summarize this information. It's not necessary to go into technical detail. Read about the 
process and then describe it in your own words. Possible subjects: a candle, a pencil, glass, 
steel, silk thread, bronze, leather, etc. 

□ Exercise 25. Warm-up. (Chart 1 1-5) 

Look around the room and answer these questions. 

1. Are the windows closed? 

2. Is the door shut? 

3. Are the lights turned on? 

4. Is anything broken? If so, what? 



226 CHAPTER 1 1 



11-5 Non-Progressive Passive 




(a) The door is old. 

(b) The door is green. 

( c ) The door is locked. 


In (a) and (b): old and green are adjectives. They 
describe the door. 

In (c): locked is a past participle. It is used as an 
adjective. It describes the door. 


(6) 1 locked the door five minutes ago. 

( e ) The door was locked by me five minutes ago. 

( f ) Now the door is locked. 


When the passive form is used to describe an existing 
situation or state, as in (c), (f), and (i), it is called the 
"non-progressive passive." In the non-progressive: 

• no action is taking place; the action happened 
earlier. 

• there is no by-phrase. 

• the past participle functions as an adjective. 


( g ) Ann broke the window yesterday. 

( h ) The window was broken by Ann. 

( i ) Now the window is broken. 


( j ) 1 am interested in Chinese art. 
( k ) He is satisfied with his job. 
( 1 ) Ann is married to Alex. 


Prepositions other than fey can follow non-progressive 
passive verbs. (See Chart 11-6.) 


(m) 1 don't know where 1 am. 1 am lost. 
(n) 1 can't find my purse. It is gone. 
( o ) 1 am finished with my work. 
( p ) 1 am done with my work. 


Sentences (m) through (p) are examples of idiomatic 
usage of the passive form in common, everyday English. 
These sentences have no equivalent active sentences. 



□ Exercise 26. Looking at grammar. (Chart 1 1-5) 

Complete the sentences with the non-progressive passive of the verbs in parentheses. Use the 
simple present or the simple past. 

1. Olga is wearing a blouse. It (make) is made of cotton. 

2. The door to this room (shut) . 

3. The lights in this room (turn) on. 

4. This room (crozvd, not) . 

5. We can leave now because class (finish) 

6. It is hot in this room because the window (close) 

7. Yesterday it was hot in this room because the window (close) 



8. We are ready to sit down and eat dinner. The table (set) 



the meat and rice (do) 3 and the candles (light) 



9. Where's my wallet? It (go) ! Did you take it? 

10. Hmmm. My dress (tear) . I wonder how that happened. 



The Passive 227 



Exercise 27. Looking at grammar. (Chart n-5) 

Complete each sentence with an appropriate form of the words in the list. 



bear (born)* 

block 

confuse 



crowd 

divorce 

exhaust 



locate 
/lose 
marry 



plug in 
qualify 
schedule 



spoil 
stick 
turn off 



1. Excuse me, sir. Could you give me some directions? I am \oet 

2. Let's find another restaurant. This one too 

have to wait at least an hour for a table. 

3. The meeting for tomorrow at nine. 



We would 



4. That's hard work! I 



I need to rest for a while. 



5. You told me one thing, and John told me another. I don't know what to think. I 



6. Annie can't close the window. It 



7. Louise is probably sleeping. The lights in her room 



Carolyn and Joe were married to each other for five years, 
but now they 



9. I'm sorry. You 



not 



for the job. We need someone 




with a degree in electrical engineering. 
10. I love my wife. I 



11. We can't eat this fruit. It 



to a wonderful woman. 
We'll have to throw it out. 



12. We'd better call a plumber. The water won't go down the drain. The drain 
with food. 



13. Vietnam 



in Southeast Asia. 



14. A: How old is Juan? 
B: He 



in 1980. 



15. A: The TV set isn't working. 
B: Are you sure? 



*In the passive, born is used as the past participle of bear to mean "given birth to." 
CHAPTER 1 1 



ji Exercise 28. Warm-up. (Chart 11-6) 

Answer the questions. 

Wliat is something that you are . . . 

1. interested in? 3. concerned about? 5. excited about? 

2. annoyed by? 4. scared of? 6. accustomed to? 



11-6 Common Non-Progressive Passive Verbs 
+ Prepositions 



(a) I 'm interested in Greek culture. 

(b) He 's worried about losing his job. 



be 


concerned 


be 


excited 


oe 


worried 


ho 


UlbCI llllll IdlcU 


be 


known 


be 


prepared 


be 


qualified 


be 


remembered 


be 


well known 


be 


divorced 


be 


exhausted 


be 


gone 


be 


protected 


be 


dressed 


be 


interested 


be 


located 


be 


disappointed 


be 


involved 



Many non-progressive verbs are followed by prepositions 
other than by. 



I'' 





be composed 


about 


be made 




be tired 


against 


be frightened 




be scared 




be terrified 


for 


be accustomed 




be addicted 




be committed 




be connected 




be dedicated 


from 


be devoted 




be engaged 




be exposed 




be limited 


in 


be married 




be opposed 




be related 



in/with 




□ Exercise 29. Looking at grammar. (Chart 1 1-6) 

Complete the sentences with the correct prepositions. 

Situation: Maya is a toymaker. She makes simple toys from wood. 

1. She is excited about creating toys children enjoy. 

2. She is known creating high-quality toys. 

3. She is interested how children play with one another. 

4. She is pleased the response to her toys. 

5. Her toys are made wood. 

6. The materials in her toys are limited wood. 

7. She is disappointed many of the popular toys in stores today. 

8. She worries toys that don't encourage children to use their imagination. 



The Passive 229 



(59 

CD 1 

Track 57 



Exercise 30. Listening. (Chart n-6) 

Listen to the sentences. They contain non-progressive passive verbs plus prepositions. Write 
the prepositions you hear. 

Example: You will hear: Carol is interested in ancient history. 
You will write: in 

1. 5. 

2. 6. 

3. 7. 

4. 8. 



□ Exercise 31. Looking at grammar. (Chart 1 1-6) 

Complete the sentences with the correct prepositions. 

1. Jack is married Joan. 

2. Could I please have the dictionary when you are finished it? 

3. My car is equipped air-conditioning and a sun roof. 

4. Gandhi was committed nonviolence. He believed in it all of his life. 

5. Barbara turned off the TV because she was tired listening to the news. 

6. The choices in that restaurant are limited pizza and sandwiches. 

7. Their apartment is always messy. It's cluttered newspapers, books, clothes, 

and dirty dishes. 

8. A: Are you in favor of a worldwide ban on nuclear weapons, or are you opposed 

it? 

B: I'm in favor of it. I'm terrified the possibility of a nuclear war starting by 

accident. But my wife is against disarmament. 

9. A: Are you still associated the International Red Cross and Red Crescent? 

B: I was, until this year. Are you interested working with them? 

A: I think I'd like to. They are dedicated helping people in times of crisis, 

and I admire the work they've done. Can you get me some information? 



230 CHAPTER 1 1 



□ Exercise 32. Looking at grammar. (Chart 1 1-6) 

Complete each sentence with the non-progressive passive form of the given verb and an 
appropriate preposition. Use the simple present. 



1 . cover 

2. finish 

3. addict 



satisfy 
engage 
divorce 
relate 

dedicate 



9. dress 

10. commit 

1 1 . prepare 

12. do 



It's winter, and the ground 
Pat 



ie covered with 



snow. 



her composition. 



Ann laughingly calls herself a "chocoholic." She says she 
chocolate. 



I 



Hashim 
Elaine _ 



Your name is Mary Smith. 



the progress I have made. 
_ Fatima. 

Pierre. 

you 



John Smith? 



Mrs. Robinson works in an orphanage. She 
her work. 



Miguel 



The administration 



a tuxedo for his wedding today. 
improving the quality of 



education at our school. 

We finished packing our sleeping bags, tent, first-aid kit, food, and warm 
clothes. We are finally our camping trip. 

We are this exercise. 



□ Exercise 33. Let's talk. (Chart 1 16) 

Think about changes that modern life has brought in communicationSj travel 3 work 3 school 3 
daily life, etc. Complete the phrases with the correct prepositions and answer the questions. 
Work in pairs or small groups. 

Wliat changes or innovations are you (or people you knozv) . . . 

1. excited ? 

2. concerned ? 

3. opposed ? 

4. annoyed ? 

5. addicted ? 

6. not accustomed ? 




□ Exercise 34. Looking at grammar. (Chart n -6) 

Add the missing preposition to each sentence. 
with 

1 . I'm not acquainted A that man. Do you know him? 

2. The department store was filled toys for the holiday sale. 

3. Bert's bald head is protected the hot sun when he's 
wearing his hat. 

4. Your leg bone is connected your hip bone. 

5. A person who is addicted drugs needs 
professional medical help. 

6. What? You're still dressed your pajamas? You'll never make it to work on time. 

7. The school children were exposed the flu by a student who had it. 

8. The electronic items were priced so low for the sale that they were gone the store shelves in 
minutes. 

9. Roberta didn't get the job even though she was qualified it. 

10. My office is located a building next to the park on Fifth Avenue. 

□ Exercise 35. Warm-up. (Chart 11 -7) 

Complete the sentences with the words in the list. Notice the word forms that follow the 
verb get. 

dirty dressed hungry hurt lost wet 

1 . When the children played in the mud, their clothes got 

2. We didn't have a map, so we got 

3. Don't go out in the rain without a coat. You'll get 



4. I'll be ready to leave as soon as I get It'll just take a few minutes. 

5. If I skip breakfast, I always get during my late morning class. 

6. It was a bad accident, but luckily no one got 



232 CHAPTER 1 1 



11-7 The Passive with Get 




Get + Adjective 


(a\ 1 7n npftinn hi innrx/ 1 pt'c; pat cnnn 

\CLj i in ycriifi/y § wi lyi y, lcl o cell ovjvji i. 

(b) 1 stopped working because 1 got sleepy. 


Get may be followed by certain adjectives. Get gives the 
idea of change — the idea of becoming, beginning to be, 
growing to be. 

In (a): I'm getting hungry = 1 wasn't hungry before, but 
now I'm beginning to be hungry. 



Common adjectives that follow get 



angry cold fat hungry quiet tall 

anxious comfortable full late ready thirsty 

bald dark good light rich warm 

better dizzy hard mad ripe well 

big easy healthy nervous serious wet 

busy empty heavy noisy sick worse 

chilly famous hot old sleepy 



Get + Past Participle 



(c) I stopped working because I got tired. 

(d) They are getting married next month. 



Get may also be followed by a past participle. The past 
participle functions as an adjective; it describes the 
subject. 

The passive with get is common in spoken English, but 
not in formal writing. 



Common past participles with get 

get accepted (for, into) 
get accustomed to 
get acquainted (with) 
get arrested (for) 
get bored (with) 
get confused (about) 
get crowded (with) 
get divorced (from) 
get done (with) 



get dressed (in) 
get drunk (on) 
get elected (to) 
get engaged (to) 
get excited (about) 
get finished (with) 
get fixed (by) 
get hurt (by) 
get interested (in) 



get invited (to) 
get involved (in, with) 
get killed (by, with) 
get lost (in) 
get married (to) 
get prepared (for) 
get scared (of) 
get sunburned 
get worried (about) 



□ Exercise 36. Looking at grammar. (Chart 1 1-7) 

Complete the sentences with words that make sense. More than one answer may be correct 
for each sentence. 

1 . The meeting starts in an hour. I need to get for it. 

a. prepare (b?) prepared (c?) ready d. readying 

2. I think I'll stop working for the day. I'm getting 

a. tire b. tired c. dark d. late 



Sonia stopped working because it was getting 



a. late b. dark c. tired d. sleepy 

4. We can leave as soon as you get 



a. pack b. finish c. packed d. finished 



The Passive 233 



5. Sam was supposed to be home an hour ago, but he still isn't here. I'm getting 
a. nervous b. anxious c. worry d. worried 



6. I didn't stay for the end of the movie because I got 

a. bore b. bored c. interested 



7. When are you going to get ? 

a. marriage b. marry 



c. married 



d. am bored 



d. engage 



Exercise 37. Looking at grammar. (Chart 1 1-7) 

Complete the sentences with any appropriate tense of get and the given adjectives. 



accustom 

better 

dark 

depress 

divorce 



do 

engage 

fire 

hire 



/hungry 
invite 
marry 
nervous 



pay 

remarry 

well 

wet 



1 . What time are we going to eat? I 

2. I didn't have an umbrella, so I 

yesterday. 

3. Every time I have to give a speech, I 



am getting hungry 



while I was waiting for the bus 



4. Would you mind turning on the light? It 

5. Maria's English is improving. It 



6. My friend was sick, so I sent him a card. It said, 

7. How long did it take you to 



in here. 



soon. 



to living here? 



8. We can leave as soon as I 

9. Chris 



with this work. 



10. I got an invitation. 

11. I 



when she lost her job, so I tried to cheer her up. 

you to the party too? 



Okay? 

12. After Ed graduated, he 

13. But later he 



on Fridays. I'll give you the money I owe you next Friday. 



by an engineering firm. 



because he didn't do his work. 



14. Ben and Sara have had an interesting relationship. First, they 
Then, they Later, they 



Finally, they 



Today they are a happily married couple. 



Exercise 38. Let's talk: interview. (Chart 1 1 7) 

Interview your classmates. Share some of their answers with the class. 

Example: Have you ever gotten dizzy? Tell me about it. 

> Yes. I got dizzy when I went on a ride at the carnival last summer. But it zvas 
a lot of fun! 

1 . Tell me about a time you got lost. Where were you and what happened? 

2. Do you ever get sleepy during the day? If so, tell me about it. If not, when do you 
get sleepy? 

3. Have you ever gotten really scared? What scared you? 

4. Think of the world situation today. What things are getting better, and what things are 
getting worse? 

5. Have you ever gotten hurt in a traffic accident or any kind of accident? What happened? 

6. Tell me about a time you got confused about something. 

7. Have you or has someone you know ever gotten cheated when you bought something? 
Tell me about it. 

8. Is there an election coming up in this country or another country that interests you? 

If so, who do you think is going to get elected? Who got elected in the last election in this 
country? 

Exercise 39. Warm-up. (Chart n-8) 

The teacher in the picture is lecturing her class about healthy food. 

1 . How would you describe the teacher: boring or bored? 

2. How would you describe the students: boring or bored? 




The Passive 235 





— The problem confuses the students. 

(a) It is a confusing problem. 

— The students are confused by the problem. 

(b) They are confused students. 


The present participle serves as an adjective with an 
active meaning. The noun it modifies performs an action. 

In (a): The noun problem does something; it confuses. 
Thus, it is described as a "confusing problem." 

The past participle serves as an adjective with a passive 
meaning. 

In (b): The students are confused by something. Thus, 
they are described as "confused students." 


— The story amuses the children. 

(c) It is an amusing story. 

— The children are amused by the story. 

(d) They are amused children. 


In (c): The noun story performs the action. 
In (d): The noun children receives the action. 



□ Exercise 40. Looking at grammar. (Chart 1 1-8) 

Match the sentences to the pictures. Some sentences describe neither picture. 




Picture A Picture B 

1. The monster is frightened. 4. The child is frightening. 

2. The monster is frightening. 5. The tiger is frightened. 

3. The child is frightened. 6. The tiger is frightening. 



□ Exercise 41 . Looking at grammar. (Chart 1 1-8) 

Complete each sentence with the present or past participle of the verb in italics. 



1. The class bores the students. It is a boring class. 

2. The students are bored by the class. They are bored students. 

3. The game excites the people. It is an game. 

4. The people are excited by the game. They are people. 



236 CHAPTER 1 1 



5. The news surprised the man. It was 



6. The man zvas surprised by the news. He was a 



7. The child zvas frightened by the strange noise. The 
comfort from her father. 

8. The strange noise frightened the child. It was a 

9. The work exhausted the men. It was 



10. The men were exhausted. The 
shade of a tree. 



news. 



man. 



child sought 



sound. 



work. 

men sat down to rest under the 



Exercise 42. Let's talk. (Chart 1 1 -8) 

Your teacher will read the questions. Answer them as a class (or individually) with a present or 
past participle. Close your book for this activity. 

Example: If a book confuses you, how would you describe the book? How would you describe 
yourself? 

Teacher {book open): If a book confuses you, how would you describe the book? 
Speaker A {book closed) : confusing 

Teacher {book open): How would you describe yourself? 
Speaker B {book closed): confused 



1. 


If a story amazes you, how would you 


5. 


If a painting interests you, . . . ? 




describe the story? How would you 


6. 


If a situation embarrasses you, . . . ? 




describe yourself? 


7. 


If a book disappoints you, . . . ? 


2. 


If a story depresses you, how would 


8. 


If a person fascinates you, . . . ? 




you describe the story? How would 


9. 


If an assignment frustrates you, . . . ? 




you describe yourself? 


10. 


If a noise annoys you, . . . ? 


3. 


If some work tires you, . . . ? 


11. 


If an event shocks you, . . . ? 


4. 


If a movie bores you, . . . ? 


12. 


If an experience thrills you, . . . ? 



□ Exercise 43. Listening. (Chart 1 1-8) 

{Ph Listen to the sentences. Choose the words you hear. 



cd i Example: You will hear: 

Track 58 r 



Something's wrong with the refrigerator. It's been making an 
annoying buzz all day. 



You will choose: annoy (annoying) annoyed 



1. 


miss 


missing 


missed 


2. 


satisfy 


satisfying 


satisfied 


3. 


frighten 


frightening 


frightened 


4. 


marry 


marrying 


married 


5. 


scare 


scary 


scared 


6. 


finish 


finishing 


finished 



The Passive 237 



CD 1 
Track 59 



Exercise 44. Listening. (Chart 1 1-8) 

Listen to the sentences. Choose the correct completions. 



Example: You will hear: 

You will choose: 

You will hear: 
You will choose: 



I attended a great lecture last night. It was 
fascinating^) fascinated 



1 . thrilling 

2. thrilling 

3. shocking 

4. shocking 



The audience listened carefully to the lecture. They were 
fascinating (^scinated^) 

thrilled 5. delightful delighted 

thrilled 6. delightful delighted 

shocked 7. confusing confused 

shocked 8. confusing confused 



□ Exercise 45. Looking at grammar. (Chart n-8) 

Complete the sentences with the present or past participle of the verbs in parentheses. 

1. The thief tried to pry open the {lock) locked cabinet. 

2. I found myself in an {embarrass) situation last night. 

3. The {injure) woman was put into an ambulance. 

4. The teacher gave us a {challenge) assignment, but we all enjoyed 

doing it. 

5. The {expect) event did not occur. 

6. The invention of the {print) press was one of the most 

important events in the history of the world. 

7. {Experience) travelers pack lightly. They carry little more tiian 

necessities. 

8. A {grozu) child needs a {balance) diet. 

9. No one appreciates a {spoil) child. 

10. There is an old saying: "Let {sleep) dogs lie." It means "Don't 

bring up past problems." 




238 CHAPTER 1 1 



1 1. We had a {thrill) but hair-raising experience on our 

backpacking trip into the wilderness. 

12. The (abandon) car was towed away by a tow truck. 

13. (Pollute) water is not safe for drinking. 

14. I don't have any furniture of my own. Do you know where I can rent a (furnish) 
apartment? 

15. The equator is the (divide) line between the Northern and 

Southern hemispheres. 

16. We all expect our (elect) officials to be honest. 

17. The psychologist spoke to us about some of the (amaze) 

coincidences in the lives of twins living apart from each other from birth. 



□ Exercise 46. Let's talk: interview. (Charts 1 1-5 > 1 1-7) 

Make questions with the given words. Interview two students for each question. Share some 
of their answers with the class. 

1 . What \ be \ you \ worried about in today's world? 
-> WJiat are you zvorried about in today's zvorld? 

2. What \ be \ you \ tired of? 

3. What (or who) \ be \ you \ pleased with? 

4. What \ you \ get \ really nervous about? 

5. What \ you \ want \ to be \ remembered for? 

6. What \ be \ excite \ to you? 

7. What \ you \ get excited about? 

8. What \ be \ confuse \ to students? 

9. What \ be \ you \ confused by? 
10. What \ confuse \ to children? 



□ Exercise 47. Listening. (Chapter 11) 

Part I. Listen to the lecture about the early Olympic Games with your book closed. Then 
open your book and read the statements. Circle "T" for true and "F" for false. 



CD 1 
Track 60 



1 . The Olympic Games were established so that men T 
and women could compete against one another. 

2. Greece invited other nations to the games T 
to encourage good relationships among countries. 

3. The winning athletes were considered heroes. T 



The Passive 239 



Part II. Listen again. Complete the sentences with the verbs you hear. 

The Olympic Games 

The Olympic Games more than 2,000 years ago in Olympia, a 

l 

small town in Greece. The games for two purposes. One was 

2 

to showcase the physical qualities and athletic performances of its young men. At that time, 

only Greek males to compete. In fact, women 

3 

to watch the games, and the only spectators were 

4 

men. The other goal to encourage good relationships among Greek cities. 

5 

People of other nationalities to participate. 

6 

The winner of each event with a wreath made of olive leaves. 

7 

Additionally, his statue in Olympia for all to see. 

8 

athletes as heroes when they 



9 10 

returned to their cities because with their victory, they fame and 

n 

honor to their hometowns. 

□ Exercise 48. Let's talk. (Chapter 1 1) 

Discuss these questions. Work in small groups or as a class. 

1 . What is one of the most satisfying experiences in your life? 

2. Do you ever get stressed? What stresses you? 

3. Are you concerned about global warming? Why or why not? 

4. What things in your daily life do you sometimes get tired of doing? 

5. We all want to accomplish good things in our life and be good people. After you're gone, 
how do you want to be remembered? 

□ Exercise 49. Let's talk or write. (Chapter 1 1) 

Discuss and/or write about one or more of the topics. 

Topics: 

1 . Athletes as Heroes 

What are the most popular sports in your country and who are today's sports heroes? Who 
were your sports heroes (if any) when you were a child? How are athletes viewed by the 
general public in your country? Do you feel athletes are important role models for 
children? 

2 . Men } s vs. Women 's Sports 

When you were growing up, were girls' sports and boys' sports considered to be of equal 
importance in your school? Traditionally, women's sports have been viewed as less 
significant than men's sports, but today men's and women's sports are treated equally in 
the Olympics. Do you feel that women's sports are as valuable and entertaining as men's 
sports? If you are a fan of one but not the other, why? 



240 CHAPTER 1 1 



3. International Competition 

Sports are competitive activities with winners and losers, yet the modern Olympics can be 
seen as valuable in creating international understanding and cooperation. What do you 
feel is the value (if any) of international sports competitions such as the Olympics? 

Exercise 50. Check your knowledge. (Chapter 1 1) 

Correct the errors. 

interested 

1 . I am interesting in his ideas. 

2. Two people got hurted in the accident and were took to the hospital by an ambulance. 

3. The movie was so bored that we fell asleep after an hour. 

4. The students helped by the clear explanation that the teacher gave. 

5. The winner of the race hasn't been announcing yet. 

6. When and where has the automobile invented? 

7. My brother and I have always been interesting in learning more about our family tree.* 

8. I am not agree with you, and I don't think you'll ever convince me. 

9. It was late, and I was getting very worry about my mother. 

10. Many strange things were happened last night. 

11. I didn't go to dinner with them because I had already been eaten. 

12. In class yesterday, I was confusing. I didn't understand the lesson. 

13. When we were children, we are very afraid of caterpillars. Whenever we saw one of these 
monsters, we were run to our house before the caterpillars could attack us. I still get scare 
when I saw a caterpillar close to me. 

14. One day, while the old man was cutting down a big tree near the stream, his axe was fallen 
into the river. He sat down and begin to cry because he does not have enough money to 
buy another axe. 



*family tree — a genealogical diagram that shows how family members are related; each generation is represented by a new 
"branch" of the tree. 



The Passive 241 



Chapter 12 

Noun Clauses 




□ Exercise 1. Warm-up. (Chart 12-1) 

Check (/) the complete sentences. 

1 . / Jin studies business. 

2. What does Jin study? 

3. What Jin studies? 

4. What Jin studies is business. 

5. His books. 

6. I don't know how much his books cost. 

7. How much his books cost? 

8. How much do his books cost? 



12-1 Introduction 



independent clause 



(a) 'Sue lives in Tokyo. 1 

independent clause 

(b) 'Where does Sue live? 



A clause is a group of words containing a subject and a verb.* 

An independent clause (or main clause) is a complete sentence. It 
contains the main subject and verb of a sentence. 

Examples (a) and (b) are complete sentences. 
Example (a) is a statement; (b) is a question. 



dependent clause 
(c) 'where Sue lives' 



A dependent clause (or subordinate clause) is not a complete sentence. 
Example (c) is a dependent clause. 



noun clause 



(d) I know 1 where Sue lives. 



Example (d) is a complete sentence, with a main subject (/) and verb 
(know) followed by a dependent clause. 

Where Sue lives is called a noun clause. 



S V O 

(e) I know 1 wftaf he sa/'d. 1 

S V 

(f) I What he said 1 is true. 



A noun clause has the same uses in a sentence as a noun: it is used as 
an object or a subject. 

In (e): The noun clause is the object of the verb know. 
In (f ): The noun clause is the subject of the verb is. 



*A phrase is a group of words that does NOT contain a subject and a verb. 



242 



J Exercise 2. Looking at grammar. (Chart 1 2-1) 

Underline the noun clause in each sentence. Some sentences do not have one. 

1. I couldn't hear what the teac h er sai d. 

2. What did the teacher say? {no noun clause) 

3. No one knows where Tom went. 

4. Where Tom went is a secret. 

5. What does Nancy want? 

6. We need to know what Nancy wants. 

j Exercise 3. Looking at grammar. (Chart 12 -i) 

Add punctuation and capitalization. Underline the noun clauses. 

1. Where did Sara go did she go home ► WJiere did Sara go? Did she go home: 

2. I don't know where Sara went > / don't know where Sara went. 

A 

3. What does Alex need do you know 

4. Do you know what Alex needs 

5. What Alex needs is a new job 

6. We talked about what Alex needs 

7. What do you need did you talk to your parents about what you need 

8. My parents know what I need 



U Exercise 4. Looking at grammar. (Chart 1 2-1) 

Are these sentences true for you? Circle yes or no. Discuss your answers. 



1 . What my family thinks of me is very important to me. 



yes 



no 



2. I always pay attention to what other people think of me. 



yes 



no 



3. Where we live is exciting. 



yes 



no 



4. Where we live is expensive. 



yes 



no 



5. I think how most celebrities behave is admirable. 



yes 



no 



6. I usually don't believe what I read in advertisements. 



yes 



no 



Noun Clauses 243 



u Exercise 5. Warm-up. (Chart 12-2) 

Choose the correct sentences. 

1 . Where does Brad live? 

a. I'm not sure where he lives. 

b. I'm not sure where does he live. 

2. I'm looking for Brad. 

a. Could you tell me where is Brad? 

b. Could you tell me where Brad is? 



12-2 Noun Clauses Beginning with a Question Word 



Question 


Noun Clause 




Where does she live? 
What did he say? 
When do they arrive? 


(a) 1 don't know where she lives. 

(b) 1 couldn't hear what he said. 

(c) Do you know when they arrive? 


In (a): where she lives is the object of the 
verb know. In a noun clause, the subject 
precedes the verb. Do not use question word 
order in a noun clause. 

Notice: does, did, and do are used in 
questions but not in noun clauses. 

See Appendix Chart B-2 for more 
information about question words and 
question forms. 


S V 
Who lives there? 

Who is at the door? 


S V 

(d) 1 don't know who lives there. 

(e) 1 wonder who is at the door. 


In (d) and (e): The word order is the same in 
both the question and the noun clause 
because who is the subject in both. 


V s 

Who are those men? 

Whose house is that? 


S V 

(f) 1 don't know who those men are. 

(g) 1 wonder whose house that is. 


In (f): those men is the subject of the 
question, so it is placed in front of the verb be 
in the noun clause.* 


What did she say? 
What should they do? 


(h) What she said surprised me. 

S V 

( i ) 1 What they should do 1 is obvious. 


In (h): What she said is the subject of the 
sentence. 

Notice in (i): A noun clause subject takes a 
singular verb (e.g., is). 



*Compare: \VJio is at the door? = who is the subject of the question. 

Wlw are those men? = those men is the subject of the question, so be is plural. 



□ Exercise 6. Looking at grammar. (Chart 12-2) 

Change each question in parentheses to a noun clause. 

1 . (Hozv old is he?) I don't know how old he is . 

2. (\VJiat zvas he talking about?) was interesting. 

3. (Wliere do you live?) Please tell me . 

4. (WJiere did she go?) is none of your business. 

5. (Wlien are they coming?) Do you know ? 



244 CHAPTER 12 



6. (Winch one does he want?) Let's ask him 

7. (Wliat happened?) I don't know 

8. (Wlw opened the door?) I don't know 

9. (Wliy did they leave the country?) 

10. (Wliat are zve doing in class?) 

1 1 . (Wlw are those people?) I don't know 

12. (Wlwse pen is this?) Do you know 

j Exercise 7. Looking at grammar. (Chart 12-2) 

Change the questions to noun clauses. Begin with Can you tell me. 

Example: What time does the computer lab close? 

> Can you tell me what time the computer lab closes? 

1 . How is this word pronounced? 

2. What does this mean? 

3. What was my grade? 

4. Who am I supposed to talk to? 

5. When is our next assignment due? 

6. How much time do we have for the test? 

7. When do classes end for the year? 

8. Where is our class going to meet? 

□ Exercise 8. Let's talk. (Chart 12 2) 

Speaker A asks a question. Speaker B responds beginning with / don't knoiv OR / wonder. 
Use the names of your classmates. Work in pairs, in groups, or as a class. 

Example: Where is ( )? 

Speaker A (book open): Where is Marco? 

Speaker B (book closed): I don't know where Marco is. or I wonder where Marco is. 



(Change roles if working in pairs.) 



1. 


Where does ( ) live? 


10. 


How long has ( ) been married? 


2. 


What country is ( ) from? 


11. 


Why are we doing this exercise? 


3. 


How long has ( ) been living here? 


12. 


Who turned off the lights? 


4. 


What is ( ) telephone number? 


13. 


Where are you going to eat lunch/dinner? 


5. 


Where is the post office? 


14. 


Where did ( ) go after class yesterday? 


6. 


How far is it to the South Pole? 


15. 


Why is ( ) smiling? 


7. 


What kind of watch does ( ) have? 


16. 


How often does ( ) go to the library? 


8. 


Why was ( ) absent yesterday? 


17. 


Whose book is that? 


9. 


What is ( ) favorite color? 


18. 


How much did that book cost? 



is a secret. 
is easy. 



Noun Clauses 245 



Exercise 9. Looking at grammar. (Chart 12-2) 

Make questions from the given sentences. The words in parentheses should be the answer to 
the question you make. Begin with a question word {who, what, how, when, where, why). 
Then change the question to a noun clause. 

1 . Tom will be here {next week) . 

Question: When will Tom be here? 

Noun Clause: Please tell me when Tom will be here. 

2. He is coming {because lie ivants to visit his friends) . 

Question: 

Noun Clause: Please tell me 

3. He'll be on flight {645, not flight 742). 

Question: 

Noun Clause: Please tell me 

4. {Jim Hunter) is going to meet him at the airport. 

Question: 

Noun Clause: Please tell me 

5. Jim Hunter is {his roommate). 

Question: 

Noun Clause: Please tell me 

6. He lives {on Riverside Road in Columbus, Ohio, USA). 

Question: 

Noun Clause: Please tell me 

7. He was {in Chicago) last week. 

Question: 

Noun Clause: Please tell me 

8. He has been working for Sony Corporation {since 2000). 

Question: 

Noun Clause: Do you know 

9. He has {a Sony) computer at home. 

Question: 

Noun Clause: Do you know 



CHAPTER 12 



Exercise 10. Looking at grammar. (Chart 12-2) 

Complete each sentence with the words in parentheses. Use any appropriate verb tense. Some 
of the completions contain noun clauses, and some contain questions. 

1. A: Where (Ruth, go) did Ruth ao ? She's not in her room. 

B: I don't know. Ask her friend Tina. She might know where (Ruth, go) 

Ruth went 

2. A: Oops! I made a mistake. Where (my eraser, be) ? 

Didn't I lend it to you? 
B: I don't have it. Ask Sally where (it, be) . I think I saw her using it. 

3. A: The door isn't locked! Why (Franco, lock, not) it 

before he left?* 

B: Why ask me? How am I supposed to know why (he, lock, not) 

it? Maybe he just forgot. 

4. A: Mr. Lee is a recent immigrant, isn't he? How long (he, be) in 

this country? 

B: I have no idea, but I'll be seeing Mr. Lee this afternoon. Would you like me to ask him 
how long (he, be) here? 

5. A: Help! Quick! Look at that road sign! Which road (zve, be supposed) 

to take? 

B: Don't look at me! You're the driver. I don't know which road (zve, be supposed) 
to take. I've never been here before. 




*\Vord order in negative questions: 

Usual: \V1iy didn't you call me? (with did + not contracted) 
Very formal: Wliy did you not call me? 



Noun Clauses 247 



□ Exercise 11. Listening. (Chart 12-2) 

Listen to the dialogues. Choose the completions you hear. 

how far it is. 
How far is it? 

how far it is. 
How far is it? 

why we watched the whole thing. 
Why did we watch the whole thing? 

why you watched it. 
why did you watch it? 

how old she is. 
How old is she? 

how this word is pronounced. 
How is this word pronounced? 

what the problem is. 
what is the problem? 

□ Exercise 12. Let's talk: interview. (Chart 12-2) 

Ask your classmates if they can answer questions based on the given information. Begin with 
Do you know followed by a question word (who, what, when, where, how many, how 
long, how far). If no one in the class knows the answer to a question, research the answer. 
Share any information you get with the rest of the class. 

Example: the shortest month of the year 

Speaker A: Do you know what the shortest month of the year is? 

Speaker B: Yes. It's February, or No, I don't know what the shortest month is. 

1 . the number of minutes in 24 hours 

2. the year the first man walked on the moon 

3. the winner of the Nobel Peace Prize last year 

4. the place Buddha was born 

5. the distance from the earth to the sun 

6. the time it takes for the moon to rotate around the earth 

□ Exercise 13. Warm-up. (Chart 12-3) 

Underline the noun clauses. What words are added when a yes/no question is changed to a 
noun clause? 

Question: Has the mail arrived? 

Noun Clause: I wonder if the mail has arrived . 

I wonder whether the mail has arrived. 

I wonder whether or not the mail has arrived. 

I wonder whether the mail has arrived or not. 

I wonder if the mail has arrived or not. 



CD2 1. a. 

Track 1 

b. 



2. a. 
b. 

3. a. 
b. 

4. a. 
b. 

5. a. 
b. 

6. a. 
b. 

7. a. 
b. 



1 2-3 Noun Clauses Beginning with Whether or If 



Yes /No Question 


Noun Clause 




Will she come? 
Does he need help? 


(a) 1 don't know whether she will come. 
1 don't know if she will come. 

(b) 1 wonder whether he needs help. 
1 wonder if he needs help. 


When a yes/no question is changed to a 
noun clause, whether or if is used to 
introduce the clause. 

note: Whether is more common than if in 
formal English. Both whether and /7are 
commonly used in speaking. 


(c) 1 wonder whether or not she will come. 

(d) 1 wonder whether she will come or not. 

(e) 1 wonder //she will come or not. 


In (c), (d), and (e): Notice the patterns 
when or not ls used. 


(f ) Whether she comes or not is 
unimportant to me. 


In (f ): Notice that the noun clause is in the 
subject position. 



Exercise 14. Looking at grammar. (Chart 12-3) 

Complete the sentences by changing the questions to noun clauses. 



Situation: You're at the office. 

Example: Let me knozv if . . . 

Did you finish the sales report? > 

Let me knozv if . . . 

1 . Is the financial report ready? 

2. Will it be ready tomorrow? 

3. Does the copy machine need paper? 

4. Is someone waiting for me? 

5. Do we need anything for the meeting? 

6. Are you going to be there? 



Let me knozv if you finished the sales report. 

Please check whether . . . 

7. Did they get my message? 

8. Is the copy machine working? 

9. Is there any paper left? 

10. Is this information correct? 

1 1 . Did the fax come in? 

12. Are we going to have Monday off? 



Exercise 15. Let's talk. (Chart 12 3) 

Speaker A asks a question. Speaker B responds beginning with / wonder. Work in pairs, in 
small groups, or as a class. 

Example: 

Speaker A (book open): Does Anna need any help? 

Speaker B (book closed): I wonder whether/if Anna needs any help. 



1 . Where is Tom? 

2. Should we wait for him? 

3. Is he having trouble? 

4. When was the first book written? 

5. What causes earthquakes? 

6. How long does a butterfly live? 



(Change roles if working in pairs.) 

7. Whose dictionary is this? 

8. Does it belong to William? 

9. Why did dinosaurs become extinct? 

10. Is there life on other planets? 

1 1 . How did life begin? 

12. Will people live on the moon someday? 



Noun Clauses 249 



□ Exercise 16. Let's talk: interview. (Chart 1 2-3) 

Interview students in your class. Ask each one a different question. Begin with Can I Could 
you tell me. Share a few of your answers with the class. 



1 . Have you ever won a prize? What? 

2. Have you ever played a joke on someone? Describe it. 

3. Have you ever stayed up all night? Why? 

4. Have you ever felt embarrassed? Why? 

5. Have you ever been in an earthquake? Where? When? 

6. Do you have a talent like singing or dancing {or something else)? What? 

7. Are you enjoying this interview? Why or why not? 



Exercise 17. Let's talk: pairwork. (Charts 12-1 ■-> 12-3) 

Work with a partner to create short dialogues. Partner A asks a question. Partner B answers 
the question beginning with the words in italics. 

Situation: You're late for school. You need help finding your things. 

Example: I don't know .... 

Where are my glasses? 
Partner A {book open) : Where are my glasses? 
Partner B {book closed): I don't know where your glasses are. 



Situation 1 : You're late for work. 
/ don 't know .... 

1 . Where did I leave my keys? 

2. Where did I put my shoes? 

3. Where's my other sock? 

4. What did I do with my briefcase? 

Situation 2: You have a new neighbor. 
I'll find out .... 

5. Where's he from? 

6. What does he do? 

7. Where does he work? 

8. Would he like to come to dinner? 



Change roles. 

Situation 3: You're at a tourist center. 
Let's ask .... 
9. Where is the bus station? 

10. How much does the city bus cost? 

1 1 . Do the city buses carry bikes? 

12. Is this bus schedule correct? 



We need to figure out .... 

13. How far is it from here to town? 

14. How much does it cost to take a 
taxi from here to downtown? 

15. How can we get our money changed here 



□ Exercise 18. Looking at grammar. (Charts 121 > 12-3) 

Correct the errors. 

your name is 

1 . Please tell me what -is-your-name . 

2. No one seems to know when will Maria arrive. 

3. I don't know what does that word mean. 

4. I wonder does the teacher know the answer? 

5. I'll ask her would she like some coffee or not. 



250 CHAPTER 12 



6. Be sure to tell the doctor where does it hurt. 



7. Why am I unhappy is something I can't explain. 

8. Nobody cares do we stay or leave. 

9. I need to know who is your teacher. 

10. I don't understand why is the car not running properly. 

1 1 . My young son wants to know where do the stars go in the daytime? 

u Exercise 19. Let's talk. (Charts 121 > 12 3) 

Work in small groups. What would you say in each situation? Use noun clauses. 

Example: Someone asks you about the time the mail comes. You're not sure. 
Possible answers: Vm not sure what time the mail comes. 

I don 't know when the mail is supposed to be here. 



1. You see a restaurant. You can't tell if it's open yet. You ask a man standing outside. 

2. You were absent yesterday. You want to know the homework. You ask another student. 

3. Someone asks you the date. You don't know, but you tell them you'll find out. 

4. Someone asks you about the weather tomorrow. Is it supposed to be sunny? You haven't 
heard. 

5. You're at a clothing store. You're buying a coat and want to know about the return policy. 
How many days do you have to return it? You ask a salesperson. 

6. Your friend asks you if you want to go to a movie or get a DVD to watch at home. Both 
sound good to you. You tell your friend you don't care which you do. 

7. You have a late fee on your bill. You want to know why. You call the company and ask. 

8. You are planning a hiking trip with a friend. This friend wants to bring his dog and asks 
you if it is okay. It doesn't matter to you. 



Etc. 



□ Exercise 20. Warm-up. (Chart 12 4) 

Complete the second sentence of each pair with 
an infinitive. Use to get or to do. Is the meaning 
in each pair the same or different? 



2 



1 



b 



b, 



a 



a 



She needs to figure out how she will get home. 

She needs to figure out how 

home. 



Susan doesn't know what she should do. 



Susan doesn't know what 




Noun Clauses 251 



12-4 Question Words Followed by Infinitives 




(a) 1 don't know what 1 should do. 

(b) 1 don't know what to do. 

(c) Pam can't decide whether she should go or stay home. 

(d) Pam can't decide whether to go or (to) stay home. 

(e) Please tell me how 1 can get to the bus station. 

(f ) Please tell me how to get to the bus station. 

(g) Jim told us where we could find it. 

(h) Jim told us where to find it. 


Question words (when, where, how, who, 
whom, whose, what, which, and whether) 
may be followed by an infinitive. 

Each pair of sentences in the examples has the 
same meaning. 

Notice that the meaning expressed by the 
infinitive is either should or can/could. 



□ Exercise 21. Looking at grammar. (Chart 12-4) 

Make sentences with the same meaning by using infinitives. 

1. Sally told me when I should come. > Sally told me zuhen to come. 

2. The plumber told me how I could fix the leak in the sink. 

3. Please tell me where I should meet you. 

4. Robert had a long excuse for being late for their date 3 but Sandy didn't know whether she 
should believe him or not. 

5. Jim found two shirts he liked 3 but he had trouble deciding which one he should buy. 

6. I've done everything I can think of to help Andy get his life straightened out. I don't know 
what else I can do. 

□ Exercise 22. In your own words. (Chart 12-4) 

Complete the sentences with your own words. Use infinitives in your completions. 

1. A: I can't decide what to wear to the reception. 

B: How about your green suit? 

2. A: Where are you going to live when you go to the university? 

B: I'm not sure. I can't decide whether or 



3. A: Do you know how ? 

B: No 3 but I'd like to learn. 

4. A: I don't know what for her birthday. Got any ideas? 

B: How about a book? 

5. My cousin has a dilemma. He can't decide whether or 

What do you think he should do? 

6. Before you leave on your trip, read this tour book. It tells you where 
and how . 



252 CHAPTER 12 



j Exercise 23. Warm-up. (Chart 12 5) 

Check (/) the grammatically correct sentences. 

1 . / We know that the planets revolve around the sun. 

2. Centuries ago, people weren't aware that the planets revolved around the sun. 

3. That the planets revolve around the sun is now a well-known fact. 

4. Is clear that the planets revolve around the sun. 



12-5 Noun Clauses Beginning with That 



Verb + 77m£-Clause 



(a) 1 think that Bob will come. 

(b) 1 think Bob will come. 


In (a): that Bob will come is a noun clause. It is used as 
the object of the verb think. The word that is usually 
omitted in speaking, as in (b). It is usually included in 
formal writing. 

See the list below for verbs commonly followed by a 
that-c\ause. 


agree that feel that know that remember that 
believe that find out that learn that say that 
decide that forget that notice that tell someone that 
discover that hear that promise that think that 
explain that hope that read that understand that 


Person + Be + Adjective + That-Clause 


(c) Jan is happy (that) Bob called. 


Thaf-clauses commonly follow certain adjectives, such as 
happy in (c), when the subject refers to a person (or 
persons). See the list below. 


I'm afraid that* Al is certain that 
I'm amazed that Al is confident that 
I'm angry that Al is disappointed that 
I'm aware that Al is glad that 


We're happy that Jan is sorry that 
We're pleased that Jan is sure that 
We're proud that Jan is surprised that 
We're relieved that Jan is worried that 


J* + Be + Adjective + That-Clause 


(d) It is clear (that) Ann likes her new job. 


Thaf-clauses commonly follow adjectives in sentences 
that begin with it + be, as in (d). See the list below. 


' It's amazing that It's interesting that It's obvious that It's true that 
It's c/ear that It's likely that It's possible that It's undeniable that 
It's pood that It's /uc/cy that It's strange that It's well/known that 
It's important that It's n/'ce that It's surprising that It's wonderful that 


77*a£-Clause Used as a Subject 


(e) That Ann likes her new job is clear. 


It is possible but uncommon for tf?af-clauses to be used as 
the subject of a sentence, as in (e). The word that is not 
omitted when the that-c\ause is used as a subject. 


(f ) The fact (that) Ann likes her new job is clear. 

(g) It is a fact (that) Ann likes her new job. 


More often, a that-c\ause in the subject position begins 
with the fact that, as in (f ), or is introduced by it is a fact, 
as in (g). 



*To be afraid has two possible meanings: 

(1) It can express fear: I 'ni afraid of dogs. I'm afraid that his dog will bite me. 

(2) It often expresses a meaning similar to "to be sorry": I'm afraid that I can't accept your invitation. I'm afraid you have the 
wrong number. 



Noun Clauses 253 



□ Exercise 24. In your own words. (Chart 12-5) 

Complete the sentences with your own words. 



1. 


I recently heard on the news that .... 


6. 


Do you feel that . . . ? 


2. 


When I was young, I found out that .... 


7. 


I recently read that .... 


3. 


I sometimes forget that .... 


8. 


Scientists have discovered that 


4. 


All parents hope that .... 


9. 


Students understand that .... 


5. 


Most people in my country believe that .... 


10. 


Have you noticed that . . . ? 



□ Exercise 25. Let's talk: interview. (Chart 12-5) 

Interview your classmates. Ask each one a different question. Their answers should follow this 
pattern: I'm + adjective + that-clause. 

Example: What is something in your life that you're glad about? 
> I'm glad that my family is supportive of me. 

1 . What is something that disappointed you in the past? 

2. What is something that annoys you? 

3. What is something about your friends that pleases you? 

4. What is something about nature that amazes you? 

5. What is something about another culture's traditions that surprises you? 

6. What is something that you are afraid will happen in the future? 

7. What is something about your future that you are sure of? 



□ Exercise 26. Looking at grammar. (Chart 1 2-5) 

Make noun clauses using it and any appropriate word(s) from the list. Make an equivalent 
sentence by using a that-c\ause as the subject. 

apparent a pity surprising unfair 

clear a shame too bad unfortunate 

a fact strange true a well-known fact 

obvious 



1. The world is round. 

> It is a fact that the world is round. 

> That the world is round is a fact. 

2. Tim hasn't been able to make any friends. 

3. The earth revolves around the sun. 

4. Exercise can reduce heart disease. 

5. Drug abuse can ruin one's health. 

6. Some women do not earn equal pay for equal work. 

7. Irene, who is an excellent student, failed her entrance examination. 

8. English is the principal language of business throughout much of the world. 



254 CHAPTER 12 



□ Exercise 27. Game. (Chart 12-5) 

Work in teams. Agree or disagree with the given statements. If you think the statement is true, 
begin with It's a fact that. If you think the statement is false, begin with It isn't true that. 
If you're not sure, guess. Choose one person to write your team's statements. The team with 
the most correct statements wins.* . 



1 . It'e a fact that most spiders have eight eyes. ^ 

2. It isn't true that some spiders have twelve legs. Ss^iBl\^- 

3. more males than females are colorblind. y f \ 

4. people's main source of vitamin D is fruit. 

5. the Great Wall of China took more than 1 3 000 years to build. 

6. twenty-five percent of the human body is water. 

7. a substance called chlorophyll makes plant leaves green. 

8. the World Wide Web went online in 2000. 

9. elephants have the longest pregnancy of any land animal. 

10. the first wheels were made out of stone. 

11. a diamond is the hardest substance found in nature. 



□ Exercise 28. Looking at grammar. (Chart 12-5) 

A r/zflr-clause is frequently used with the fact. Combine the sentences. Introduce each noun 
clause with The fact that. 

1. Ann was late. That didn't surprise me. 

► The fact tliatAnn was late didn't surprise me. 

2. Rosa didn't come. That made me angry 

3. Many people in the world live in intolerable poverty. That must concern all of us. 

4. I was supposed to bring my passport to the exam for identification. I was not aware of that. 

5. The people of the town were given no warning of the approaching tornado. Due to that, 
there were many casualties. 

□ Exercise 29. Looking at grammar. (Chart 12-5) 

Restate the sentences. Begin with The fact that. 

1 . It's understandable that you feel frustrated. 

-> The fact that you feel frustrated is understandable. 

2. It's undeniable that traffic is getting worse every year. 

3. It's unfortunate that the city has no funds for the project. 

4. It's obvious that the two leaders don't respect each other. 

5. It's a miracle that there were no injuries from the car accident. 



*Only the teacher should look at the answers, which can be found in the Answer Key for Chapter 12. 



Noun Clauses 255 



□ Exercise 30. Let's talk. (Chart 12 5) 

Work in small groups. Do you agree or disagree with the statements? Circle yes or no. 



1. 


It's undeniable that smoking causes cancer. 


yes 


no 


2. 


It's a well-known fact that young boys are more aggressive than young girls. 


yes 


no 


3. 


It's unfortunate that people eat meat. 


yes 


no 


4. 


It's true that women are more nurturing than men. 


yes 


no 


5. 


That someday all countries in the world will live in peace is unlikely. 


yes 


no 


6. 


That governments need to pay more attention to global warming is a fact. 


yes 


no 


7. 


It's clear that life is easier now than it was 100 years ago. 


yes 


no 


8. 


That technology has given us more free time is clearly true. 


yes 


no 




Canned vs. Fresh: Which Is Better? 

Do you avoid eating canned fruits and vegetables because you think they may be less 
nutritious than fresh fruits and vegetables? Do you think they might be less healthy? For many 
people,, the idea of eating canned fruits or vegetables is really not very appealing, and they 
would rather buy fresh produce. But what are the differences between canned and fresh 
produce? Let's take a look at the two. 

Many people are surprised to hear that canned food can have as many nutrients as fresh. 
This is true because the fruits and vegetables are put into the cans shortly after being picked. 
Because the food is canned so quickly, the nutritional content is locked in. Food in a can will 
stay stable for two years. 



256 CHAPTER 12 



Fresh produce, on the other hand, may need to be transported. This can take up to two 
weeks. Fresh produce will continue to lose important nutrients until it is eaten. The sooner you 
can eat fresh produce, the more nutritious it will be. 

There are also advantages to some fruits when they are first cooked and then canned. 
Tomatoes, for instance, have a substance called lycopene. This is a cancer-fighting ingredient 
that is found in cooked tomatoes. Fresh tomatoes do not have a significant amount of lycopene. 
It is better to eat tomato sauce from a can rather than fresh tomato sauce if you want to have 
lycopene in your diet. 

Of course, there are disadvantages to canned foods. They tend to have a higher salt and 
sugar content. People who need to watch their salt or sugar intake should try to find cans low 
in salt or sugar. Also, because the canning process requires heat, some loss of vitamin C may 
occur, but most essential nutrients remain stable. 

Finally, there is the issue of taste. For many, there is no comparison between the taste of 
fresh fruits and vegetables versus canned. No matter what the benefits of canning, some people 
refuse to eat anything that isn't fresh. How about you? Which do you prefer? 

Part II. Read the statements. Circle "T" for true and "F" for false. 

1 . According to the article, it's surprising to many people that canned produce 

can be as nutritious as fresh produce. T F 

2. It's a fact that food in a can will last for two years. T F 

3. It's a well-known fact that canned tomatoes contain a cancer-fighting ingredient. T F 

4. That fresh produce and canned produce taste the same is undeniable. T F 

5. It's obvious that the writer believes canned food is better than fresh. T F 

Exercise 32. Warm-up. (Chart 12 6) 

Read the words in the picture. Then look at the quoted speech below it. Circle the quotation 
marks. Is the punctuation inside or outside the quotation marks? In item 3, what do you 
notice about the punctuation? 




3. "You look like you're going to fall off that ladder," she said. 



Noun Clauses 257 



12-6 Quoted Speech 



Quoted speech refers to reproducing words exactly as they were originally spoken.* Quotation marks (". . .") are 
used.** 



Quoting One Sentence 


(a) She said, " My brother is a student." 

(b) "My brother is a student/ 5 she said. 

(c) "My brother/ 5 she said, "is a student." 


In (a): Use a comma after she said. Capitalize the first 
word of the quoted sentence. Put the final quotation 
marks outside the period at the end of the sentence. 

In (b): Use a comma, not a period, at the end of the 
quoted sentence when it precedes she said. 

In (c): If the quoted sentence is divided by she said, use 
a comma after the first part of the quote. Do not capitalize 
the first word after she said. 


Quoting More Than One Sentence 


(d) "My brother is a student. He is attending a 
university," she said. 

(e) "My brother is a student," she said. "He is 
attending a university." 


In (d): Quotation marks are placed at the beginning and 
end of the complete quote. Notice: There are no 
quotation marks after student. 

In (e): Since she said comes between two quoted 
sentences, the second sentence begins with quotation 
marks and a capital letter. 


Quoting a Question or an Exclamation 


(f) She asked, "When will you be here? 55 

(g) "When will you be here? 55 she asked. 

(h) She said, "Watch out! 55 


In (f): The question mark is inside the closing quotation 
marks. 

In (g): Since a question mark is used, no comma is used 
before she asked. 

In (h): The exclamation point is inside the closing 
quotation marks. 


( i ) "My brother is a student," said Anna. 
"My brother," said Anna, "is a student." 


In (i): The noun subject {Anna) follows said. A noun 
subject often follows the verb when the subject and verb 
come in the middle or at the end of a quoted sentence. 

note: A pronoun subject almost always precedes the 
verb. "My brother is a student," she said. 

very rare: "My brother is a student, " said she. 


( j ) "Let's leave," whispered Dave. 

(k) "Please help me," begged the unfortunate man. 

( 1 ) "Well," Jack began, "it's a long story." 


Say and ask are the most commonly used quote verbs. 

Some others: add, agree, announce, answer, beg, begin, 
comment, complain, confess, continue, explain, inquire, 
promise, remark, reply, respond, shout, suggest, whisper. 



* Quoted speech is also called "direct speech." Reported speech (discussed in Chart 12-7) is also called "indirect speech." 
**In British English, quotation marks are called "inverted commas" and can consist of either double marks (") or a single mark ('): 
She said, 'My brother is a student'. 



258 CHAPTER 12 



□ Exercise 33. Looking at grammar. (Chart 12-6) 

Add punctuation and capitalization. 

1 . Henry said there is a phone call for you 

2. There is a phone call for you he said 

3. There is said Henry a phone call for you 

4. There is a phone call for you it's your sister said Henry 

5. There is a phone call for you he said it's your sister 

6. I asked him where is the phone 

7. Where is the phone she asked 

8. Stop the clock shouted the referee we have an injured player 

9. Who won the game asked the spectator 

10. I'm going to rest for the next three hours she said I don't want to be disturbed 
That's fine I replied you get some rest I'll make sure no one disturbs you 

J Exercise 34. Looking at grammar. (Chart 12-6) 

Add punctuation and capitalization. Notice that a new paragraph begins each time the 
speaker changes. 

When the police officer came over to my 

car, he said let me see your driver's license, 

please 

What's wrong, Officer I asked was 
I speeding 

No, you weren't speeding he replied 
you went through a red light at the corner 
of Fifth Avenue and Main Street you almost 
caused an accident 

Did I really do that I said I didn't see a 
red light 




Noun Clauses 259 



u Exercise 35. Let's write. (Chart 12 6) 

Write fables using quoted speech. 




1. In fables 3 animals have the power of speech. Discuss what is happening in the illustrations 
of the grasshopper and the ants. Then write a fable based on the illustrations. Use quoted 
speech in your fable. Read your fable to a partner or small group. 

2. Write a fable that is well known in your country. Use quoted speech. 



J Exercise 36. Warm-up. (Chart 12-7) 

Read the conversation between Mr. and Mrs. Cook. Then read the description. What do you 
notice about the verbs in blue? 




Mr. Cook said he knew why Mrs. Cook couldn't find her glasses. He told her that they were 
on her head. 



260 CHAPTER 12 



1 2-7 Reported Speech: Verb Forms in Noun Clauses 



Quoted Speech 



Reported Speech 



(a) 


"1 watchTV ev6ry day." 


_> she 


said 


she 


watchedTV every day. 


(b) 


"1 am watchingTV" 


-> She 


said 


she 


was watchingTV. 


(c) 


"1 have watched TV" 


-» She 


said 


she 


had watchedTV. 




"1 watched TV" 


► She 


said 


she 


had watchedTV. 


(e) 


"1 had watchedTV" 


-> She 


said 


she 


had watchedTV. 


( f ) 


"1 w/7/ watch TV." 


_> she 


said 


she 


would watch TV. 


(g) 


"1 am fifo/'ng to watch TV." 


-v She 


said 


she 


was going to watch TV. 


(h) 


"1 can wa/ch TV." 


-» She 


said 


she 


could watch TV. 


(i) 


"1 may watch TV" 


-> She 


said 


she 


might watch TV. 


(j) 


"1 must watch TV." 


-> She 


said 


she 


had to watch TV. 


(k) 


"1 nave to watch TV" 


-> She 


said 


she 


had to watch TV. 



Reported speech refers to using 
a noun clause to report what 
someone has said. No quotation 
marks are used. 

If the reporting verb (the main 
verb of the sentence, e.g., said) 
is simple past, the verb in the 
noun clause will usually also be 
in a past form, as in these 
examples. 



( I ) "I should watch TV." 
"I ought to watch TV." 
"I might watch TV." 



She said she should watchTV. 
She said she ought to watchTV. 
She said she might watch TV. 



In (I): should, ought to, and 
might do not change. 



(m) Immediate reporting: 

— What did the teacher just say? I didn't hear him. 

— He said he wants us to read Chapter 6. 

(n) Later reporting: 

— I didn't go to class yesterday. Did Mr. Jones give any assignments? 

— Yes. He said he wanted us to read Chapter 6. 



Changing verbs to past forms in 
reported speech is common in 
both speaking and writing. 

However, sometimes in spoken 
English, no change is made in 
the noun clause verb, especially 
if the speaker is reporting 
something immediately or soon 
after it was said. 



(o) "The world is round." 



She said the world is round. 



Also, sometimes the present 
tense is retained even in formal 
English when the reported 
sentence deals with a general 
truth, as in (o). 



(p) "I watch TV every day." 
(q) "I watch TV every day." 

( r ) "I watchTV every day." 



She says she watchesTV every day. 
She has said that she watches 
TV every day. 

She will say that she watches 
TV every day. 



When the reporting verb is 
simple present, present perfect 
or future, the noun clause verb is 
not changed. 



(s) "WatchTVr 



-> She fo/cfme to watchTV* 



In reported speech, an 
imperative sentence is changed 
to an infinitive. Tell is used 
instead of say as the reporting 
verb. 

See Chart 14-6, p. 313, for other 
verbs followed by an infinitive 
that are used to report speech. 



*note: Tell is immediately followed by a (pro)noun object, but say is not: He told me he would be late. He said lie zvould be late. 
Also possible: He said to me he zvould be late. 



Noun Clauses 261 



□ Exercise 37. Looking at grammar. (Chart 12-7) 

Complete the sentences by reporting the speaker's words. Use noun clauses. Use past verb 
forms in noun clauses if appropriate. 

1. Pedro said, "I will help you." Pedro said .... 

> Pedro said (thai) he would help me. 

2. "Do you need a pen?" Elena asked. Elena asked me .... 

3. Jennifer asked, "What do you want?" Jennifer asked me .... 

4. Talal asked, "Are you hungry?" Talal wanted to know .... 

5. "I want a sandwich," Elena said. Elena said .... 

6. "I'm going to move to Ohio," said Bruce. Bruce informed me .... 

7. "Did you enjoy your trip?" asked Kim. Kim asked me .... 

8. Oscar asked, "What are you talking about?" Oscar asked me .... 

9. Maria asked, "Have you seen my grammar book?" Maria wanted to know .... 

10. Amy said, "I don't want to go." Amy said .... 

1 1 . "Can you help me with my report?" asked David. David asked me .... 

12. "I may be late," said Mitch. Mitch told me .... 

13. Felix said, "You should work harder." Felix told me .... 

14. Nadia said, "I have to go downtown." Nadia said .... 

15. "Why is the sky blue?" my young daughter often asks. My young daughter often asks 
me .... 

16. My mother asked, "Where is everyone?" My mother wondered .... 

17. "I will come to the meeting," said Pavel. Pavel told me .... 

18. Ms. Adams just asked Ms. Chang, "Will you be in class tomorrow?" Ms. Adams wanted to 
know .... 

19. "I think I'll go to the library to study." Joe said .... 

20. "Does Omar know what he's doing?" I wondered .... 

21. "Is what I've heard true?" I wondered .... 

22. "The sun rises in the east," said Mr. Clark. Mr. Clark, an elementary school teacher, 
explained to his students that .... 

23. "Someday we'll be in contact with beings from outer space." The scientist predicted that .... 

□ Exercise 38. Let's talk. (Chart 12 7) 

Students A and B have their books open. They read the dialogue aloud. Student C's book is 
closed. Your teacher asks Student C about the dialogue. 

Example: 

Student A (book open): What time is it? 

Student B (book open): Two-thirty. 

Teacher: What did Manuel (Student A) want to know? 

Student C (book closed): He wanted to know what time it was (or is). 

Teacher: What did Helen (Student B) say? 

Student C (book closed): She told him that it was (or is) two-thirty. 

1 . Student A: Can you speak Arabic? 
Student B: A little. 
Teacher: What did (Student A) ask? 

What did (Student B) say? 



262 CHAPTER 12 



2. Student A: 
Student B: 
Teacher: 

3. Student A: 
Student B: 
Teacher: 

4. Student A: 
Student B: 
Teacher: 

5. Student A: 
Student B: 
Teacher: 

6. Student A 
Student B 

7. Student A 
Student B 

8. Student A 
Student B 

9. Student A 
Student B 

10. Student A 
Student B 



Where is your grammar book? 
In my backpack. 

What did {Student A) want to know? 
What did {Student B) tell {Student A)} 

What courses are you taking? 
I'm taking three science courses this term. 
What did {Student A) want to know? 
What did {Student B) say? 

Did you finish your assignment? 

Oh 3 no 3 my assignment! I totally forgot about it. 

What did {Student A) ask? 

What did {Student B) tell {Student A)} 

Have you had lunch already? 
YeSj I just finished. 
What did ... ? 

Where will you be tomorrow around three o'clock? 
I have a doctor's appointment at 2:45. 

How do you like living here? 
It's okay. 

Is what you said really true? 

Yes, it's the truth. I'm not making it up. 

How many people have you met since you came here? 
Lots. People here have been very friendly. 

Is what you want to talk to me about really important? 

YeSj it's very important. We need to sit down and have a serious 

conversation. 



Exercise 39. Let's talk. (Charts 12-1 ► 12 7) 

Speaker A asks a question — whatever comes to mind — using each item and a question word 
{zvhen, hovo, where, what, vohy } etc.). Speaker B answers the question in a complete 
sentence. Speaker C reports what Speaker A and Speaker B said. Work in small groups or as a 
class. 



Example: tonight 
Speaker A {Rosa): 
Speaker B {AM): 
Speaker C {Yung): 

1 . this evening 

2. music 

3. courses 

4. tomorrow 



What are you going to do tonight? 
I'm going to study. 

Rosa asked Ali what he was going to do tonight. Ali replied that he was 
going to study. 



5. book 

6. this city 

7. population 

8. last year 



9. television 

10. dinner 

11. next year 

12. vacation 



Noun Clauses 263 



□ Exercise 40. Looking at grammar. (Chart 12-7) 

Complete the sentences with a past form of the verbs in parentheses. 

1 . A: The test is scheduled for Monday. 

B: Really? I heard it {schedule) for Tuesday. 

2. A: It's raining outside. 

B: Really? I thought it {snow) . 

3. A: Tony needs to borrow your bike for Saturday. 

B: Are you sure? I heard he {need) to borrow it for Sunday. 

4. A: Marita hasn't applied for a job yet. 

B: That's not what I heard. I heard she {apply) for work 

at her uncle's company. 

5. A: Mikhail can't come tonight. 

B: Are you sure? I heard he {come) tonight. 

6. A: Ms. Alvarez is going to retire. 

B: Really? I thought she {continue) in her sales 

position for another year. 



□ Exercise 41. Listening. (Chart 12-7) 

,fj\ Listen to the sentences. Complete them using past verb forms to report speech. 



CD 2 
Track 2 



1 . The speaker said that she 
because she had to 



waen't going 



to the personnel meeting 



finish a report. 



2. The speaker said that he 
wallet 



Marta any money because his 



in his coat pocket back at home. 



The speaker said that someone in the room 
perfume and it 



very strong 



The speaker said that he 
He said he 



her a headache. 

Emma at the coffee shop at 9:00. 



not to be late. 



The speaker said she 
her friend what he 



looking for a new job and asked 



she 



The speaker said that they 
because his wife 



late for the concert 



attend a business function after work. 



264 CHAPTER 12 



□ Exercise 42. Looking at grammar. (Chart 1 2-7) 

Change quoted speech to reported speech. Study the example carefully and use the same 
pattern: said that . . . and that. 

1. "My father is a businessman. My mother is an engineer." 

He said that his father was a businessman and that his mother was an engineer. 

2. "I'm excited about my new job. I've found a nice apartment." 

I got an email from my sister yesterday. She said 



3. "I expect you to be in class every day. Unexcused absences may affect your grades." 
Our sociology professor said 



4. "Highway 66 will be closed for two months. Commuters should seek alternate routes." 
The newspaper said 



5. "Every obstacle is a steppingstone to success. You should view problems in your life as 
opportunities to prove yourself." 

My father often told me 



□ Exercise 43. Let's write. (Charts 121 ► 12 7) 

Read each dialogue and write a report about it. Your report should include an accurate idea of 
the speaker's words 3 but it doesn't have to use the exact words. 

Example: Jack said 3 "I can't go to the game." 
Tom said, "Oh? Why not?" 

"I don't have enough money for a ticket/' replied Jack. 
Possible written reports: 

> Jack told Tom that he couldn't go to the game because he didn't have enough money for 
a ticket. 

> When Tom asked Jack why he couldn't go to the game 3 Jack said he didn't have enough 
money for a ticket. 

-> Jack said he couldn't go to the game. When Tom asked him why not 3 Jack replied that he 
didn't have enough money for a ticket. 

Write reports for these dialogues. 

1 . "What are you doing?" Alex asked. 
"I'm drawing a picture/' I said. 

2. Asako said 3 "Do you want to go to a movie 
Sunday night?" 




Noun Clauses 265 



Cho said, "I'd like to, but I have to study." 

3. "How old are you, Mrs. Robinson?" the little boy asked. 
Mrs. Robinson said, "It's not polite to ask people their age." 

"How much money do you make?" the little boy asked. 
"That's impolite too," Mrs. Robinson said. 

4. "Is there anything you especially want to watch on TV tonight?" my sister asked. 
"Yes," I replied. "There's a show at eight that I've been waiting to see for a long time." 
"What is it?" she asked. 

"It's a documentary on green sea turtles," I said. 
"Why do you want to see that?" 

"I'm doing a research paper on sea turtles. I think I might be able to get some good 
information from the documentary. Why don't you watch it with me?" 

"No, thanks," she said. "I'm not especially interested in green sea turtles." 

Exercise 44. Check your knowledge. (Charts 121 -> 1 2-7) 

Correct the errors. 

1 . Tell the taxi driver where do you want to go. 

2. My roommate came into the room and asked me why aren't you in class? I said I am 
waiting for a telephone call from my family. 

3. It was my first day at the university, and I am on my way to my first class. I wondered who 
else will be in the class. What the teacher would be like? 

4. He asked me that what did I intend to do after I graduate? 

5. What does a patient tell a doctor it is confidential. 

6. What my friend and I did it was our secret. We didn't even tell our parents what did we do. 

7. The doctor asked that I felt okay. I told him that I don't feel well. 

8. I asked him what kind of movies does he like, he said me, I like romantic movies. 

9. Is true you almost drowned? my friend asked me. Yes, I said. I'm really glad to be alive. It 
was really frightening. 

10. It is a fact that I almost drowned makes me very careful about water safety whenever I go 
swimming. 

11. I didn't know where am I supposed to get off the bus, so I asked the driver where is the 
science museum. She tell me the name of the street. She said she will tell me when should 
I get off the bus. 



CHAPTER 12 



12. My mother did not live with us. When other children asked me where was my mother, 
I told them she is going to come to visit me very soon. 

13. When I asked the taxi driver to drive faster, he said I will drive faster if you pay me more. 
At that time I didn't care how much would it cost, so I told him to go as fast as he can. 

14. My parents told me is essential to know English if I want to study at an American 
university. 



J Exercise 45. Let's talk. (Charts 12 l > 12 7) 

Give a one-minute impromptu speech on any topic that interests you (insects, soccer, dogs, 
etc.). Your classmates will take notes as you speak. Later, in a short paragraph or orally, they 
will report what you said. 



j Exercise 46. Let's talk and write. (Charts 1 2-1 > 12 7) 

You and your classmates are newspaper reporters at a press conference. You will all interview 
your teacher or a person whom your teacher invites to class. Your assignment is to write a 
newspaper article about the person whom you interviewed. 

Take notes during the interview. Write down some of the important sentences so that you 
can use them for quotations in your article. Ask for clarification if you do not understand 
something the interviewee has said. It is important to report information accurately. 

In your article, try to organize your information into related topics. For example, if you 
interview your teacher, you might use this outline: 

I. General introductory information 
II. Professional life 

A. Present teaching duties 

B. Academic duties and activities outside of teaching 

C. Past teaching experience 

D. Educational background 
III. Personal life 

A. Basic biographical information (e.g., place of birth, family background, places 
of residence) 

B. Free-time activities and interests 

C. Travel experiences 

This outline only suggests a possible method of organization. You must organize your own 
article, depending upon the information you have gained from your interview. 

When you write your report, most of your information will be presented in reported 
speech; use quoted speech only for the most important or memorable sentences. 

NOTE: When you use quoted speech, be sure you are presenting the interviewee's exact 
zvords. If you are simply paraphrasing what the interviewee said, do not use quotation marks. 



Noun Clauses 267 



li Exercise 47. Let's talk and write. (Charts 12-1 > 12-7) 

Work in small groups. Discuss one (or more) of the given statements. Write a report of the 
main points made by each speaker in your group. (Do not attempt to report every word that 
was spoken.) 

In your report, use words such as think, believe, say, remark, and state to introduce 
noun clauses. When you use think or believe, you will probably use present tenses (e.g., 
Omar thinks that money is the most important thing in life.). When you use say, remark, or 
state, you will probably use past tenses (e.g., Olga said that many other things were more 
important than money.). 

Do yon agree with these statements? IVJiy or zuliy not? 

1 . Money is the most important thing in life. 

2. A woman can do any job a man can do. 

3. When a person decides to get married, his or her love for the other person is the only 
important consideration. 

4. A world government is both desirable and necessary. Countries should simply become the 
states of one nation, the Earth. In this way, wars could be eliminated and wealth could be 
equally distributed. 

□ Exercise 48. Warm-up. (Chart 12-8) 

Read the sentences. Then substitute the phrases in the list for the words in blue. 
Situation: Mr. and Mrs. Smith plan to retire soon and travel around the world. 

in any way that anything that any place that at any time that 

1. They'll go wherever they want. 3. They'll do whatever they want. 

2. They'll leave whenever they want. 4. They'll help people however they can. 



*ds 



The following -ever words give the idea of "any." Each pair of sentences in the examples has the same meaning. 



whoever 


(a) 


Whoever wants to come is welcome. 
Anyone who wants to come is welcome. 




(b) 


He makes friends easily with whoever he meets.* 
He makes friends easily with anyone who he meets. 


whatever 


(c) 


He always says whatever comes into his mind. 
He always says anything that comes into his mind. 


whenever 


(d) 


You may leave whenever you wish. 
You may leave at any time that you wish. 


wherever 


(e) 


She can go wherever she wants to go. 
She can go anyplace that she wants to go. 


however 


(0 


The students may dress however they please. 
The students may dress in any way that they please. 



*In (b): whomever is also possible; it is the object of the verb meets. In American English, whomever is rare and very formal. 
In British English, whoever (not whomever) is used as the object form: He makes friends easily with ivhoever he meets. 



268 CHAPTER 12 



Exercise 49. Looking at grammar. (Chart 12-8) 

Complete the sentences with -ever words. 

1. Mustafa is free to go anyplace he wishes. He can go wherever he wants. 

2. Mustafa is free to go anytime he wishes. He can go he wants. 

3. I don't know what you should do about that problem. Do seems 

best to you. 

4. I want you to be honest. I hope you feel free to say is on your mind. 

5. leads a life full of love and happiness is rich. 

6. If you want to rearrange the furniture 3 go ahead. You can rearrange it 

you want. I don't care one way or the other. 

7. Those children are wild! I feel sorry for has to be their babysitter. 

8. I have a car. I can take you you want to go. 

9. Irene does she wants to do 3 goes she wants to 

gOj gets up she wants to get up 3 makes friends with 

she meetSj and dresses she pleases. 



Noun Clauses 269 



Chapter 13 

Adjective Clauses 



W 



□ Exercise 1. Warm-up. (Chart 13-1) 

The sentences are all correct. The words in blue are all pronouns. What nouns do they refer 
to? How does the noun affect the choice of the pronoun? 

1. a. We helped the man. He was lost in the woods. 

b. We helped the man who was lost in the woods. 

c. We helped the man that was lost in the woods. 

2. a. The new computer is fast. It is in my office. 

b. The new computer which is in my office is fast. 

c. The new computer that is in my office is fast. 



13-1 Adjective Clause Pronouns Used as the Subjec 




1 thanked the woman. 
She helped me. 

1 

(a) 1 thanked the woman who helped me. 

(b) 1 thanked the woman that helped me. 

The book is mine. 
It is on the table. 

1 

(c) The book which is on the table is mine. 

(d) The book that is on the table is mine. 


In (a): / thanked the woman - a main clause; 
who helped me = an adjective clause.* 

An adjective clause modifies a noun. 

In (a): the adjective clause modifies woman. 


In (a): who is the subject of the adjective clause. 
In (b): that is the subject of the adjective clause. 

note: (a) and (b) have the same meaning; (c) and (d) 
have the same meaning. 


who = used for people 

which = used for things 

that = used for both people and things 


(e) correct: The book that is on the table is mine. 

(f) incorrect: The book is mine -that-is-on-the-tabler 


An adjective clause closely follows the noun it 
modifies. 



*A clause is a structure that has a subject and a verb. There are two kinds of clauses: independent and dependent. 
In example (a): 

• The main clause (/ thanked the woman) is also called an independent clause. An independent clause is a complete sentence 
and can stand alone. 

• The adjective clause {who helped me) is a dependent clause. A dependent clause is NOT a complete sentence and cannot 
stand alone. A dependent clause must be connected to an independent clause. 



270 



J Exercise 2. Looking at grammar. (Chart 13-1) 

Choose all the possible completions for each sentence. Do not add any commas or capital 
letters. 

1 . I met the doctor helped my father after the accident. 

(a?) who (b?) that c. which d. she 

2. Where is the magazine has the story about online theft? 

a. who b. that c. which d. it 

3. Did I tell you about the car salesman tried to sell me a defective truck? 

a. who b. that c. which d. he 

4. The house is across the street from us is going to be rented soon. 

a. who b. that c. which d. it 



_j Exercise 3. Looking at grammar. (Chart 13-1) 

Combine the two sentences. Use the second sentence as an adjective clause. 

1. I saw the man. He closed the door. — > I saw the man |^ | closed the door. 

2. The girl is happy. She won the race. 

3. The student is from China. He sits next to me. 

4. The students are from China. They sit in the front row. 

5. We are studying sentences. They contain adjective clauses. 

6. I am using a sentence. It contains an adjective clause. 

□ Exercise 4. Let's talk. (Chart 13 1) 

Make true statements. Use who as the subject of an adjective clause. Work in pairs, in small 
groups, or as a class. 

Example: I like teachers who .... 

I like teachers who have a good sense of humor. 
I like teachers who don't give tests. Etc. 

1 . People who . . . amaze me. 

2. I don't like people who .... 

3. Friends who . . . frustrate me. 

4. Famous athletes who . . . are not good role models for children. 

□ Exercise 5. Listening. (Chart 1 3-1) 

£jj Part I. When -who is contracted with an auxiliary verb, the contraction is often hard to hear. 
Listen to the following sentences. What is the full, uncontracted form of the italicized verb? 



CD 2 

Track 3 



1. He has a friend zvho'll help him. (full form = who zvill) 

2. He has a friend zvho's helping him. 

3. He has a friend zuho's helped him. 

4. He has friends who're helping him. 

5. He has friends zvho've helped him. 

6. He has a friend zuho'd helped him. 

7. He has a friend zvho'd like to help him. 



Adjective Clauses 271 



Part II. Complete the sentences with the verbs you hear, but write the full, uncontracted form 
of each verb. 

Example: You will hear: I know a man who's lived in 20 different countries. 

You will write: I know a man who hae lived in 20 different countries. 



8. We know a person who 

9. We know a person who 

10. That's the man who 

11. I know a nurse who 



12. Let's talk to the people who 



13. There are people at the factory who 
adult lives. 

14. The doctor who 



great for the job. 
to apply for the job. 



the speech at our graduation. 

around the world helping people. 

the protest march. 

there all their 



care of my mother retired. 



□ Exercise 6. Warm-up. (Chart 13 2) 

Read the passage and complete the sentences. 




When William and Eva started their family, they decided that Eva would continue to work 
and William would quit his job to stay home with the children. 

William has been a stay-at-home dad for the last seven years, but now both children are in 
school, and he's going back to work. He's looking for a job that will still allow him to spend 
time with his children. V/hat kind of job do you think he is looking for? 

He is looking for a job that/zvhich ... OR He is not looking for a job that/zvhich . . . 

1. leave him free on weekends 5. have a long commute 

2. require him to work on weekends 6. be close to home 

3. include a lot of long-distance travel 7. demand sixteen-hour work days 

4. have minimal travel requirements 8. have flexible hours 



272 CHAPTER 13 



13-2 Adjective Clause Pronouns Used as the Object of a Verb 


The man was Mr. Jones. 
1 saw him. 

1 

(a) The man who(m) 1 saw was Mr. Jones. 

(b) The man that 1 saw was Mr. Jones. 

(c) The man 0 / saw was Mr. Jones. 


Notice in the examples: The adjective clause 
pronouns are placed at the beginning of the 
clause. 


In (a): who is usually used instead of whom, 
especially in speaking. Whom is generally used 
only in very formal English. 


The movie wasn't very good. 
We saw it last night. 

(d) The movie which we saw last night wasn't very good. 

(e) The movie that we saw last night wasn't very good. 

(f) The movie 0 we saw last night wasn't very good. 


In (c) and (f): An object pronoun is often omitted 
(0) from an adjective clause. (A subject 
pronoun, however, may not be omitted.) 


who(m) = used for people 

which = used for things 

that = used for both people and things 


(n\ incdrrpC'T' Thp man \m\t\c\( m\ 1 caw him , wac Mr InnPQ 

Im J / / V O L/fi nLU / . IMC lllall Wl IVJl 1 1 1 J 1 OaVV 1 Ilrrl WuO 1 VI I . UVJI ICO. 

The man that 1 saw tiinv was Mr. Jones. 
The man 1 saw -him- was Mr. Jones. 


In (n\ m Thp nrnnniin him mi iQt hp rpmnvpH It iq 

III \H/* MIC LM VJI IVJUI 1 f/fffflllUOl UC IwlllVJVCVJ. 11 IO 

unnecessary because who(m), that, or 0 
functions as the object of the verb saw. 



□ Exercise 7. Looking at grammar. (Chart 13-2) 

Choose all the possible completions for each sentence. Do not add any commas or capital 
letters. 

1 . Tell me about the people you visited when you were in Oxford. 

(a?) who (b?) that c. which d. she (e?) whom (T) 0 

2. Do you want to see the pictures the photographer took? 

a. who b. that c. which d. they e. whom f. 0 

3. The people I call most often on my cell phone are my mother and my sister. 

a. who b. that c. which d. she e. whom f. 0 

4. The apartment we wanted to rent is no longer available. 

a. who b. that c. which d. it e. whom f. 0 

5. The children the Smiths adopted are from three different countries. 

a. who b. that c. which d. they e. whom f. 0 

J Exercise 8. Looking at grammar. (Chart 13 -2) 

Combine the two sentences. Use the second sentence as an adjective clause. Give all the 
possible patterns, orally or in writing. 

1 . The book was good. I read it. 

— > The book that I which I & I read was good. 

2. I liked the woman. I met her at the party last night. 

3. I liked the composition. You wrote it. 

4. The people were very nice. We visited them yesterday. 

5. The man is standing over there. Ann brought him to the party. 



Adjective Clauses 273 



□ Exercise 9. Warm-up. (Chart 13-3) 

Compare the underlined adjective clause in sentence a. with the one in sentence b. What 
differences do you notice? NOTE: Both sentences are correct. 

1. a. I think Lee is a person who you can have fun with . 

b. Do you think Lee is a person with whom you can have fun ? 

2. a. The art school which Lori applied to is very demanding. 

b. Do you know the name of the art school to which Lori applied ? 



13-3 Adjective Clause Pronouns Used as the Obje 



(a) 
(b) 
(c) 
(d) 



(e) 
(f) 
(9) 
(h) 



She is the woman. 
I told you about her. 



She is the woman 
She is the woman 
She is the woman 
She is the woman 



about whom 

who(m) 

that 

0 



The music was good. 
We listened to it last night. 



The music 
The music 
The music 
The music 



to which 
which 
that 
0 



/ told you. 
I told you about. 
I told you about. 
I told you about. 



we listened 
we listened to 
we listened to 
we listened to 



last night was good. 

last night was good. 

last night was good. 

last night was good. 



In very formal English, the preposition comes at 
the beginning of the adjective clause, as in (a) 
and (e). Usually, however, in everyday usage, 
the preposition comes after the subject and 
verb of the adjective clause, as in the other 
examples. 



note: If the preposition comes at the beginning 
of the adjective clause, only whom or which 
may be used. A preposition is never 
immediately followed by that or who. 
incorrect: She is the woman -about-whe- 
I told you. 

incorrect: The music ^o-that- we listened 
last night was good. 



Exercise 10. Looking at grammar. (Chart 13-3) 

Choose all the possible completions for each sentence. Which one seems the most formal? 



1 . The sunglasses 



were under the sofa. 2. The health-care workers 



were helpful. 



a. 


which I was looking for 


a. 


who I spoke to 


b. 


that I was looking for 


b. 


that I spoke to 


c. 


I was looking for 


c. 


who I spoke to them 


d. 


I was looking 


d. 


to whom I spoke 


e. 


I was looking for them 


e. 


to who I spoke 






f. 


I spoke to 



□ Exercise 11. Looking at grammar. (Chart 13-3) 

Combine the two sentences. Use the second sentence as an adjective clause. Give all the 
possible patterns, orally or in writing. 

1. The man is standing over there. I was telling you about him. 

2. I must thank the people. I got a present from them. 

3. The meeting was interesting. Omar went to it. 



274 CHAPTER 13 



□ Exercise 12. Looking at grammar. (Charts 1 3-1 > 13-3) 

Give all the possible completions for each sentence. 

1 . The dress that / which / 0 she is wearing is new. 

2. Did I tell you about the woman I met last night? 

3. The report Joe is writing must be finished by Friday. 

4. The doctor examined the sick child was gentle. 

5. Did you hear about the earthquake occurred in California? 

6. The woman I was dancing with stepped on my toes. 

□ Exercise 13. Looking at grammar. (Charts 1 3-1 > 13-3) 

Underline the adjective clause in each sentence. Give all other possible patterns. 

1 . The woman that I spoke to gave me good advice. 
— > who(m) I spoke to 

— > / spoke to 

— > to whom I spoke 

2. I returned the money which I had borrowed from my roommate. 

3. Yesterday I ran into an old friend I hadn't seen for years. 

4. Marie lectured on a topic she knew very little about. 

5. I read about a man who keeps chickens in his apartment. 




□ Exercise 14. Check your knowledge. (Charts 1 3-1 > 13-3) 

Correct the errors in the adjective clauses. 

1 . In our village, there were many people didn't have much money. 

2. I enjoyed the book that you told me to read it. 



Adjective Clauses 275 



3. I still remember the man who he taught me to play the guitar when I was a boy. 

4. I showed my father a picture of the car I am going to buy it as soon as I save enough 
money. 

5. The woman about who I was talking about suddenly walked into the room. 
I hope she didn't hear me. 

6. The people appear in the play are amateur actors. 

7. I don't like to spend time with people which loses their temper easily. 

8. While the boy was at the airport, he took pictures of people which was waiting for their 
planes. 

9. People who works in the hunger program they estimate that 45,000 people worldwide die 
from starvation and malnutrition-related diseases every single day of the year. 

10. In one corner of the marketplace, an old man who was playing a violin. 

Exercise 15. Looking at grammar: pairwork. (Charts 13-1 > 13-3) 

Work with a partner. Speaker A looks at the cue briefly. Then, without looking at the text, 
Speaker A says the cue to Speaker B. Speaker B begins the answer with Yes. 

Examples: 

Speaker A (book open): You drank some tea. Did it taste good? 
Speaker B (book closed): Yes, the tea I drank tasted good. 

Speaker A (book open): A police officer helped you. Did you thank her? 
Speaker B (book closed): Yes, I thanked the police officer who helped me. 

1 . You are sitting in a chair. Is it comfortable? 

2. You saw a man. Was he wearing a brown suit? 

3. A woman stepped on your toes. Did she apologize? 

4. Some students took a test. Did most of them pass? 

5. You were reading a book. Did you finish it? 

6. A taxi driver took you to the bus station. Did you have a conversation with her? 
Change roles. 

7. You stayed at a hotel. Was it in the center of town? 

8. A waiter served you at a restaurant. Was he polite? 

9. A woman came into the room. Did you recognize her? 

10. Some students are sitting in this room. Can all of them speak English? 

1 1 . You were looking for a dictionary. Did you find it? 

12. A clerk cashed your check. Did he ask for identification? 



CHAPTER 13 



J Exercise 16. Warm-up. (Chart 13-4) 

Check (/) the sentences that are grammatically correct . 

1. I have a friend. His purpose in life is to help others. 

2. I have a friend whose purpose in life is to help others. 

3. I have a friend who his purpose in life is to help others. 

4. I have a friend that his purpose in life is to help others. 



13-4 Using Whose 


1 know the man. 

His bicycle was stolen. 

1 

V 

(a) 1 know the man whose bicycle was stolen. 

The student writes well. 
1 read her composition. 

1 

(b) The student whose composition 1 read writes well. 


Whose is used to show possession. It carries the 
same meaning as other possessive pronouns used 
as adjectives: his, her, its, and their. 

Like his, her, its, and their, whose is connected to a 
noun: 

his bicycle —> whose bicycle 

her composition —> whose composition 

Both whose and the noun it is connected to are 
placed at the beginning of the adjective clause. 
Whose cannot be omitted. 


(c) 1 worked at a company whose employees wanted to 
form a union. 


Whose usually modifies people, but it may also be 
used to modify things, as in (c). 


(d) That's the boy whose parents you met. 

(e) That's the boy who's in my math class. 

(f ) That's the boy who's been living at our house since 
his mother was arrested.* 


Whose and who's have the same pronunciation. 

Who's can mean who is, as in (e), or who has, as 
in (f). 



*\Vhen has is a helping verb in the present perfect, it is usually contracted with ivho in speaking and sometimes in informal writing, 
as in (f ). 

When has is a main verb, it is NOT contracted with ivho: I know a man ivho has a cook. 



□ Exercise 17. Looking at grammar. (Chart 13-4) 

Complete the sentences with -who or -whose. 

1 . I know a doctor whose last name is Doctor. 

2. I know a doctor who lives on a sailboat. 

3. The woman wallet was stolen called the police. 

4. The woman found my wallet called me immediately. 

5. The professor teaches art history is excellent. 

6. The professor course I am taking is excellent. 

7. I apologized to the man coffee I spilled. 

8. I made friends with a man is in my class. 



Adjective Clauses 277 



□ Exercise 18. Looking at grammar. (Chart 13 4) 

Combine the two sentences. Use the second sentence as an adjective clause. 

1. I met the woman. Her husband is the president of the corporation. 
— > / met the woman whose husband is the president of the corporation. 

2. Mrs. North teaches a class for students. Their native language is not English. 

3. The people were nice. We visited their house. 

4. I live in a dormitory. Its residents come from many countries. 

5. I have to call the man. I accidentally / / 1 > 



picked up his umbrella after the 
meeting. 

6. The man poured a glass of water on 
his face. His beard caught on fire 
when he lit a cigarette. 




□ 



CD 2 
Track 4 



Exercise 19. Listening. (Chart 13-4) 

Circle the words you hear: who's or whose. 

Example: You will hear: The man who's standing over there is Mr. Smith. 
You will choose: (who's) whose 



1. 


who's 


whose 


5. 


who's 


whose 


2. 


who's 


whose 


6. 


who's 


whose 


3. 


who's 


whose 


7. 


who's 


whose 


4. 


who's 


whose 


8. 


who's 


whose 



□ Exercise 20. Let's talk: pairwork. (Chart 13-4) 

Work with a partner. Pretend you are in a room full of people. You and your partner are 
speaking. Together, you are identifying various people in the room. Begin each sentence with 
There is. Alternate items, with Partner A doing item 1, Partner B doing item 2, Partner A 
doing item 3, etc. 

1 . That man's wife is your teacher. 

— > Partner A: There is the man zvhose zvife is my teacher. 

2. That woman's husband is a football player. 

— > Partner B: There is the woman whose husband is a football player. 

3. That girl's mother is a dentist. 

4. That person's picture was in the newspaper. 

5. That woman's car was stolen. 

6. That man's daughter won a gold medal at the Olympic Games. 

7. You found that woman's keys. 

8. You are in that teacher's class. 

9. You read that author's book. 

10. You borrowed that student's lecture notes. 



278 CHAPTER 13 



I 



CD 2 
Track 5 



Exercise 21. Listening. (Chart 13 -4) 

Listen to the sentences in normal, contracted speech. You will hear: whose, who's (meaning 
who is) } or who's (meaning who has). Circle the correct meaning. 

Example: You will hear: I know a woman who's a taxi driver. 
You will choose: whose (who isT") who has 



1. 


whose 


who is 


who has 


5. 


whose 


who is 


who has 


2. 


whose 


who is 


who has 


6. 


whose 


who is 


who has 


3. 


whose 


who is 


who has 


7. 


whose 


who is 


who has 


4. 


whose 


who is 


who has 


8. 


whose 


who is 


who has 



□ Exercise 22. Let's talk: small groups. (Chart 13-1 ► 13-4) 

Complete the sentences orally in small groups. Discuss each other's choices and opinions. 

1 . A famous person life I admire is 

2. is a famous person has made the world a better place. 

3. A person is having a good influence on world affairs today is 

4. is a country is having a bad influence on world affairs today. 

5. is a country leadership on issues of global warming is much admired 

throughout the world. 



J Exercise 23. Warm-up. (Chart 13-5) 

All of these sentences have the same meaning, and all of them are grammatically correct. The 
adjective clauses are in blue. What differences do you notice? 

1. The town where I grew up is very small. 

2. The town in which I grew up is very small. 

3. The town which I grew up in is very small. 

4. The town that I grew up in is very small. 

5. The town I grew up in is very small. 





The building is very old. 

He lives there (in that building). 

(a) The building where he lives is very old. 

(b) The building in which he lives is very old. 
The building which he lives in is very old. 
The building that he lives in is very old. 
The building 0 he lives in is very old. 


Where is used in an adjective clause to modify a 
place (city, country, room, house, etc.). 

If where is used, a preposition is not included in the 
adjective clause, as in (a). 

If where is not used, the preposition must be 
included, as in (b). 



Adjective Clauses 279 



□ Exercise 24. Looking at grammar. (Chart 13-5) 

Combine the two sentences. Use the second sentence as an adjective clause. 

1. The city was beautiful. We spent our vacation there (in that city). 

2. That is the restaurant. I will meet you there (at that restaurant). 

3. The office is busy. I work there (in that office). 

4. That is the drawer. I keep my jewelry there (in that drawer). 

□ Exercise 25. Warm-up. (Chart 13-6) 

All of these sentences have the same meaning, and all of them are grammatically correct. The 
adjective clauses are in blue. What differences do you notice? 

1. I clearly remember the day when I rode a bike for the first time. 

2. I clearly remember the day on which I rode a bike for the first time. 

3. I clearly remember the day that I rode a bike for the first time. 

4. I clearly remember the day I rode a bike for the first time. 



13-6 Using When in Adjective Clauses 




I'll never forget the day. 

1 met you then (on that day). 

(a) I'll never forget the day when 1 met you. 

(b) I'll never forget the day on which 1 met you. 

(c) I'll never forget the day that 1 met you. 

(d) I'll never forget the day 0 1 met you. 


When is used in an adjective clause to modify a 
noun of time (year, day, time, century, etc.). 

The use of a preposition in an adjective clause that 
modifies a noun of time is somewhat different from 
that in other adjective clauses: a preposition is used 
preceding which, as in (b); otherwise, the 
preposition is omitted. 



□ Exercise 26. Looking at grammar. (Chart 13-6) 

Combine the two sentences. Use the second sentence as an adjective clause. 

1. Monday is the day. They will come then (on that day). 

2. 7:05 is the time. My plane arrives then (at that time). 

3. 1960 is the year. The revolution took place then (in that year). 

4. July is the month. The weather is usually the hottest then (in that month). 




280 CHAPTER 13 



□ Exercise 27. Looking at grammar. (Charts 13-5 and 13-6) 

Combine the two sentences. Use where or when to introduce an adjective clause. 

1. That is the place. The accident occurred there. 
— > That is the place where the accident occurred. 

2. There was a time. Movies cost a dime then. 
— > There was a time when movies cost a dime. 

3. A cafe is a small restaurant. People can get a light meal there. 

4. Every neighborhood in Brussels has small cafes. Customers drink coffee and eat 
pastries there. 

5. There was a time. Dinosaurs dominated the earth then. 

6. The house was destroyed in an earthquake ten years ago. I was born and grew up there. 

7. The miser hid his money in a place. It was safe from robbers there. 

8. There came a time. The miser had to spend his money then. 



□ Exercise 28. Let's talk: interview. (Charts 1 3-1 ► 13-6) 

Interview two classmates for each item. Encourage them to use adjective clauses that modify 
the nouns in bold. Share a few of their answers with the class. 

Example: What kind of food don't you like? 

/ don't like food that is too sugary. 

1 . What kind of people do you like to spend time with? 

2. What kind of people do you prefer to avoid? 

3. What kind of cities do you like to visit? 

4. What kind of teachers do you learn best from? 

5. What kind of place would you like to live in? 

6. What time of day do you feel most energetic? 



□ Exercise 29. Listening. (Charts 1 3-1 -> 13-6) 

Listen to the sentences. Choose the correct meanings for each sentence. 

2 6 Example: You will hear: The nurse who gave the medicine to the patients seemed confused. 
You will choose: a. The patients were confused. 

(b/)The patients received medicine from the nurse. 
(c?)The nurse was confused. 

1. a. A man organized the dinner. 

b. The man is the speaker's friend. 

c. The speaker organized the dinner. 

2. a. Two people were killed in an accident. 

b. Two people blocked all lanes of the highway for two hours. 

c. An accident blocked all lanes of the highway for two hours. 

3. a. The speaker lives in a large city. 

b. The speaker was born in a small town. 

c. The speaker was born in a large city. 

4. a. The music teacher and the students play in a rock band. 

b. The music teacher directs a rock band. 

c. The music teacher plays in a rock band. 




Adjective Clauses 281 



5. a. The speaker gave Jack a camera for his birthday. 

b. The camera takes excellent pictures. 

c. Jack takes excellent pictures. 

6. a. The speaker often invites the neighbor to dinner. 

b. The neighbor often visits at dinnertime. 

c. The speaker visits the neighbor at dinnertime. 



Exercise 30. Let's talk. (Charts 13 l -> 13 6) 

Work in small groups or as a class. The leader will ask Speaker A a question. The leader will 
then ask Speaker B to summarize the information in Speaker A's response in one sentence 
beginning with The. Speaker B will use an adjective clause. Only the leader's book is open. 



Example: 
Leader: 

Speaker A (Ah): 
Leader to A: 
Speaker A: 
Leader to B: 
Speaker B: 



Who got an email yesterday? 
I did. 

Who was it from? 
My brother. 

Summarize this information. Begin with The. 
The email {AH) got yesterday was from his brother. 



1 . Who lives in an apartment? 
Is it close to school? 

2. Who is wearing earrings? 
What are they made of? 

3. Pick up something that doesn't belong to you. 
What is it? Whose is it? 



(Change leaders if zvorking in groups.) 

4. Who grew up in a small town? 

In what part of the country is it located? 

5. Who has bought something recently? 
Was it expensive? 

6. Who went to a restaurant yesterday? 
Was it crowded? 



(Change leaders if zvorking in groups.) 

7. What did you have for dinner last night? 
Was it good? 

8. Who watched a TV program last night? 
What was it about? 

9. Who has borrowed something recently? 
What did you borrow? 

Who does it belong to? 

(Change leaders if zvorking in groups.) 

10. Who shops for groceries? 
What is the name of the store? 

1 1 . Who eats lunch away from home? 
Where do you usually eat? 
Does it have good food? 

12. Who took the bus to class today? 
Was it late or on time? 



□ Exercise 31. Warm-up. (Chart 13 7) 

Underline each adjective clause. Draw an arrow to the word it modifies. 

1. A: Is it okay if I come along on the picnic? 

B: Absolutely! Anyone who wants to come is more than welcome. 

2. A: Should I apply for the opening in the sales department? 

B: I don't think so. They're looking for somebody who speaks Spanish. 

3. A: Everything the Smiths do costs a lot of money. 
B: It's amazing, isn't it? 

4. A: You're the only one who really understands me. 
B: Oh 3 that can't be true. 



282 CHAPTER 13 



13-7 Using Adjective Clauses to Modify Pronouns 



(a) There is someone 1 want you to meet. 

(b) Everything he said was pure nonsense. 

(c) Anybody who wants to come is welcome. 


Adjective clauses can modify indefinite pronouns (e.g., 
someone, everybody). 

Object pronouns (e.g., who(m), that, which) are usually 
omitted in the adjective clause, as in (a) and (b). 


(d) Paula was the only one 1 knew at the party. 

(e) Scholarships are available for those who need 
financial assistance. 


Adjective clauses can modify the one(s) and those* 


(f) incorrect: 4 who-am-a-student-at thi&school- 
come from a country in Asia. 

(g) It is / who am responsible. 

(h) He who laughs last laughs best. 


Adjective clauses are almost never used to modify 
personal pronouns. Native English speakers would not 
write the sentence in (f). 

Example (g) is possible, but very formal and uncommon. 

Example (h) is a well-known saying in which he is used as 
an indefinite pronoun (meaning "anyone" or "any person"). 



*An adjective clause with which can also be used to modify the demonstrative pronoun that: 
We sometimes fear that which zee do not understand. 

The bread my mother makes is much better than that which you can buy at a store. 



□ Exercise 32. Looking at grammar. (Chart 13 -7) 

Complete the sentences with adjective clauses. 

1. Ask Jackie. She's the only one who knows the answer. 

2. I have a question. There is something 

3. He can't trust anyone. There's no one 

4. I'm powerless to help her. There's nothing 

5. I know someone 

6. What was Mr. Wood talking about? I didn't understand anything 



7. I listen to everything 

8. You shouldn't believe everything 

9. All of the students are seated. The teacher is the only one 



10. The test we took yesterday was easier than the one 

1 1. The courses I'm taking this term are more difficult than the ones 



12. The concert had already begun. Those 

had to wait until intermission to be seated. 



Adjective Clauses 283 



□ Exercise 33. Listening. (Charts 13-1 -► 13-7) 

Listen to the entire conversation with your book closed. Then open your book and listen 
again. Complete the sentences with the words you hear. Write the uncontracted forms. 

Track 7 

A: Do you see that guy wearing the baseball cap? 

l 

B: I see two guys wearing baseball caps. Do you mean the one 

2 

T-shirt says "Be Happy"? 

3 

A: Yeah,, him. Do you remember him from high school? He looks a little different now 3 
doesn't he? Isn't he the one joined the circus? 

4 

B: Nahj I heard that story too. That was just a rumor. When the circus was in town last 

summer, his wife spent a lot of time there,, so people started wondering why. Some people 

started saying she was working there as a performer. But the truth is that she was only 

visiting a cousin a manager for the circus. She just wanted to spend 

5 

time with him while he was in town. 





A: Well, you know> it was a story pretty fishy* to me. But people 

6 

sure enjoyed talking about it. The last thing was that 

7 

she'd learned how to eat fire and swallow swords! 
B: Rumors really take on a life of their own, don't they?! 



*fishy = suspicious; hard to believe. 
284 CHAPTER 13 



□ Exercise 34. Warm-up. (Chart 13-8) 

Listen to your teacher read the sentences aloud. Both are correct. Notice the use of pauses. 
Then answer these questions for both sentences: 

• Which adjective clause can be omitted with no change in the meaning of the noun 
it modifies? 

• What do you notice about the use of commas? 

1. I just found out that Lara Johnson, who speaks Russian fluently, has applied for the job at 
the Russian embassy. 

2. That's not the job for you. Only people who speak Russian fluently will be considered for 
the job at the Russian embassy. 



1 3 ■ 8 Punctuating Adjective Clauses 



General guidelines for the punctuation of adjective clauses: 

(1) do not use commas if the adjective clause is necessary to identify the noun it modifies.* 

(2) use commas if the adjective clause simply gives additional information and is not necessary to identify the noun it 
modifies.** 



(a) The professor who teaches Chemistry 10 1 is an 
excellent lecturer. 

(b) Professor Wilson, who teaches Chemistry 101 , 
is an excellent lecturer. 


In (a): No commas are used. The adjective clause is 
necessary to identify which professor is meant. 

In (b): Commas are used. The adjective clause is not 
necessary to identify Professor Wilson. We already 
know who he is: he has a name. The adjective clause 
simply gives additional information. 


(c) Hawaii, which consists of eight principal islands, 
is a favorite vacation spot. 

(d) Mrs. Smith, who is a retired teacher, does 
volunteer work at the hospital. 


guideline: Use commas, as in (b), (c), and (d), if an 
adjective clause modifies a proper noun. (A proper 
noun begins with a capital letter.) 

note: A comma reflects a pause in speech. 


( who(m) "J 

(e) The man I that ? / met teaches chemistry. 

lo J 

(f) Mr. Lee, whom 1 met yesterday, teaches chemistry. 


In (e): If no commas are used, any possible pronoun 
may be used in the adjective clause. Object pronouns 
may be omitted. 

In (f): When commas are necessary, the pronoun 
that may not be used (only who, whom, which, 
whose, where, and when may be used), and object 
pronouns cannot be omitted. 


COMPARE THE MEANING: 

(g) We took some children on a picnic. The children, 
who wanted to play soccer, ran to an open field 
as soon as we arrived at the park. 

(h) We took some children on a picnic. The children 
who wanted to play soccer ran to an open field 
as soon as we arrived at the park. The others 
played a different game. 


In (g): The use of commas means that all of the 
children wanted to play soccer and all of the children 
ran to an open field. The adjective clause is used only 
to give additional information about the children. 

In (h): The lack of commas means that only some of 
the children wanted to play soccer. The adjective 
clause is used to identify which children ran to the 
open field. 



*Adjective clauses that do not require commas are called essential or restrictive or identifying. 

*Adjective clauses that require commas are called nonessential or nonrestrictive or nonidentifying. NOTE: Nonessential adjective 
clauses are more common in writing than in speaking. 



Adjective Clauses 285 



□ Exercise 35. Looking at grammar. (Chart 13-8) 

Decide if the information in blue is necessary or additional. If it is additional, add commas. 
Read the sentences aloud 3 pausing where necessary. 

1 . The man who lives in the apartment next to mine has three cats and a dog. (no commas, 
no pauses) 

2. Yes, Sandra Day is in my political science class. And Erica Nelson, [pause] who lives in 
the dorm room next to mine, [pause] is in my Greek Drama class. 

3. Rice which is grown in many countries is a staple food throughout much of the world. 

4. The rice which we had for dinner last night was very good. 

5. The newspaper article was about a man who died two weeks ago of a rare tropical disease. 

6. Paul O'Grady who died two weeks ago of a sudden heart attack was a kind and loving 
man. 

7. I have fond memories of my hometown which is situated in a valley. 

8. I live in a town which is situated in a valley. 

9. People who live in glass houses shouldn't throw stones. 

10. In a children's story 3 Little Red Riding Hood who went out one day to visit her 
grandmother found a wolf in her grandmother's bed when she got there. 




□ Exercise 36. Listening and pronunciation. (Chart 13-8) 

Listen for pauses before and after adjective clauses in the given sentences. Add commas where 
you hear pauses. Practice pronouncing the sentences. 

Track 8 

Examples: You will hear: Vegetables which are orange have a lot of vitamin A. 
You will add: (no commas) 

You will hear: Vegetables [pause] which come in many shapes and colors [pause] 
have lots of vitamins. 

You will add: Vegetables, which come in many shapes and colors, have lots of vitamins. 



286 CHAPTER 13 



1 . Did you hear about the man who rowed a boat across the Atlantic Ocean? 

2. My uncle who loves boating rows his boat across the lake near his house nearly every day. 

3. Tea which is a common drink throughout the world is made by pouring boiling water onto 
the dried leaves of certain plants. 

4. Tea which is made from herbs is called herbal tea. 

5. Toys which contain lead paint are unsafe for children. 

6. Lead which can be found in paint and plastics is known to cause brain damage in children. 

Exercise 37. Looking at grammar. (Chart 13-8) 

Add commas where necessary. Change the adjective clause pronoun to that if possible. Read 
the sentences aloud, pausing where necessary. 

1. Mariko and Jackie, who didn't come to class yesterday, explained their absence to the 
teacher. {Who cannot be changed to that. Pauses are used in speaking; add commas.) 

2. The students who did not come to class yesterday explained their absence to the teacher. 
{Who can be changed to that; no commas.) 

3. The Mississippi River which flows south from Minnesota to the Gulf of Mexico is the 
major commercial river in the United States. 

4. A river which is polluted is not safe for swimming. 

5. Mr.Trang whose son won the spelling contest is very proud of his son's achievement. The 
man whose daughter won the science contest is also very pleased and proud. 

6. Goats which were first tamed more than 9,000 years ago in Asia have provided people with 
milk, meat, and wool since prehistoric times. 

7. Mrs. Clark has two goats. She's furious at the goat which got on the wrong side of the 
fence and is eating her flowers. 




Adjective Clauses 287 



j Exercise 38. Pronunciation and grammar. (Chart 13-8) 

Read the sentences aloud. Choose the correct meaning (a. or b.) for each sentence. 

1 . The teacher thanked the students, who had given her some flowers, 
a. The flowers were from only some of the students. 
(h) The flowers were from all of the students. 



2. The teacher thanked the students who had given her some flowers, 
(a?) The flowers were from only some of the students. 

b. The flowers were from all of the students. 

3. There was a terrible flood. The villagers who had received a warning of the impending 
flood escaped to safety. 

a. Only some of the villagers had been warned; only some escaped. 

b. All of the villagers had been warned; all escaped. 

4. There was a terrible flood. The villagers, who had received a warning of the impending 
flood, escaped to safety. 

a. Only some of the villagers had been warned; only some escaped. 

b. All of the villagers had been warned; all escaped. 

5. Natasha reached down and picked up the grammar book, which was lying upside down on 
the floor. 

a. There was only one grammar book near Natasha. 

b. There was more than one grammar book near Natasha. 

6. Natasha reached down and picked up the grammar book which was lying upside down on 
the floor. 

a. There was only one grammar book near Natasha. 

b. There was more than one grammar book near Natasha. 

□ Exercise 39. Listening. (Chart 13-8) 




Listen to the sentences. Choose the correct meaning (a. or b.) for each sentence. 



1. a. She threw away all of the apples. 



b. She threw away only the rotten apples. 

2. a. She threw away all of the apples. 

b. She threw away only the rotten apples. 

3. a. Some of the students were excused from class early, 
b. All of the students were excused from class early. 

4. a. Some of the students were excused from class early, 
b. All of the students were excused from class early. 

□ Exercise 40. Looking at grammar. (Chart 13-8) 

Add commas where necessary. Read the sentences aloud, paying attention to pauses. 

1. We enjoyed the city where we spent our vacation. 

2. We enjoyed Mexico City where we spent our vacation. 

3. One of the elephants which we saw at the zoo had only one tusk. 

288 CHAPTER 13 




4. One of the most useful materials in the world is glass which is made chiefly from sand, 
soda, and lime. 

5. You don't need to take heavy clothes when you go to Bangkok which has one of the highest 
average temperatures of any city in the world. 

6. Child labor was a social problem in late eighteenth-century England where employment in 
factories became virtual slavery for children. 

7. We had to use a telephone, so we went to the nearest house. The woman who answered 
our knock listened cautiously to our request. 

8. I watched a scientist conduct an experiment on bees. The research scientist who was 
wearing protective clothing before she stepped into the special chamber holding the bees 
was not stung. A person who was unprotected by the special clothing could have gotten 
300 to 400 bee stings within a minute. 



Exercise 41. Reading and grammar. (Charts 1 3-1 > 13-8) 

Part I. Answer these questions. Then read the article. Notice the adjective clauses in blue. 



As you know, a computer needs to have an operating system in order to run programs. When 
most people think about the first operating systems that were developed for the personal 
computer, Microsoft or Bill Gates may come to mind. Actually, the truth is somewhat different. 

In the late 1970s, there was a man in Seattle named Tim Paterson who worked for a 
company that was called Seattle Computer. He was a computer programmer and needed an 
operating system for his computer. Paterson got tired of waiting for another company to create 
one and decided to develop his own program. He called it QDOS, which meant "quick and 
dirty operating system." It took him about four months to develop it. 

At the same time, Microsoft was quietly looking for an operating system to run a personal 
computer that I.B.M. was developing. Microsoft saw the program that Tim had written and in 
1980, paid him $25,000 for a license for DOS. A year later they paid another $50,000 to acquire 
the rights. It became known as the Microsoft disk operating system (MS-DOS), and the rest is 
history. Microsoft and Bill Gates became very successful using Paterson's operating system. 



1 . Do you have a computer? 

2. Do you know the name of its operating system? 




The History of DOS 



Adjective Clauses 289 



Part II. Complete the sentences with information from the article. Use adjective clauses in 
your completions. 

1 . Tim Paterson was the person who 

2. Seattle Computer was the company that 

3. The abbreviation for the program was QDOS 3 which 

4. I.B.M. was a company that 

5. Microsoft, which 

6. Microsoft acquired rights to a program that 

□ Exercise 42. Warm-up. (Chart 13 9) 

Choose the correct meaning (a. or b.) for each sentence. 

1. The couple has thirteen children, only a few of whom live at home. 

a. Ten children live at home. 

b. A few of the couple's children live at home. 

2. Victoria bought a dozen dresses, most of which she later returned to the store. 

a. Victoria returned a dozen dresses. 

b. Victoria kept a few of the dresses. 





In my class there are 20 students. 
Most of them are from Asia. 

(a) In my class there are 20 students,, most of whom 
are from Asia. 

(b) He gave several reasons^ only a few of which 
were valid. 

(c) The teachers discussed Jirn, one of whose 
problems was poor study habits. 


An adjective clause may contain an expression of 
quantity with of: some of, many of, most of, none of, two 
of, half of, both of, etc. 


The expression of quantity precedes the pronoun. Only 
whom, which, and whose are used in this pattern. 

This pattern is more common in writing than speaking. 

Commas are used. 



□ Exercise 43. Looking at grammar. (Chart 13-9) 

Combine the two sentences in each item. Use the second sentence as an adjective clause. 

1. The city has sixteen schools. Two of them are junior colleges. 
— > The city has sixteen schools, two of which are junior colleges. 

2. Last night the orchestra played three symphonies. One of them was Beethoven's Seventh. 

3. I tried on six pairs of shoes. I liked none of them. 

4. The village has around 200 people. The majority of them are farmers. 

5. That company currently has five employees. All of them are computer experts. 

6. After the riot, over 100 people were taken to the hospital. Many of them had been 
innocent bystanders. 



290 CHAPTER 13 



□ Exercise 44. In your own words. (Chart 13 9) 

Complete the sentences with your own words. Use adjective clauses. 

1 . Al introduced me to his roommates, both of whom are from California. 

2. The Paulsons own four automobiles, one of 

3. I have three brothers, all of 

4. I am taking four courses, one of 

5. I have two roommates, neither of 

6. This semester I had to buy fifteen books, most of 

7. The company hired ten new employees, some of 

8. In my apartment building, there are twenty apartments, several of 



□ Exercise 45. Warm-up. (Chart 13-10) 

What does which refer to in each sentence? 

1 . The soccer team worked very hard to win, which made their coach very proud. 

2. Some of the athletes in the class cheated on the final exam, which disappointed their 
coach. 

3. Sam took the final exam, which he passed without cheating. 



i to Modify a Whole Sentence 



(a) Tom was late. That surprised me. 

(b) Tom was late, which surprised me. 

(c) The elevator is out of order. This is too bad. 

(d) The elevator is out of order, which is too bad. 



The pronouns that and this can refer to the idea of a 
whole sentence which comes before. 

In (a): The word that refers to the whole sentence Tom 
was late. 

Similarly, an adjective clause with which may modify the 
idea of a whole sentence. 

In (b): The word which refers to the whole sentence 
Tom was late. 

Using which to modify a whole sentence is informal and 
occurs most frequently in spoken English. This structure 
is generally not appropriate in formal writing. Whenever 
it is written, however, it is preceded by a comma to 
reflect a pause in speech. 



Adjective Clauses 291 



□ Exercise 46. Looking at grammar. (Chart 13-10) 

Combine the two sentences. Use the second sentence as an adjective clause. 

1. Sonya lost her job. That wasn't surprising. 
— > Sonya lost her job, zvliicli wasn't surprising. 

2. She usually came to work late. That upset her boss. 

3. So her boss fired her. That made her angry. 

4. She hadn't saved any money. That was unfortunate. 

5. So she had to borrow some money from me. I didn't like that. 

6. She has found a new job. That is lucky. 

7. So she has repaid the money she borrowed from me. I appreciate that. 

8. She has promised herself to be on time to work every day. That is a good idea. 



□ Exercise 47. Looking at grammar. (Charts 13-1 > 13-10) 

Combine sentences a. and b. Use b. as an adjective clause. Use formal written English. 
Punctuate carefully. 

1. a. An antecedent is a word. 

b. A pronoun refers to this word. 

— » An antecedent is a word to which a pronoun refers. 

2. a. The blue whale is considered the largest animal that has ever lived, 
b. It can grow to 100 feet and 150 tons. 

3. a. The plane was met by a crowd of 300 people. 

b. Some of them had been waiting for more than four hours. 

4. a. In this paper, I will describe the basic process. 

b. Raw cotton becomes cotton thread by this process. 

5. a. The researchers are doing case studies of people to determine the importance of 

heredity in health and longevity, 
b. These people's families have a history of high blood pressure and heart disease. 

6. a. At the end of this month,, scientists at the institute will conclude their AIDS research, 
b. The results of this research will be published within six months. 

7. a. According to many education officials^ "math phobia" (that is 3 a fear of mathematics) is 

a widespread problem, 
b. A solution to this problem can and must be found. 

8. a. The art museum hopes to hire a new administrator 
b. Under this person's direction^ it will be able to 

purchase significant pieces of art. 

9. a. The giant anteater licks up ants for its dinner, 
b. Its tongue is longer than 30 centimeters 

(12 inches). 

10. a. The anteater's tongue is sticky. 

b. It can go in and out of its mouth 1 60 times a minute 




292 CHAPTER 13 



□ Exercise 48. Reading and grammar. (Charts 13-1 > 13-10) 

Read about Ellen and her commute to work. Underline what the words in blue refer to. 




(1) Ellen lives on an island and commu tes to work by passenger ferry , which means she takes 
a boat with other foot passengers to the city where they work. 

(2) She leaves her house at 6:00, which is earlier than she'd like but necessary because the 
ferry ride takes 30 minutes. Ellen needs 20 minutes to drive to the parking lot where she leaves 
her car and boards the ferry. Once she's on the other side, she catches a bus which takes her to 
her office. 

(3) Traffic is usually heavy at that hour, so she's on the bus for another 30 minutes. On the 
bus, she usually reads reports that she was too tired to finish the night before. 

(4) The bus drops her off a few blocks from her office. Sometimes she stops at an espresso 
stand and picks up coffee for her co-workers, for which they reimburse her later. 

(5) By the time she gets to her office, she has been commuting for an hour and a half, which 
she wishes she didn't have to do but isn't going to change because she enjoys her life on the 
island so much. 



□ Exercise 49. Let's talk or write. (Charts 13-1 -> 13-10) 

Discuss and/or write definitions for one or more of the given topics. Include an adjective 
clause in each definition. If you are writing, choose only one item and expand your definition 
to a paragraph. 

The ideal . . . 

1. friend 5. school 9. job 

2. mother 6. vacation 10. doctor 

3. father 7. teacher 11. lifestyle 

4. spouse 8. student 12. (your choice) 



Adjective Clauses 293 



□ Exercise 50. Warm-up. (Chart 13-1 1) 

Look at the words in blue. What differences do you notice between each pair of sentences? 
note: Sentences a. and b. have the same meaning. 

1. a. I talked to the people who were sitting beside me at the ball game, 
b. I talked to the people sitting beside me at the ball game. 

2. a. The notebooks that are on my desk are mine, 
b. The notebooks on my desk are mine. 

3. a. I read an article about Marie Curie, who was a famous French scientist, 
b. I read an article about Marie Curie, a famous French scientist. 



13-11 Reducing Adjective Clauses to Adjective Phrases 




clause: A clause is a group of related words that contains a subject and a verb. 
phrase: A phrase is a group of related words that does not contain a subject and a verb. 


(a) clause: The girl who is sitting next to me is Mai. 

(b) phrase: The girl sitting next to me is Mai. 

(c) clause: The girl (whom) 1 saw was Mai. 

(d) phrase: (none) 


An adjective phrase is a reduction of an 
adjective clause. It modifies a noun. It 
does not contain a subject and verb. 

Examples (a) and (b) have the same 
meaning. 

Only adjective clauses that have a 
subject pronoun — who, which, or 
that — are reduced to modifying 
adjective phrases. The adjective clause 
in (c) cannot be reduced to an adjective 
phrase. 


(e) clause: The man who is talking to John is from Korea. 
phrase: The man 0 0 talking to John is from Korea. 

(f ) clause: The ideas which are presented in that book are good. 
phrase: The ideas 0 0 presented in that book are good. 

(g) clause: Ann is the woman that is responsible for the error. 
phrase: Ann is the woman 0 0 responsible for the error. 


There are two ways in which an 
adjective clause is changed to an 
adjective phrase. 

1. If the adjective clause contains the 
be form of a verb, omit the subject 
pronoun and the deform, as in (e), (f), 
and (g).* 


(h) clause: English has an alphabet that consists of 26 letters. 
phrase: English has an alphabet 0 consisting of 26 letters. 

(i ) clause: Anyone who wants to come with us is welcome. 
phrase: Anyone 0 wanting to come with us is welcome. 


2. If there is no be form of a verb in the 
adjective clause, it is sometimes 
possible to omit the subject pronoun and 
change the verb to its -ing form, as in 
(h) and (i). 


(j) Paris, which is the capital of France, is an exciting city, 
(k) Paris, the capital of France, is an exciting city. 


If the adjective clause requires 
commas, as in (j), the adjective phrase 
also requires commas, as in (k). An 
adjective phrase in which a noun 
follows another noun, as in (k), is called 
an appositive. 



*If an adjective clause that contains be + a single adjective is changed, the adjective is moved to its normal position in front of the 
noun it modifies. 

clause: Fruit that is fresh tastes better than old, soft, mushy fruit. 

CORRECT phrase: Fresh fruit tastes better than old, soft, mushy fruit. 
ixcorrect phrase: Fruit fresh tastes better than old, soft, mushy fruit. 



294 CHAPTER 13 



□ Exercise 51. Looking at grammar. (Charts 13-10 and 1 3-1 1) 

Change the adjective clauses to adjective phrases. 

1 . Do you know the woman who is coming toward us? 
— > Do you know the woman coining toward its? 

2. The scientists who are researching the causes of cancer are making progress. 

3. We have an apartment which overlooks the park. 

4. The photographs which were published in the newspaper were extraordinary. 

5. The rules that allow public access to wilderness areas need to be reconsidered. 

6. The psychologists who study the nature of sleep have made important discoveries. 

7. Antarctica is covered by a huge ice cap that contains 70 percent of the earth's fresh water. 

8. When I went to Alex's house to drop off some paperwork, I met Jacob, who is his partner. 

9. Many of the students who hope to enter this university will be disappointed because only 
one-tenth of those who apply for admission will be accepted. 

10. Kuala Lumpur, which is the capital of Malaysia, is a major trade center in Southeast Asia. 

□ Exercise 52. Listening. (Charts 13-10 and 1 3-1 1) 

Listen to the sentences. Choose the correct meaning (a. or b.) for each sentence. In some 
cases, both a. and b. are correct. 

Example: You will hear: The experiment conducted by the students was successful. 
You will choose: (a.) The students conducted an experiment. 

(K) The experiment was successful. 

1. a. There is a fence around our house, 
b. Our house is made of wood. 

2. a. All schoolchildren receive a good education, 
b. That school provides a good education. 

3. a. The university president will give a speech, 
b. Dr. Stanton will give a speech. 

4. a. There is a galaxy called the Milky Way. 
b. Our solar system is called the Milky Way. 

□ Exercise 53. Looking at grammar. (Charts 13-10 and 13-1 1) 

Change the adjective phrases to adjective clauses. 

1. We visited Barcelona, a city in northern Spain. 

— > We visited Barcelona, zvhich is a city in northern Spain. 

2. Corn was one of the agricultural products introduced to the European settlers by the 
Indians. Some of the other products introduced by the Indians were potatoes, peanuts, 
and tobacco. 

3. Mercury, the nearest planet to the sun, is also the smallest of the planets orbiting our sun. 

4. The pyramids, the monumental tombs of ancient Egyptian pharaohs, were constructed 
more than 4,000 years ago. 

5. Any student not wanting to go on the trip should inform the office. 

6. Be sure to follow the instructions given at the top of the page. 



Adjective Clauses 295 



□ Exercise 54. Looking at grammar. (Charts 13-10 and 13-1 1) 

Change the adjective clauses to adjective phrases. 

Early Failures of Famous People 

(1) Many famous people did not enjoy immediate success in their early lives. Abraham 
Lincoln, -who-was- one of the truly great presidents of the United States, ran for public office 
26 times and lost 23 of the elections. 

(2) Walt Disney, who was the creator of Mickey Mouse and the founder of his own movie 
production company, once was fired by a newspaper editor because he had no good ideas. 

(3) Thomas Edison, who was the inventor of the light bulb and the phonograph, was believed 
by his teachers to be too stupid to learn. 

(4) Albert Einstein, who was one of the greatest scientists of all time, performed badly in 
almost all of his high school courses and failed his first college entrance exam. 

□ Exercise 55. Looking at grammar. (Charts 13-10 and 13-11) 

Complete the sentences in Part II by turning the information in Part I into adjective phrases. 
Use commas as necessary. 

Part I. 

a. It is the lowest place on the earth's surface, 

/b. It is the highest mountain in the world. 

c. It is the capital of Iraq. 

d. It is the capital of Argentina. 

e. It is the largest city in the Western Hemisphere. 

f. It is the largest city in the United States. 

g. It is the most populous country in Africa. 

h. It is the northernmost country in Latin America. 

i. They are sensitive instruments that measure the shaking of the ground, 
j. They are devices that produce a powerful beam of light. 

Part II. 

1 . Mount Everest > the highest mountain in the world, is in the Himalayas. 

2. One of the largest cities in the Middle East is Baghdad 

3. Earthquakes are recorded on seismographs 

4. The Dead Sea 

is located in the Middle East between Jordan and Israel. 

5. The newspaper reported an earthquake in Buenos Aires 

6. Industry and medicine are continually finding new uses for lasers 



296 CHAPTER 13 



7. Mexico 

lies just south of the United States. 

8. The nation Nigeria consists 

of over 250 different cultural groups even though English is the official language. 

9. Both Mexico City and New York City 

face challenging futures. 

j Exercise 56. Listening. (Chapters 12 and 13) 

/Tjj Part I. Listen to the lecture about animals and earthquake predictions with your book closed. 
@ Then open your book and read the statements. Circle "T" for true and "F" for false. 



CD 2 
Track 1 1 



1 . That animals can predict earthquakes is an indisputable fact. T F 

2. Some animals exhibit unusual behavior before an earthquake. T F 

3. According to the lecture, scientists are certain that the energy in the air 

changes before an earthquake. T F 

4. Some scientists believe that animal behavior can be helpful in earthquake 

prediction. T F 

Part 11. Listen again. Complete the sentences with the words you hear. 

Animals and Earthquakes 

animals can predict earthquakes has been widely debated for 

l 

hundreds of years. In fact, as far back as 373 B.C., villagers 



2 

hundreds of animals deserted the Greek town of Helice a few days before an earthquake 
destroyed it. There are other interesting phenomena 



3 

For example, before an earthquake, dogs may begin barking or howling for no reason; chickens 
might stop laying eggs; and some pets will go into hiding. 

In Asia in 2004, many animals accustomed to being 

4 

on the beach in the early morning refused to go there the morning of the big tsunami. In 

Thailand, a herd of buffalo on a beach noticed or heard 

5 

made them run to the top of a hill before the tsunami was anywhere in sight. The villagers 
them were saved. 



Adjective Clauses 297 



What causes this strange behavior in animals? One theory 



7 

can sense the earth move before people can. There are vibrations deep in the earth 
before an earthquake can be detected. Another idea 



the energy in the air changes animals are disturbed 

9 10 

by these changes. 

Some scientists dismiss these ideas, while others they are worth 

n 

researching further. Those scientists witnessed this strange animal 

12 

behavior animals are far more sensitive to subtle changes in the 

13 

earth than people are studying their behavior can be useful in 

14 

the prediction of earthquakes. 



Exercise 57. Looking at grammar. (Chapter 13) 

Combine each group of short, choppy sentences into one sentence. Use the underlined 
sentence as the independent clause and build your sentence around it. Use adjective clauses 
and adjective phrases wherever possible. 

1. Chihuahua is divided into two regions . It is the largest Mexican state. One region is a 
mountainous area in the west. The other region is a desert basin in the north and east. 

Chihuahua, the \ameet Mexican etate, ie divided into two regione y a mountainoue 

area in the weet and a deeert baein in the north and east. 

2. Disney World covers a large area of land . It is an amusement park. It is located in 
Orlando, Florida. The land includes lakes, golf courses, campsites, hotels, and a wildlife 
preserve. 



3. Tamaica is one of the world's leading producers of bauxite . It is the third largest island in 
the Caribbean Sea. Bauxite is an ore. Aluminum is made from this ore. 



CHAPTER 13 



4. Robert Ballard made headlines in 1985 . He is an oceanographer. In 1985 he discovered 
the remains of the Titanic. The Titanic was the "unsinkable" passenger ship. It has rested 
on the floor of the Atlantic Ocean since 1912. It struck an iceberg in 1912. 



5. The Republic of Yemen is an ancient land . It is located at the southwestern tip of the 
Arabian Peninsula. This land has been host to many prosperous civilizations. These 
civilizations include the Kingdom of Sheba and various Islamic empires. 



Exercise 58. Check your knowledge. (Chapter 13) 

Correct the errors. All of the sentences are adapted from student writing. 

1 . Baseball is the only sport in which I am interested in it. 

2. My favorite teacher, Mr. Chu, he was always willing to help me after class. 

3. It is important to be polite to people who lives in the same building. 

4. My sister has two children, who their names are Ali andTalal. 

5. He comes from Venezuela that is a Spanish-speaking country. 

6. There are some people in the government who is trying to improve the lives of the poor. 

7. My classroom is located on the second floor of Carver Hall that is a large brick building 
in the center of the campus. 

8. A myth is a story expresses traditional beliefs. 

9. There is an old legend telling among people in my country about a man lived in the 
seventeenth century and saved a village from destruction. 

10. An old man was fishing next to me on the pier was muttering to himself. 

1 1 . The road that we took it through the forest it was narrow and steep. 

12. There are ten universities in Thailand, seven of them are located in Bangkok is the 
capital city. 

Adjective Clauses 299 



13. At the national park 3 there is a path leads to a spectacular waterfall. 

14. At the airportj I was waiting for some relatives which I had never met them before. 

15. It is almost impossible to find two persons who their opinions are the same. 

16. On the wall 3 there is a colorful poster which it consists of a group of young people who 
dancing. 

17. The sixth member of our household is Pietro that is my sister's son. 

18. Before I came here 3 1 didn't have the opportunity to speak with people who English is their 
native tongue. 



Exercise 59. Let's write. (Chapter 1 3) 

Write a paragraph on one or more of the given topics. Try to use adjective clauses and 
phrases. 

Topics: 

1 . Write about three historical figures from your country. Give your reader information 
about their lives and accomplishments. 

2. Write about your favorite TV shows. What are they? What are they about? Why do you 
enjoy them? 

3. Who are some people in your country who are popular with young people (e.g. 3 singers 3 
movie stars 3 political figures 3 etc.)? Tell your readers about these people. Assume your 
readers are completely unfamiliar with them. 

4. You are a tourist agent for your hometown/country. Write a descriptive brochure that 
would make your readers want to visit your hometown/country. 



CHAPTER 13 



Chapter 14 

Gerunds and Infinitives, Part I 




□ Exercise 1. Warm-up. (Chart 14-1) 

Complete the sentences with the words in the list. Give your own opinion. Then answer 
the questions. 



baseball 
basketball 



golf 
soccer 



badminton 
tennis 



1 . Playing 



is fun. 



2. My friends and I enjoy playing 



3. I don't know much about playing 

In which sentence is playing 

a. the object of the verb? 

b. the subject? 

c. the object of a preposition? 




14-1 Gerunds: Introduction 



S V 

(a) 'Playing' tennis li 1 fun. 

S V 0 

(b) 'We' 'enjoy' 'playing' tennis. 

PREP 0 

(c) He's excited 'about' 'playing' tennis. 



A gerund is the -ing form of a verb used as a noun.* A 
gerund is used in the same ways as a noun, i.e., as a 
subject or as an object. 

In (a): playing is a gerund. It is used as the subject of the 
sentence. Playing tennis is a gerund phrase. 

In (b): playing is a gerund used as the object of the verb 
enjoy. 

In (c): playing is a gerund used as the object of the 
preposition about. 



^Compare the uses of the -ing form of verbs: 

(1) Walking is good exercise. — > walking = a gerund used as the subject of the sentence. 

(2) Bob and Ann are playing tennis. — » playing = a present participle used as part of the present progressive tense. 

(3) / heard some surprising nezvs. — > surprising = a present participle used as an adjective. 



301 



Exercise 2. Warm-up. (Chart 14-2) 

Each phrase in blue contains a preposition. What do you notice about the form of the verb 
that follows each preposition? 

1 . Sonya is excited about moving to a new city. 

2. You'd better have a good excuse for being late. 

3. I'm looking forward to going on vacation soon. 



(a) We talked about going to Canada for our vacation. 

(b) Sue is in charge of organizing the meeting. 

(c) I'm interested in learning more about your work. 



A gerund is frequently used as the object of a 
preposition. 



(d) I 'm used to sleeping with the window open. 

(e) I 'm accustomed to sleeping* with the window open. 

(f ) I look forward to going home next month. 



In (d) through (f ): to is a preposition, not part of an 
infinitive form, so a gerund follows. 



(g) We talked about not going to the meeting, but finally 
decided we should go. 



negative form: not precedes a gerund. 



Common preposition combinations 

be excited 
be worried 



be excited \ . ... .. 

ried J a b°ut doing \\ 



complain 
dream 
talk 
think 



followed by gerunds 

keep someone 
prevent someone 
prohibit someone 
stop someone 



> from doing it 



about I of doing it 



apologize 
blame someone 
forgive someone 
have an excuse 
have a reason 
be responsible 
thank someone 



* for doing it 



be interested 
believe 
participate 
succeed 

be accused 
be capable 
be guilty 
instead 

take advantage 
take care 



in doing it 



> of doing it 



be tired 

insist on doing 

be accustomed 
in addition 
be committed 
be devoted 
look forward 
object 
be opposed 
be used 



of I from doing it 



> to doing it 



^Possible in British English: I'm accustomed to sleep with the window open. 



□ Exercise 3. Looking at grammar. (Chart 14-2) 

Complete each sentence with a preposition and a form of go. 



1 . We thought about aoina 

2. We talked 

3. We're interested 

4. My family is excited 



to the beach. 



there. 



there. 
there. 



302 CHAPTER 14 



5. The children insisted 



6. They're looking forward 

7. The rain prevented us _ 

8. A storm kept us 



there. 
there. 



there. 



there. 




□ Exercise 4. Looking at grammar. (Chart 14-2) 

Complete each sentence with a preposition and a form of the verb in parentheses. 
Situation 1 : An airplane flight. 

1 . Two children are excited {take) about taking their first flight. 

2. They have been looking forward (be) above the clouds. 

3. A first-time flyer is worried (fly) in stormy weather. 

4. One passenger is blaming another passenger (spill) 

his coffee. 

5. A man is complaining (have) an aisle seat rather than a 

window seat. 

6. The pilot was late, but he had an excuse (be) late. 

7. The co-pilot will be responsible (fly) the plane. 

8. Security personnel are prohibiting a woman (get) on 

the flight. 



Gerunds and Infinitives, Part 1 303 



Situation 2: At a police station. 
9. The teenager has been accused {steal) 



a purse. 



10. An elderly woman said he was responsible {take) 

1 1 . The police are blaming him {do) 



it. 



12. The teenager said he was trying to prevent someone else {take) 



13. He is upset. The police are listening to the woman instead {listen) 
to his version of the story. 

14. He has not yet succeeded {convince) 

innocence. 



the police of his 



Exercise 5. Looking at grammar. (Chart 14-2) 

Complete each sentence with an appropriate preposition and the -ing form of the given verb. 



1. look 

2. do 

3. have 

4. help 

5. know 



Alice isn't interested 

You are capable 

I'm accustomed 

Thank you 



in looking 



for a new job. 



better work, 
a big breakfast. 



6. be 

7. live 

8. go, not 

9. search 

10. make 

11. go 

12. run 

13. go 

14. clarify 

15. wear 



Mrs. Grant insisted 
I believe 



me carry my suitcases. 
the whole truth. 



honest at all times. 



You should take advantage 
Fatima had a good reason . 



. here. 

to class yesterday. 



Everyone in the neighborhood participated 
for the lost child. 

I apologized toYoko 



her wait for me. 



In addition 

part-time job. 

I stopped the child 



to school full-time, Spiro has a 



into the street. 



Where should we go for dinner tonight? Would you object 
to an Italian restaurant? 

The mayor made another public statement for the purpose 
the new tax proposal. 

Larry isn't used a suit and tie every day. 



CHAPTER 14 



j Exercise 6. Listening. (Chart 14-2) 

Listen to each dialogue. Summarize it by completing each sentence with a preposition and a 
gerund phrase. 

CD 2 

1 . The man apologized for being late. 

2. The woman succeeded 

3. Both speakers are complaining 

4. The man thanked his friend 

5. The man didn't have an excuse 

6. The woman isn't used 

7. The flu kept the man 

□ Exercise 7. Let's talk: interview. (Chart 14-2) 

Interview two classmates for each question. Share some of their answers with the class. 

1 . Where \ you \ think \ go \ today? 

— > Wliere are you thinking about going today? 

2. What \ you \ not accustomed \ do? 

3. What \ you \ interested \ find out about? 

4. Where \ you \ look forward \ go \ on your next trip? 

5. What \ be \ a good reason \ not \ do \ your homework? 

□ Exercise 8. Let's talk. (Chart 14 2) 

Answer the questions in complete sentences. Use prepositions followed by gerunds in your 
answers. Work in pairs or small groups. 

Example: 

Speaker A {book open): Your friend was rude. Did she apologize? 

Speaker B {book closed): Yes, she apologized for being rude. OR No, she didn't apologize for 

being rude. 

1 . Your neighbor helped you carry heavy boxes. Did you thank him/her? 

2. You're going to visit your friends in another town this weekend. Are you looking forward 
to that? 

3. You didn't come to class on time yesterday. Did you have a good excuse? 

4. You're living in a cold/warm climate. Are you accustomed to that? 

5. You're going to a tropical island for vacation. Are you excited? 

6. A customer interrupted you while you were talking to the store manager. Did she 
apologize? 

7. The students in the class did role-plays. Did all of them participate? 



Gerunds and Infinitives, Part 1 305 



{Change roles if working in pairs.) 

8. Someone broke the window. Do you know who was responsible? 

9. People in some countries have their biggest meal at lunch. Are you used to doing that? 

10. The weather is hot/cold. What does that prevent you from doing? 

1 1 . The advanced students have to do a lot of homework. Do they complain? 

12. Your wallet was missing after your friend visited. Do you blame him? 

13. You didn't study grammar last night. What did you do instead? 

14. You studied last weekend. What did you do in addition? 



Exercise 9. Let's talk. (Chart 14-2) 

Answer the questions with by + a gerund or gerund phrase to express how something is done. 
Work in pairs 3 in small groups^ or as a class. 

1 . How do you turn off a cell phone? — > By pushing a button. 

2. How can students improve their listening comprehension? 

3. How do people satisfy their hunger? 

4. How do people quench their thirst? 

5. How did you find out what quench means? 

6. What are some ways employees get in trouble with their manager? 

7. How do dogs show they are happy? 

8. In a restaurant^ how do you catch the server's attention? 



□ Exercise 10. Let's talk: interview. (Chart 14-2) 

Part I. Interview your classmates about the different ways people express emotions. Answers 
can include descriptions of facial expressions^ actions^ what people say 3 etc. Try to use 
by + gerund in your answers. Share some of the answers with the class. 

Example: excitement 

Speaker A: How do people show excitement at a sports event? 

Speaker B: People show excitement at a sports event by clapping their hands 3 jumping up 
and down,, and yelling. 

1. happiness 3. anger 5. confusion 7. agreement 

2. sadness 4. frustration 6. disagreement 8. surprise 

Part II. Draw a face that shows an emotion. Ask a classmate to guess which emotion you've 
tried to show. 




306 CHAPTER 14 



□ Exercise 11. Warm-up. (Chart 14-3) 

Complete the sentences with phrases in the list that are true for you. What do you notice 
about the form of the verbs in these phrases? 



buying things online 
going online to get news 
reading newspapers 
spending hours at a computer 



surfing the internet 
talking about politics 
watching commercials on TV 
watching the news on TV 



1. I enjoy 



2. I don't enjoy 

3. I avoid 



14-3 Common Verbs Followed by Gerunds 




verb + gerund 
(a) 1 enjoy' playing tennis. 


Gerunds are used as the objects of certain verbs. 

In (a): enjoy is followed by a gerund (playing). Enjoy is not 

followed by an infinitive. 

incorrect: 1 enjoy lo-play- tennis. 

Common verbs that are followed by gerunds are listed below. 


(b) Joe quit smoking. 

(c) Joe gave up smoking. 


Examples (b) and (c) have the same meaning. Some phrasal 
verbs,* e.g., give up, are followed by gerunds. See these phrasal 
verbs in parentheses below. 


Verb + gerund 

enjoy quit (give up) avoid consider 
appreciate finish (get through) postpone (put off) discuss 
mind stop** delay mention 

keep (keep on) suggest 



*A phrasal verb consists of a verb and a particle (a small word such as a preposition) that together have a special meaning. For 
example, put off means "postpone." 

*Stop can also be followed by an infinitive of purpose. He stopped at the station (in order) to get some gas. See infinitives of 
purpose. Charts 14-7, p. 317, and 15-1, p. 331. 



□ Exercise 12. Looking at grammar. (Chart 14-3) 

Make sentences with the given words. Use any tense and subject. Work in pairs 3 in small 
groupSj or as a class. 

Example: enjoy \ drink tea 

Speaker A: enjoy [pause] drink tea 

Speaker B: I enjoy drinking tea with breakfast. 



1 . mind \ open the window 

2. finish \ eat dinner 

3. get through \ eat dinner 

4. stop \ rain 

5. keep \ work 

6. keep on \ work 



{Change roles if zvorking in pairs.) 

7. postpone \ do my work 

8. put off \ do my work 

9. delay \ leave on vacation 

10. consider \ get a job 

1 1 . talk about \ go to a movie 

12. mention \ go out of town 



Gerunds and Infinitives, Part 1 307 



□ Exercise 13. Listening. (Chart 14-3) 

^ Listen to the conversations. Complete the sentences with appropriate verbs. 
^cd2 J, The speakers enjoy watching movies on weekends. 

2. The speakers have given up for better weather. 

3. The speakers are going to keep on . 

4. The speakers are discussing to a concert in the city. 

5. The speakers have put off their homework. 

6. The speakers are going to delay the office. 

□ Exercise 14. Looking at grammar. (Chart 14-3) 

Complete the sentences with appropriate gerunds. 

1 . When Beth got tired, she stopped working / studying 

2. Would you mind the door? Thanks. 

3. I have a lot of homework tonight 3 but I'd still like to go with you later on. I'll call you 
when I get through 

4. Where are you considering for your break? 

5. Sometimes I put off my apartment. 

6. You have to decide where you want to go to school next year. You can't postpone 
that decision much longer. 

7. I wanted to go to Mexico. Sally suggested to Hawaii. 

8. Tony mentioned the bus to school instead of walking. 

9. I appreciate able to study in peace and quiet. 

□ Exercise 15. Warm-up. (Chart 14-4) 

Complete the sentences by circling all the activities that are true for you. All the choices end 
in -ing. What do you notice about the verbs in blue? 

1 . Last week I went shopping running biking dancing. 

2. I like to go hiking sivimming camping sightseeing. 

3. I've never gone fishing boivling skiing diving. 




14-4 Go +, Gerund 










(a) Did you go shopping? 

(b) We went fishing yesterday. 


Go is followed by a gerund in certain idiomatic expressions to 
express, for the most part, recreational activities. 


Go + gerund 

go biking 

go birdwatching 

go boating 

go bowling 

go camping 

go canoeing/kayaking 


go dancing 
go fishing* 
go hiking 
go hunting 
go jogging 

go mountain climbing 


go running 
go sailing 
go shopping 
go sightseeing 
go skating 
go skateboarding 


go skiing 

go skinnydipping 

go sledding 

go snorkeling 

go swimming 

go window shopping 



*Also, in British English: go angling. 

□ Exercise 16. Let's talk. (Chart 14 4) 

Discuss the activities listed in Chart 14-4. Work in pairs, in small groups, or as a class. 

1 . Which ones have you done? When? Briefly describe your experiences. 

2. Which ones do you like to do? 

3. Which ones do you never want to do? 

4. Which ones have you not done but would like to do? 



□ Exercise 17. Listening. (Chart 14-4) 

Listen to the story with your book closed. Then open your book and listen again. Complete 
the sentences with a form of go and any verb that makes sense. 



CD 2 
Track 14 





1 . The first thing Saturday morning, Ron went canoeing 

2. He brought a fishing rod so he could 



3. He saw some friends on a sailboat but didn't 

4. He instead. 

5. After lunch, he 



with them. 



6. He finished the day by 



with some of his friends. 



Gerunds and Infinitives, Part 1 309 



□ Exercise 13. Listening. (Chart 14-3) 

^jj Listen to the conversations. Complete the sentences with appropriate verbs. 
t ™3 1. The speakers enjoy watching movies on weekends. 

2. The speakers have given up for better weather. 

3. The speakers are going to keep on 

4. The speakers are discussing to a concert in the city. 

5. The speakers have put off their homework. 

6. The speakers are going to delay the office. 

□ Exercise 14. Looking at grammar. (Chart 14-3) 

Complete the sentences with appropriate gerunds. 

1 . When Beth got tired, she stopped working / studying 

2. Would you mind the door? Thanks. 

3. I have a lot of homework tonight, but I'd still like to go with you later on. I'll call you 
when I get through 

4. Where are you considering for your break? 

5. Sometimes I put off my apartment. 

6. You have to decide where you want to go to school next year. You can't postpone 
that decision much longer. 

7. I wanted to go to Mexico. Sally suggested to Hawaii. 

8. Tony mentioned the bus to school instead of walking. 

9. I appreciate able to study in peace and quiet. 

□ Exercise 15. Warm-up. (Chart 14-4) 

Complete the sentences by circling all the activities that are true for you. All the choices end 
in -ing. What do you notice about the verbs in blue? 

1 . Last week I went shopping running biking dancing. _ jjt&J? 

2. I like to go hiking swimming camping sightseeing. 

3. I've never gone fishing bowling skiing diving. 






(a) Did you go shopping? 




Go is followed by a gerund in certain idiomatic expressions to 


(b) We went fishing yesterday. 




express, for the most part, recreational activities. 




Go + gerund 










go biking 


go dancing 




go running 


go skiing 


go birdwatching 


go fishing* 




go sailing 


go skinnydipping 


go boating 


go hiking 




go shopping 


go sledding 


yu uuwiiny 


go hunting 




go sightseeing 


go snorkeling 


go camping 


go jogging 




go skating 


go swimming 


go canoeing/kayaking 


go mountain climbing 


go skateboarding 


go window shopping 



*Also 5 in British English: go angling. 



□ Exercise 16. Let's talk. (Chart 14 4) 

Discuss the activities listed in Chart 14-4. Work in pairs, in small groups, or as a class. 

1. Which ones have you done? When? Briefly describe your experiences. 

2. Which ones do you like to do? 

3 . Which ones do you never want to do? 

4. Which ones have you not done but would like to do? 

□ Exercise 17. Listening. (Chart 14-4) 




Listen to the story with your book closed. Then open your book and listen again. Complete 
the sentences with a form of go and any verb that makes sense. 



Track 14 




1. The first thing Saturday morning, Ron went canoeing 

2. He brought a fishing rod so he could . 

3. He saw some friends on a sailboat but didn't with them. 

4. He instead. 

5. After lunch, he 

6. He finished the day by with some of his friends. 

Gerunds and Infinitives, Part 1 309 



□ Exercise 18. Let's talk. (Chart 14 4) 

Make a sentence that is true for you using the words in parentheses. Then ask a classmate, 
"How about you?" 

Example: I (enjoy, don't enjoy) \ go \ shop \ for clothes 

Speaker A: I don't enjoy going shopping for clothes. How about you? 

Speaker B: No, I don't enjoy it either, or Actually, I enjoy it. 

1 . I (go, never go) \ dance \ on weekends 

2. I (like to go, don 't like to go) \ bowl 

3. I (sometimes postpone, never postpone) \ do \ my homework 

4. I (really appreciate, don't appreciate) \ get \ emails from advertisers 

5. I (am considering, am not considering) \ look \ for a new place to live 

6. I (enjoy, don't enjoy) \ play \ card games 

7. I (used to go, never ivent) \ fish \ as a child 

8. I (go, never go) \ jog \ for exercise 

□ Exercise 19. Warm-up. (Chart 14 5) 

Read the story. Look at the phrases in blue. Underline the verb that follows each phrase. 
What form do these verbs take? 

Ms. Jones, the teacher, is new and inexperienced. She speaks very quickly, so students have a 
hard time fol lowin g her. Because they have difficulty understanding her, they spend a lot of 
class time asking questions. In response, Ms. Jones gives long, wordy explanations and wastes a 
lot of class time trying to make herself understood. The students sit at their desks looking 
confused, and Ms. Jones stands in front of the class feeling frustrated. 





(a) We had fun 1 
We had a good time 

(b) 1 had trouble 

1 had difficulty 

1 had a hard time 

1 had a difficult time i 


> playing volleyball. 

> finding his house. 


-ing forms follow certain special expressions: 

have fun/a good time + -ing 

have trouble/ difficulty + -ing 

have a hard time/difficult time + -ing 


(c) Sam spends most of his time studying. 

(d) 1 waste a lot of time watching TV. 


spend + expression of time or money + -ing 
waste + expression of time or money + -ing 


(e) She sat at her desk writing a letter. 

(f ) 1 stood there wondering what to do next. 

(g) He is lying in bed reading a novel. 


sit + expression of place + -ing 
stand + expression of place + -ing 
lie + expression of place + -ing 


! (h) When 1 walked into my office, 1 found George 
using my telephone. 

(i) When 1 walked into my office, 1 caught a thief 
looking through my desk drawers. 


find + (pro)noun + -ing 
catch + (pro)noun + -ing 

In (h) and (i): Both find and catch mean "discover." 
Catch often expresses anger or displeasure. 



310 CHAPTER 14 



□ Exercise 20. Looking at grammar. (Chart 14-5) 

Complete the sentences with appropriate -ing verbs. 

1 . We had a lot of fun p\aymq games at the picnic. 

2. I have trouble Mrs. Maxwell when she speaks. She talks too fast. 

3. I spent five hours my homework last night. 

4. Olga is standing at the corner for the bus. 

5. Ricardo is sitting in class notes. 

6. It was a beautiful spring day. Dorothy was lying under a tree to the 

birds sing. 

7. We wasted our money to that movie. It was very boring. 

8. Ted is an indecisive person. He has a hard time up his mind about 

anything. 

9. I wondered what the children were doing while I was gone. When I got home, I found 
them TV. 

10. When Mr. Chan walked into the kitchen, he caught the children 

some candy even though he'd told them not to spoil their dinners. 



□ Exercise 21. Let's talk: pairwork. (Chart 14-5) 

Work with a partner. Complete a sentence about yourself using an -ing verb. Ask your 
partner, "How about you?" 

Example: Sometimes I have trouble .... 

Speaker A: Sometimes I have trouble understanding spoken English. How about you? 
Speaker B: Yeah. Me too. I have a lot of trouble understanding people in TV shows especially. 

1 . Every week I spend at least an hour .... 

2. In my free time, I have fun .... 

3. Sometimes I sit in class .... 

4. Sometimes I waste money .... 

5 . If you come to my home at midnight, you will find me .... 



Change roles. 

6. I think it's fun to spend all day .... 

7. Sometimes I have trouble .... 

8. You will never catch me .... 

9. I ami am not a decisive person. I have a hard/easy time 
10. When I'm on a picnic, I always have a good time .... 



Gerunds and Infinitives, Part 1 311 



□ Exercise 22. Listening. (Chart 14-5) 

Listen to the sentences. Complete the sentences 3 orally or in writing 3 using -ing verbs. 

T CD2 5 Example: You will hear: I play soccer every day. I love it! 

You will write (or say): The speaker has fun playing soccer . 



1. 


The 


speaker 


2. 


The 


speaker 


3. 


The 


speaker 


4. 


The 


speaker 


5. 


The 


speaker 


6. 


The 


speaker 


7. 


The 


speaker 


8. 


The 


speaker 



□ Exercise 23. Let's talk: interview. (Chart 14-5) 

Make questions with the given words. Interview two people for each item. Share some of the 
answers with the class. 

1 . What \ you \ have difficulty \ remember? 

2. What \ you \ have a hard time \ learn? 

3. What \ you \ have a good time \ play? 

4. What English sounds \ you \ have a hard time \ pronounce? 

5. What \ people \ waste money \ do? 

6. What \ people \ waste time \ do? 

□ Exercise 24. Warm-up. (Chart 14-6) 

Check (/) all the correct sentences. 

1. a. We hope visiting them soon. 

b. We hope to visit them soon. 

c. We hope you to visit them soon. 

2. a. We told you to call us. 

b. We told to call us. 

c. We told calling us. 

3. a. I invited to go to the party. 

b. I invited Ella to go to the party. 

c. Ella was invited to go to the party. 



312 CHAPTER 14 



14-6 Common Verbs Followed by Infinitives 



Verb + Infinitive 



(a) I hope to see you again soon. 

(b) He promised to be here by ten. 



(c) He promised not to be late. 



An infinitive = to + the simple form of a verb (to see, to 
be, to go, etc.). 



Some verbs are followed immediately by an infinitive, as 
in (a) and (b). 

Negative form: not precedes the infinitive, as in (c). 



Common verbs followed by infinitives 

hope to (do something) promise to seem to expect to 

plan to agree to appear to would like to 

intend to* offer to pretend to want to 

decide to refuse to ask to need to 



Verb + Object + Infinitive 



(d) Mr. Lee told me to be here at ten o'clock. 

(e) The police ordered the driver to stop. 

(f ) I was told to be here at ten o'clock. 

(g) The driver was ordered to stop. 



Some verbs are followed by a (pro)noun object and then 
an infinitive, as in (d) and (e). 

These verbs are followed immediately by an infinitive 
when they are used in the passive, as in (f) and (g). 



Common verbs followed by (pro)nouns and infinitives 

tell someone to invite someone to 

advise someone to** permit someone to 

encourage someone to allow someone to 

remind someone to warn someone to 



require someone to 
order someone to 
force someone to 
ask someone to 



expect someone to 
would like someone to 
want someone to 
need someone to 



Verb + Infinitive/ Verb + Object + Infinitive 



(h) I expect to pass the test. 

( i ) I expect Mary to pass the test. 



Some verbs have two patterns: 

• verb + infinitive, as in (h) 

• verb + object + infinitive, as in (i) 

compare: 

In (h): I think I will pass the test. 
In (i): I think Mary will pass the test. 



Common verbs followed by infinitives or by objects and then infinitives 

ask to / ask someone to want to / want someone to 

expect to / expect someone to would like to / would like someone to 

need to / need someone to 



* Intend is usually followed by an infinitive (/ intend to go to the meeting.) but sometimes may be followed by a gerund (/ intend 
going to the meeting.) with no change in meaning. 
k *A gerund is used after advise (active) if there is no noun or pronoun object. 
Compare: 

(1) He advised buying a Fiat. 

(2) He advised me to buy a Fiat. I was advised to buy a Fiat. 



Gerunds and Infinitives, Part 1 313 



□ Exercise 25. Looking at grammar. (Chart 14-6) 

Complete the sentences with to leave or me to leave. In some cases, both completions are 
possible. 



1. He told 

2. He decided 



me to \eave 



to \eave 



He asked to \eave / me to leave 

He offered 

She wanted 

He agreed 



She would like 

He warned 

She refused 



10. He promised 

11. She hoped _ 



12. He permitted 

13. She expected 

14. He forced 



15. She allowed 



16. He reminded 

17. She planned . 



18. He pretended 



□ Exercise 26. Looking at grammar. (Chart 14-6) 

Report what was said by using the verbs in the list to introduce an infinitive phrase. 



advise 

allow 

ask 



encourage 

expect 

force 



order 

permit 

remind 



require 

tell 

warn 



1 . The professor said to Alan, "You may leave early." 
— > The professor allozued Alan to leave early. OR 

— > Alan zvas allowed to leave early. 

2. Roberto said to me, "Don't forget to take your book back to the library." 

3. Mr. Chang thinks I have a good voice, so he said to me, "You should take singing lessons.' 

4. Mrs. Alvarez was very stern and a little angry. She shook her finger at the children and 
said to them, "Don't play with matches!" 

5. I am very relieved because the Dean of Admissions said to me, "You may register for 
school late." 

6. The law says, "Every driver must have a valid driver's license." 

7. My friend said to me, "You should get some automobile insurance." 

8. The robber had a gun. He said to me, "Give me all of your money." 

9. My boss said to me, "Come to the meeting ten minutes early." 



314 CHAPTER 14 



Exercise 27. Let's talk. (Chart 14-6) 

Work in small groups. Speaker A forms the question, and Speaker B gives the answer. 
Speaker C changes the sentence to passive (the 6y-phrase can be omitted). 

Example: What \ someone \ remind \ you \ do \ recently? 
Speaker A: What did someone remind you to do recently, Mario? 
Speaker B: My roommate reminded me to recharge my cell phone. 
Speaker C: Mario was reminded to recharge his cell phone. 

1 . What \ a family member \ remind \ you \ do \ recently? 

2. Where \ a friend \ ask \ you \ go \ recently? 

3. What \ the government \ require \ people \ do? 

4. What \ doctors \ advise \ patients \ do? 

5. What \ teachers \ expect \ students \ do? 

6. What \ our teacher \ tell \ you \ do \ recently? 

7. What \ the laws \ not permit \ you \ do? 

8. Where \ parents \ warn \ their kids \ not \ go? 

9. What \ our teacher \ encourage \ us \ do to practice our English? 

Exercise 28. Looking at grammar. (Charts 14-3 and 14-6) 

Complete each sentence with a gerund or an infinitive. 

1. We're going out for dinner. Would you like to join us? 

2. Jack avoided looking at me. 

3. I was broke, so Jenny offered me a little money. 

4. Would you mind the door for me? 

5. Even though I asked the people in front of me at the movie quiet, 



they kept 



6. 



Lucy pretended 



the answer to my question. 



7. 



The teacher seems 



in a good mood today, don't you think? 



10. 



11. 



9. 



8 



Mrs. Jackson warned her young son not 



All applicants are required 



I don't mind 



pets in my apartment building. 



Residents are not allowed 



an entrance examination. 



the hot stove. 



alone. 




Gerunds and Infinitives, Part 1 31 



12. My boss expects me 



13. Joan and David were considering 

decided until August 



the work ASAP.* 

married in June, but they finally 



14. Jack advised me 

15. I was advised 

16. Jack advised 



a new apartment. 



a new apartment. 



17. Jack suggested 



a new apartment. 
a new apartment. 



18. When we were in New York, we had a really good time 
Park on sunny days. 



in Central 



19. This is my first term at this school. I haven't really had any problems, but sometimes I 
have trouble the lectures. Some professors speak too fast. 

20. Ms. Gray is a commuter. Every workday, she spends almost two hours 
to and from work. 




□ Exercise 29. Warm-up. (Chart 14 7) 

Which pairs (a. and b.) have basically the same meaning? Which pairs have different 
meanings? 



1. a. It began to snow, 
b. It began snowing. 

2. a. I remembered to call my parents, 
b. I remembered calling my parents. 

3. a. We love to listen to music, 
b. We love listening to music. 



4. a. He forgot to buy a gift, 
b. He forgot buying a gift. 

5. a. I stopped to talk to my friend, 
b. I stopped talking to my friend. 



*ASAP = as soon as possible. 
316 CHAPTER 14 



14-7 Common Verbs Followed by Either Infinitives or Gerunds 


Some verbs can be followed by either an infinitive or a gerund, sometimes with no difference in meaning, as in Group A 
below, and sometimes with a difference in meaning, as in Group B below. 


Group A: Verb + Infinitive or Gerund, with No Difference in Meaning 


begin like hate 
start love can't stand 
continue prefer* can't bear 


The verbs in Group A may be followed by either an 
infinitive or a gerund with little or no difference in 
meaning. 


( a ) It began to rain. 1 It began raining. 

(b) 1 started to work. / 1 started working. 

( c ) It was beginning to rain. 


In (a): There is no difference between began to rain and 
began raining. 

If the main verb is progressive, an infinitive (not a gerund) 
is usually used, as in (c). 


Group B: Verb + Infinitive or Gerund, with a Difference in Meaning 


remember regret stop 
forget try 


The verbs in Group B may be followed by either an 
infinitive or a gerund, but the meaning is different. 


( d ) Judy always remembers to lock the door. 

( e ) Sam often forgets to lock the door. 

( f ) 1 remember seeing the Alps for the first time. 
The sight was impressive. 

( g ) 17/ never forget seeing the Alps for the first 
time. 


Remember + infinitive - remember to perform 

rpcnnnQihilitw Hiitw nr tack ac in (r{\ 
i coliui ioiui 1 1 iV| uuiy t \ji luoix, do hi 

Forget + infinitive = forget to perform a responsibility, 
duty, or task, as in (e). 

Remember + gerund = remember (recall) something 
that happened in the past, as in (f). 

Forget + gerund = forget something that happened in 
the past, as in (g).** 


( h ) 1 regret to tell you that you failed the test. 

( i ) 1 regret lending him some money. He never 
paid me back. 


Regret + infinitive = regret to say, to tell someone, to 
inform someone of some bad news, as in (h). 

Regret + gerund = regret something that happened in 
the past, as in (i). 


( j ) I7t7 trying to learn English. 

(k) The room was hot. 1 tried opening {he window, 
but that didn't help. So 1 tried turning on the 
fan, but 1 was still hot. Finally, 1 turned on the 
air conditioner. 


Try + infinitive = make an effort, as in (j). 

Try + gerund = experiment with a new or different 
approach to see if it works, as in (k). 


( 1 ) The students stopped talking when the professor 
entered the room. The room became quiet. 

(m) When Ann saw her professor in the hallway, 
she stopped (in order) to talkXo him. 


Stop + gerund = stop an activity. 

Stop can also be followed immediately by an infinitive of 
purpose, as in (m): Ann stopped walking in order to talk 
to her professor. (See Chart 1 5-1 , p. 331 .) 



*Notice the patterns with prefer: 

prefer + gerund: I prefer staying home to going to the concert. 

prefer + infinitive: I'd prefer to stay home (rather) than (to) go to the concert. 

** Forget followed by a gerund usually occurs in a negative sentence or in a question: e.g., I'll never forget, I can't forget, Have you ever 
forgotten, and Can you ever forget are often followed by a gerund phrase. 



Gerunds and Infinitives, Part 1 31 7 



□ Exercise 30. Looking at grammar. (Chart 14-7) 

Complete each sentence with the correct form of the verb in parentheses. 

1. I always remember (turn) to turn off all the lights before I leave my house. 

2. I remember (play) with dolls when I was a child. 

3. What do you remember (do) when you were a child? 

4. What do you remember (do) before you leave for class every day? 

5. What did you forget (do) before you left for class this morning? 

6. I won't ever forget (zvatch) our team score the winning goal in the 

last seconds of the championship game. 

7. Don't forget (do) your homework tonight. 

8. Please stop (bite) your fingernails. 

9. I stopped (get) gas yesterday and was shocked at the high price. 

10. I stopped (drive) so much because of the high price of gas. 

□ Exercise 31. Listening. (Chart 14-7) 

^ Listen to each sentence and choose the sentence (a. or b.) with the same meaning. 
CD2 1. a. Joan thought about her phone call with her husband. 

Track 16 

b. Joan didn't forget to call her husband. 

2. a. Rita was thinking about the times she went to the farmers' market with her 

grandmother. 

b. Rita didn't forget to go to the farmers' market with her grandmother. 

3. a. Roger got a cigarette and began to smoke, 
b. Roger quit smoking. 

4. a. Mr. and Mrs. Olson finished eating. 

b. Mr. and Mrs. Olson got something to eat before the movie. 

5. a. The speaker is sorry about something he did. 
b. The speaker is delivering some bad news. 

□ Exercise 32. Looking at grammar. (Charts 14-3 ^14-7) 

Complete each sentence with the correct form of the verb in parentheses. 

1 . Maria loves (szuim) swimming / to ewim in the ocean. 

2. After a brief interruption, the professor continued (lecture) 



3. I hate (see) any living being suffer. I can't bear (watch) 

news reports of children who are starving. I can't stand (read) 

about animals that have been cruelly abused by people. 



318 CHAPTER 14 



4. I'm afraid of flying. When a plane begins {move) down the 

runway, my heart starts {race) . Uh-oh! The plane is beginning 

{move*) , and my heart is starting {race) 

5. When I travel, I prefer {drive) to {take) 

a plane. 

6. I prefer {drive) rather than {take) 

a plane. 

7. I regret {inform) you that your loan application has not been 

approved. 

8. I regret {listen, not) to my father's advice. He was right. 

9. When a student asks a question, the teacher always tries {explain) 

the problem as clearly as possible. 

10. I tried everything, but the baby still wouldn't stop {cry) 




*If possible, native speakers usually prefer to use an infinitive following a progressive verb instead of using two -itig verbs 
in a row. 

Usual: The baby is starting to walk, (instead of walking) 
If the main verb is not progressive, either form is used: 

Babies start to walk around one. OR Babies start walking around one. 



Gerunds and Infinitives, Part 1 319 



□ Exercise 33. Let's talk. (Charts 14-3 > 14-7) 

Speaker A gives the cues. Speaker B makes sentences from the verb combinations. Any name, 
verb tense, or modal can be used. Work in pairs or small groups. 

Examples: 

Speaker A {book open): like \ go 

Speaker B {book closed)'. I like to go (or going) to the park. 

Speaker A {book open): ask \ open 

Speaker B {book closed): Kostas asked me to open the window. 





Change roles. 


1 . advise \ go 


1 1 . continue \ walk 


2. offer \ lend 


12. finish \ do 


3. start \ laugh 


13. encourage \ go 


4. remind \ take 


14. can't stand \ have to wait 


5. be allowed \ have 


15. regret \ take 


Change roles. 


Change roles. 


6. postpone \ go 


1 6. decide \ ask \ come 


7. look forward to \ see 


17. stop \ walk 


8. forget \ bring 


18. consider \ not go 


9. remember \ go 


19. keep \ put off \ do 


10. suggest \ go 


20. intend \ finish 



□ Exercise 34. Let's talk: interview. (Charts 14 3 > 14 -7) 

Make true sentences about yourself using the words in parentheses. Ask other students about 
themselves using the given question word. Share some of the answers with the class. 

Example: (like \ go \ on weekends) Where? 

— > I like to go to Central Park on zueekends. How about you? Wliere do you like to go 
on zueekends? 

1. (enjoy \ listen to) What? 

2. (be interested in \ learn) What? 

3. (be used to \ have \ for breakfast) What? 

4. (prefer \ go to bed) What time? 

5. (can't stand \ watch) What? 

6. (decide \ study English) Why? 

□ Exercise 35. Looking at grammar. (Charts 14-3 -> 14-7) 

Complete each sentence with an appropriate form of the verb in parentheses. 

1 . Mary reminded me {be, not) not to be late for the meeting. 

2. I've volunteered {help) at the local school during my time off and 

{paint) the lunchroom. 

3. We discussed {quit) our jobs and {open) our 

own business. 



320 CHAPTER 14 



4. I'm getting tired. I need {take) 



5. Sometimes students avoid {look) 

(answer) a question. 

6. Most children prefer {watch) 



a break. 

_ at the teacher if they don't want 



to the radio. 



7. The taxi driver refused {take) 

(pay) cash. 

8. The travel agent advised us (wait, not) 
a reservation. 



television to (listen) 
. a check. He wanted the passenger 
until August (make) 



9. Keep {talk) 



10. Linda offered (water) 

11. Igor suggested (go) _ 



I'm listening to you. 

my plants while I was out of town. 

(ski) in the mountains this 



weekend. How does that sound to you? 
12. The doctor ordered Mr. Gray (smoke, not) 



13. Don't tell me his secret. I prefer (know, not) 

14. Toshi was allowed (renew) his student visa. 

15. Don't forget (tell) Jane (call) 



(swim) 



tomorrow. 



16. Sally reminded me (ask) 
(remember) 



you (tell) 



me about (go) 



Bob 



(bring) 



17. Recently, Jo has been spending most of her time (do) 
book on pioneer women. 

18. The little boy had a lot of trouble 

(convince) 

anyone he had seen a mermaid. 



his soccer ball to the picnic. 
research for a 




Gerunds and Infinitives, Part 1 321 



J Exercise 36. Warm-up. (Chart 14-8) 

All of the sentences are correct. What differences do you notice in their grammatical structure? 
Do you agree or disagree with the statements? Why or why not? 

1 . Speaking a second language without an accent is nearly impossible for adult language 
learners. 

2. To speak a second language without an accent is nearly impossible for adult language 
learners. 

3. It is nearly impossible for adult language learners to speak a second language without 
an accent. 



14-8 It + Infinitive; Gerunds and Infinitives as Subjects 


(a) It is difficult to learn a second language. 


Often an infinitive phrase is used with /fas the 
subject of a sentence. The word it refers to 
and has the same meaning as the infinitive 
phrase at the end of the sentence. 

In (a): It means "to learn a second language." 


(b) Learning a second language is difficult. 


A gerund phrase is frequently used as the 
subject of a sentence, as in (b). 


(c) To learn a second language is difficult. 


An infinitive can also be used as the subject of 
a sentence, as in (c), but far more commonly 
an infinitive phrase is used with it, as in (a). 


(d) It is easy for young children to learn a second language. 
Learning a second language is easy for young children. 
To learn a second language is easy for young children. 


The phrase for (someone) may be used to 
specify exactly who the speaker is talking 
about, as in (d). 



□ Exercise 37. Looking at grammar. (Chart 14-8) 

Make sentences beginning with it. Use a form of the given word followed by an infinitive 
phrase for each sentence. 



1. 


be dangerous — » It's dangerous to ride a motorcycle without wearing a helmet. 


2. 


be important 


3. 


not be easy 


4. 


be silly 


5. 


must be interesting 


6. 


be always a pleasure 


7. 


be smart 


8. 


not cost much money 


9. 


be necessary 


10. 


take time 



322 CHAPTER 14 



□ Exercise 38. Looking at grammar. (Chart 14-8) 

Add for (someone) and any other words to give a more specific and accurate meaning to 
each sentence. 

1. It isn't possible to be on time. 

— > It isn't possible for me to be on time for class if the bus drivers are on strike and I have to 
ivalk to class in a rainstorm. 

2. It's easy to speak Spanish. 

3. It's important to learn English. 

4. It is essential to get a visa. 

5. It's important to take advanced math courses. 

6. It's difficult to communicate. 

7. It was impossible to come to class. 

8. It is a good idea to study gerunds and infinitives. 

□ Exercise 39. Let's talk: pairwork. (Chart 14-8) 

Work with a partner. Speaker A gives the cue. Speaker B completes the sentence with an 
infinitive phrase. Speaker A restates the sentence using a gerund phrase as the subject. 

Example: 

Speaker A (book open) : It's fun . . . 

Speaker B (book closed): ... to ride a horse. 

Speaker A (book open): Riding a horse is fun. 



□ Exercise 40. Let's talk: interview. (Chart 14-8) 

Interview two different students for each item. Ask the students to answer each question using 
a gerund phrase as the subject. 

1 . What is easy for you? 

2. What is hard for you? 

3. What is or isn't interesting for you? 

4. What has been a good experience for you? 

5. What sounds like fun to you? 

6. What is considered impolite in your country? 

7. What is a complicated process? 

8. What demands patience and a sense of humor? 



1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 



It's dangerous . . . 
It's easy . . . 
It's impolite . . . 
It is important . . . 



Change roles. 

5. It is wrong . . . 

6. It takes a lot of time . . . 

7. It's a good idea . . . 

8. Is it difficult . . . ? 



Gerunds and Infinitives, Part 1 323 



14-9 Reference List of Verbs Followed by Gerunds 



Verbs with a bullet (•) can also be followed by infinitives. See Chart 14-10. 



1. 


admit 


He admitted stealing the money. 


2. 


advise* 


She advised waiting until tomorrow. 


3. 


anticipate 


I anticipate having a good time on vacation. 


4. 


appreciate 


I appreciated hearing from them. 


5. 


avoid 


He avoided answering my question. 


6. 


can't bear* 


I can't bear waitinq in lonq lines. 


7. 


begin* 


It began raining. 


8. 


complete 


1 finally completed writing my term paper. 


9. 


consider 


1 will consider going with you. 


10. 


continue* 


He continued speaking. 


11. 


delay 


He delayed leaving for school. 


12. 


deny 


She denied committing the crime. 


13. 


discuss 


They discussed opening a new business. 


14. 


dislike 


1 dislike driving long distances. 


15. 


enjoy 


We enjoyed visiting them. 


16. 


finish 


She finished studying about ten. 


17. 


forget* 


1 'II never forget visiting Napoleon's tomb. 


18. 


hate* 


1 hate making silly mistakes. 


19. 


can't help 


1 can't help worryinq about it. 


20. 


keep 


1 keep hoping he will come. 


21. 


like* 


1 like going to movies. 


22. 


love* 


1 love going to operas. 


23. 


mention 


She mentioned going to a movie. 


24. 


mind 


Would you mind helping me with this? 


25. 


miss 


1 miss being with my family. 


26. 


postpone 


Let's postpone leaving until tomorrow. 


27. 


practice 


The athlete practiced throwinqthe ball. 


28. 


prefer* 


Ann prefers walkinq to drivinq to work. 


29. 


quit 


He quit trying to solve the problem. 


30. 


recall 


1 don't recall meeting him before. 


31. 


recollect 


1 don't recollect meeting him before. 


32. 


recommend 


She recommended seeing the show. 


33. 


regret* 


1 regref fe///no/ him my secret. 


34. 


remember* 


1 can remember meeting him when 1 was a child. 


35. 


resent 


1 resent her interfering in my business. 


36. 


resist 


1 couldn't resist eating the dessert. 


37. 


risk 


She risks losing all of her money. 


38. 


can't stand* 


1 can 7 sfand waiting in lonq lines. 


39. 


start* 


It started raining. 


40. 


stop 


She stopped going to classes when she got sick. 


41. 


suggest 


She suggested going to a movie. 


42. 


tolerate 


She won'f tolerate cheating during an examination. 


43. 


try* 


1 fr/ed changing the light bulb, but the lamp still didn't work. 


44. 


understand 


1 don 7 understand his lea ving school. 



324 CHAPTER 14 



14-10 Reference List of Verbs Followed by Infinitive! 



Verbs with a bullet (•) can also be followed by gerunds. See Chart 14-9. 



Verbs Followed Immediately by an Infinitive 



1 . 


afford 


1 can't afford to buy it. 


OA 
d.°t. 


like* 


1 like to go to the movies. 


2. 


agree 


They agreed to help us. 


OK 

do. 


love* 


1 love to go to operas. 


3. 


appear 


She appears to be tired. 


Oft 

do. 


manage 


She managed to finish her work 


4. 


arrange 


1 '// arrange to meet you at the 






early 






an pun. 


01 


mean 


1 W / W n't mo q n f/**i Hi irf \tf\i i r foolinnc 

i uiuii i 1 ileal i lu iiuii yuui mmniyb. 


c 

o. 


ask 


rlc aiftKU IV LVITlB Willi US. 


OP, 
c.O. 


need 


i //ecu iv iiavc yuui upniiuii. 


c 
O. 


can't bear* 


1 can t bear to wait in long lines. 


OQ 
d\d. 


offer 


They offered to help us. 


7 
/ . 


beg 


lie UcyycU OJ UVIIIG Willi Uo. 


'-in 


plan 


\ 1 II pial 11 III ly IV 1 lave a pal iy. 


8. 


begin* 


It began to rain. 


ol . 


prefer* 


Ann prefers to walk to work. 


o 

y. 


care 


1 don't care to see that show. 


on 

od. 


prepare 


We prepared to welcome them. 


10. 


claim 


She claims to know a famous 


o o 
oo. 


pretend 


He pretends not to understand. 






movie star. 


34. 


promise 


1 promise not to be late. 


1 1 




Rhp finally mrvzpntpri tn mzirrv him 

m ic ill 1 ci 1 1 V 'ocf it & u tw 1 i iai t y iiiiii. 


OO. 


IcIUbc 


1 IcIUtsc IV Ucllcvc 1Mb blUiy. 


H O 


continue* 


He continued to speak. 


36. 


regret* 


1 regret to tell you that you failed. 


lo. 


decide 


1 have decided to leave on Monday. 


37. 


remember* 


1 remembered to lock the door. 


14. 


demand 


1 demand to know who is 


38. 


seem 


That cat seems to be friendly. 






lobpuilblule. 


39. 


can't stand* 


1 can't stand to wait in long lines. 


l o. 


Qcbcive 


She deserves to win the prize. 


40. 


start* 


It started to rain. 


1 ft 


flvnQpt 

cXptJUl 


1 expect to enter graduate school in 


41. 


struggle 


1 struggled to stay awake. 






the fall 

LI 1 \s lul 1 • 


42. 


swear 


She swore to tell the truth. 


17. 


fail 


Shp fp//pr/ tn return thp hnnk tn thp 


43. 


talk 


He fends to talk too much. 






library on time. 


44. 


th rpatpn 

ii ii caici i 


She threatened to tell my parents. 


18. 


forget* 


1 forgot to mail \he letter. 


45. 


try* 


1 'm trying to learn English. 


19. 


hate* 


1 hate to make silly mistakes. 


46. 


volunteer 


He volunteered to help us. 


20. 


hesitate 


Don't hesitate to ask for my help. 


47. 


wait 


1 '// wait to near from you. 


21. 


hope 


Jack hopes to arrive next week. 


48. 


want 


1 want to tell you something. 


22. 


intend 


He intends to be a firefighter. 


49. 


wish 


She wishes to come with us. 


23. 


learn 


He learned to play the piano. 








Verbs Followed by a (Pro) noun + an Infinitive 


50. 


advise* 


She advised me to wait until 
tomorrow. 


64. 


invite 


Harry invited the Johnsons to come 
to his party. 


51. 


allow 


She allowed me to use her car. 


65. 


need 


We needed Chris to help us figure 


52. 


ask 


1 asked John to help us. 






out the solution. 


53. 


beg 


They begged us to come. 


66. 


order 


The judge ordered me to pay a fine. 


54. 


cause 


Her laziness caused her to fail. 


67. 


permit 


He permitted the children to stay up 


55. 


challenge 


She challenged me to race her to 






late. 






the corner. 


68. 


persuade 


1 persuaded him to come for a visit. 


56. 


convince 


1 couldn't convince him to accept 


69. 


remind 


She reminded me to lock the door. 






our help. 


70. 


require 


Our teacher requires us to be on 


57. 


dare 


He dared me to do better than he 






time. 






had done. 


71. 


teach 


My brother taught me to swim. 


58. 


encourage 


He encouraged me to try again. 


72. 


tell 


The doctor told me to take these 


59. 


expect 


1 expect you to be on time. 






pills. 


60. 


forbid 


1 forbid you to tell him. 


73. 


urge 


1 urged her to apply for the job. 


61. 


force 


They forced him to fe//the truth. 


74. 


want 


1 want you to be happy. 


62. 


hire 


She hired a boy to mow the lawn. 


75. 


warn 


1 warned you not to drive too fast. 


63. 


instruct 


He instructed them to be careful. 









Gerunds and Infinitives, Part 1 325 



Exercise 41. Let's talk: pairwork. (Charts 14-9 and 14-10) 

Work with a partner. Partner A gives the cue. Partner B completes the sentence with doing it 
or to do it. Check Charts 14-9 and 14-10 for the correct verb form if necessary. 

Example: I promise 

Partner A {book open) : I promise . . . 

Partner B (book closed): ... to do it. 



1. We plan... 

2. I can't afford . . . 

3. She didn't allow me . . . 

4. I don't care . . . 

5. Please remind me . . . 

6. I am considering . . . 

7. Our director postponed 

8. He persuaded me . . . 

9. I don't mind . . . 

10. Everyone avoided . . . 

Change roles. 

11. I refused . . . 

12. I hope . . . 

13. She convinced me . . . 

14. He mentioned . . . 

15. I expect . . . 

16. I encouraged him . . . 

17. I warned him not . . . 

18. We prepared . . . 

19. I don't recall . . . 

20. We decided . . . 

Change roles. 

21. He resented . . . 

22. When will you finish . . . 

23. Did you practice . . . 

24. She agreed . . . 

25. They consented . . . 



26. Stop . . . 

27. I didn't force him . . . 

28. I couldn't resist . . . 

29. Somehow, the cat managed . 

30. Did the little boy admit . . . ? 

Change roles. 

31. He denied . . . 

32. I didn't mean . . . 

33. She swore . . . 

34. I volunteered . . . 

35. He suggested . . . 

36. He advised me . . . 

37. He struggled . . . 

38. I don't want to risk . . . 

39. Do you recommend . . . ? 

40. I miss . . . 

Change roles. 

41. I can't imagine . . . 

42. She threatened . . . 

43. He seems to dislike . . . 

44. The children begged . . . 

45. She challenged me . . . 

46. Did he deny . . . ? 

47. She taught me . . . 

48. Do you anticipate . . . ? 

49. I don't recollect . . . 

50. I'll arrange . . . 



□ Exercise 42. Game. (Charts 14-9 and 14-10) 

Divide into teams. Your teacher will begin a sentence by using any of the verbs in Charts 14-9 
and 14-10. Complete the sentence with to do it or doing it } or with your own words. Each 
correct completion scores one point. 

Example: 

Teacher: I reminded Mario . . . 

Student A: ... to do it. or ... to be on time. 

Teacher: Yes. One point! 



326 CHAPTER 14 



j Exercise 43. Looking at grammar. (Charts 14-9 and 14-10) 

Choose the correct form of the verbs in italics. In some sentences, both verbs are correct. 

1 . Hassan volunteered bringing I to bring some food to the reception. 

2. The students practiced pronouncing I to pronounce the "th" sound in the phrase "these 
thirty-three dirty trees." 

3. In the fairy tale, the wolf threatened eating I to eat a girl named Little Red Riding Hood. 

4. The movers struggled lifting I to lift the piano up the stairs. 

5. Anita demanded knozving I to know why she had been fired. 

6. My skin can't tolerate being I to be in the sun all day. I get sunburned easily. 

7. Mr. Kwan broke the antique vase. I'm sure he didn't mean doing I to do it. 

8. Fred Washington claims being I to be a descendant of George Washington. 

9. Linda failed passing I to pass the entrance exam. 

10. I hate getting I to get to work late. 

11. I can't bear seeing I to see animals suffer. 

12. Ming Wan just started a new business. He risks losing I to lose everything if it doesn't 
succeed. 

□ Exercise 44. Looking at grammar. (Charts 14-9 and 14-10) 

Complete each sentence with an appropriate form of the verb in parentheses. 

1. How did you manage (find) to find out about the surprise party? 

2. I think Sam deserves (have) another chance. 

3. Olga finally admitted (be) responsible for the problem. 

4. Mrs. Freeman can't help (zuorry) about her children. 

5. Children, I forbid you (play) in the street. There's too much traffic. 

6. Lori suggested (leave) around six. Is that too early for you? 

7. I urged Omar (return) to school and ( finis Ji) 

his education. 

8. Oscar keeps (hope) and (pray) that things will 

get better. 

9. Nadia keeps (promise) (visit) us, but she 

never does. 

10. My little cousin is a blabbermouth! He can't resist (tell) everyone 

my secrets! 



Gerunds and Infinitives, Part 1 327 



11. 

12. 



I finally managed {persuade) _ 
school and {finish) 

Margaret challenged me {race) 



Yoko {stay) 

her degree. 

her across the pool. 



in 




Exercise 45. Let's talk. (Chapter 14) 

Work in groups of three to five. Choose one of the story beginnings or make up your own. 
Each group member continues the story by adding a sentence or two. At least one of the 
sentences should contain words from the list on page 329, plus a gerund or infinitive phrase 
(but it is okay to continue the story without using a gerund or infinitive if it works out that 
way). As a group, use as many of the words in the list as you can. 

Example: Yoko had a bad night last night. First, when she got home, she discovered that . . . 

Speaker A: ... her door was unlocked. She didn't recall leaving her door unlocked. 

She always remembers to lock her door and in fact specifically remembered 
locking it that morning. So she became afraid that someone had broken into 
her apartment. 

Speaker B: She thought about going inside, but then decided it would be better not to go 
into her apartment alone. What if there was a burglar inside? 

Speaker C: Instead of going into her apartment alone, Yoko walked to her next-door 
neighbor's door and knocked. 

Speaker D: Her neighbor answered the door. He could see that something was the matter. 
"Are you all right?" he asked her. 

Etc. 



Story beginnings: 

1. ( ) is having trouble with (her/his) roommate, whose name is ( ). (Her/His) 

roommate keeps many pets even though the lease they signed forbids residents to keep 
animals in their apartments. Yesterday, one of these pets, a/an .... 

2. It was a dark and stormy night. ( ) was all alone at home. Suddenly .... 



CHAPTER 14 



3. Not long ago, ( ) and ( ) were walking home together after dark. They heard a 

strange whooshing sound. When they looked up in the night sky> they saw a huge hovering 

aircraft. It glowed! It was round and green! ( ) was frightened and curious at the 

same time. (She/He) wanted to ... > but .... 

4. Once upon a time^ ( ) lived in a faraway village in a remote mountainous region. All 

of the villagers were terrified because of the dragon that lived nearby. At least once a week> 
the dragon would descend on the village and .... 

5. ( ) had a bad day yesterday. First of all> when (she/he) got up in the mornings 

(she/he) discovered that .... 



List ofzvords and phrases to use in your story: 



Prepositional expressions 
followed by gerunds 


Verbs followed by gerunds 
or infinitives 


It + an infinitive or a 
gerund subject 


be accused of 


admit 


mind 


be a bad experience 


be accustomed to 


advise 


need 


be a bad idea 


in addition to 


afford 


offer 


be better 


be afraid of 


agree 


permit 


be clever 


apologize (to someone) for 


ask 


persuade 


be dangerous 


believe in 


avoid 


plan 


be difficult 


blame (someone) for 


bea 


postpone 


be easy 


be capable of 


begin 


prefer 


be essential 


be committed to 


consider 


prepare 


be foolish 


complain about 


continue 


pretend 


be a good experience 


dream of 


pnn\/inpp 

v/UI IV II IOC 


nrnm'iQP 
L/i \Ji i hoc 


be a good idea 


be excited about 


decide 


quit 


be fun 


forgive (someone) for 


demand 


recall 


be hard 


be guilty of 


deny 


refuse 


be important 


instead of 


discuss 


regret 


be impossible 


be interested in 


dislike 


remember 


be interesting 


look forward to 


encourage 


remind 


be necessary 


be opposed to 


enjoy 


risk 


be a pleasure 


prevent (someone) from 


expect 


seem 


be possible 


be scared of 


fail 


start 


be relaxing 


stop (someone) from 


force 


stop 


take effort 


succeed in 


forget 


struggle 


take energy 


take advantage of 


hesitate 


suggest 


take money 


be terrified of 


hope 


threaten 


take patience 


thank (someone) for 


invite 


wait 


take time 


think of 


learn 


want 




be tired of 


like 


warn 




be worried about 


manage 







Gerunds and Infinitives, Part 1 329 



Exercise 46. Check your knowledge. (Chapter 14) 

Correct the errors. 

1. I don't mind to have a roommate. 

2. Most students want return home as soon as possible. 

3. Learning about another country it is very interesting. 

4. I tried very hard to don't make any mistakes. 

5. The task of find a person who could tutor me in English wasn't difficult. 

6. All of us needed to went to the ticket office before the game yesterday. 

7. I'm looking forward to go to swimming in the ocean. 

8. Ski in the Alps it was a big thrill for me. 

9. Don't keep to be asking me the same questions over and over. 

10. During a fire drill, everyone is required leaving the building. 

11. I don't enjoy to play card games. I prefer to spend my time for read or watch movies. 

12. Is hard for me understand people who speak very fast. 

13. When I entered the room, I found my young son stand on the kitchen table. 

14. When I got home, Irene was lying in bed think about what a wonderful time she'd had. 



CHAPTER 14 



Chapter 15 

Gerunds and Infinitives, Part 2 




□ Exercise 1. Warm-up. (Chart 15-1) 

Which sentences answer the question "Why"? 

1 . Joe went to the library to study last night. 

— > Why did Joe go to the library last night? To study. 

2. Lucy wants to leave now. 

— > (The sentence doesn't answer the question "Wliy?") 

3. Eva opened the window to let in some fresh air. 

4. Oscar came to this school in order to learn English. 

5. Rick needs to call his mother. 

6. Rick needs to call his mother to tell her the good news. 





(a) He came here in order to study English. 

(b) He came here to study English. 

(c) incorrect: He came here for studying- English. 

(d) incorrect: He came here -for-te-study- English. 

(e) incorrect: He came here for-study- English. 


In order to is used to express purpose. It answers the 
question "Why?" In order is often omitted, as in (b). 


To express purpose, use (in order) to, not for, with a verb.* 


(f ) 1 went to the store for some bread. 

(g) 1 went to the store to buy some bread. 


For can be used to express purpose, but it is a preposition and 
is followed by a noun object, as in (f). 



*Exception: The phrase be used for expresses the typical or general purpose of a thing. In this case, the preposition for is followed 
by a gerund: A sazv is used for cutting zvood. Also possible: A saiu is used to cut wood. 

However, to talk about a particular thing and a particular situation, be used + an infinitive is used: A chain saw was used to 
cut (not for cutting) dawn the old oak tree. 



□ Exercise 2. Looking at grammar. (Chart 15-1) 

Complete the sentences with to or for. 

Isabella spent a month in Miami. She went there . . . 

1 . to see her cousins. 

2. for a vacation. 

3. business. 

4. meet with company executives. 




331 



5. 
6. 
7. 



discuss long-term plans for the company, 
spend time with her parents, 
a visit with childhood friends. 



□ Exercise 3. In your own words. (Chart 1 5-1) 

Complete the sentences with your own words. Express the purpose of the action. 

1 . I went to Chicago to visit my grandparents. 

2. Ron went to Chicago for a medical conference. 

3. I went to the grocery store for 

4. Reisa went to the grocery store to 

5. I went to the doctor to 

6. My son went to the doctor for 

7. I swim every day to 

8. Kevin swims every day for 

□ Exercise 4. Looking at grammar. (Chart 15 l) 

Add in order wherever possible. If nothing should be added, write 0. 

1 . I went to the garden center in order to get some fertilizer for my flowers. 

2. When the teacher asked him a question, Scott pretended 0 to understand 

what she was saying. 

3. My roommate asked me to clean up the dishes after dinner. 

4. Mustafa climbed onto a chair to change a light bulb in the ceiling. 

5. Rita has to work at two jobs to support herself and her three children. 

6. I really want to learn Italian before I visit Venice next year. 

7. I jog three times a week to stay healthy. 

8. Karen finally went to the dentist to get some relief from her toothache. 

9. It's easier for me to understand written English than it is to understand 

spoken English. 

10. Is it important to speak English without an accent as long as people 

understand what you're saying? 



332 CHAPTER 15 



□ Exercise 5. Check your knowledge. (Chart 15-1) 

Correct the errors. 

to 

1 . I went to the library -for- study last night. 

2. Helen borrowed my dictionary for to look up the spelling of occurred. 

3. The teacher opened the window for letting some fresh air into the room. 

4. I came to this school for learn English. 

5. I traveled to Osaka for to visit my sister. 

□ Exercise 6. Let's talk: interview. (Chart 15-1) 

Ask two classmates each question. Share some of their responses with the class. 

WJiat are two reasons why some people . . . 

1. go to Hawaii for vacation? 3. cheat on exams? 5. tell white lies?* 

2. exercise? 4. meditate? 6. become actors? 

□ Exercise 7. Warm-up. (Chart 15-2) 

Look at the adjectives in blue. What do you notice about the words that come after them? 
about the words that come before them? 

1 . Anya was sorry to hear that her favorite restaurant closed. 

2. Nate is certain to pass his test. 

3. Timmy was sad to learn his pet goldfish had died. 

4. I would be happy to help you. 





(a) We were sorry to hear the bad news. 


Certain adjectives can be immediately followed by infinitives, as in 


(b) 1 was surprised to see Ted at the meeting. 


(a) and (b). 










In general, these adjectives describe a person (or persons), not a 






thing. Many of these adjectives describe a person's feelings or 






attitudes. 






Common adjectives followed by infinitives 








glad to (do it) 


sorry to* 


ready to 


careful to 


surprised to* 


happy to 


sad to* 


prepared to 


hesitant to 


amazed to* 


pleased to 


upset to* 


anxious to 


reluctant to 


astonished to* 


delighted to 


disappointed to* 


eager to 


afraid to 


shocked to* 


content to 




willing to 




stunned to* 


relieved to 


embarrassed to 


motivated to 


certain to 




lucky to 


proud to 


determined to 


likely to 




fortunate to 


ashamed to 




unlikely to 





*The expressions with asterisks are usually followed by infinitive phrases with verbs such as see, learn, discover, find out, hear. 



*zultiie lies = 



lies that aren't considered serious, e.g., telling a friend her dress looks nice when you don't think it does. 

Gerunds and Infinitives, Part 2 333 



□ Exercise 8. In your own words. (Chart 15-2) 

Complete the sentences using the expressions listed in Chart 15-2 and your own words. Use 
infinitive phrases in your completions. 

1. Nicole always speeds on the expressway. She's .... 
— > She's certain to get stopped by the police. 

— > She's likely to get a ticket. 

2. I've worked hard all day long. Enough's enough! I'm .... 

3. Next month, I'm going to a family reunion — the first one in 25 years. I'm very much 
looking forward to it. I'm .... 

4. Some children grow up in unhappy homes. My family, however, has always been loving 
and supportive. I'm .... 

5. Ivan's run out of money again, but he doesn't want anyone to know his situation. He 
needs money desperately, but he's .... 

6. Rosalyn wants to become an astronaut. That has been her dream since she was a little girl. 
She has been working hard toward her goal and is ... . 

7. Our neighbors had extra tickets to the ballet, so they invited us to go with them. Since 
both of us love the ballet, we were .... 

8. Andrea recently told me what my wayward brother is up to these days. I couldn't believe 
my ears! I was .... 

□ Exercise 9. Let's talk. (Chart 15 2) 

Work in small groups. Complete the sentences with adjectives from Chart 15-2 that make 
sense. Discuss your answers. 

Situation 1: Mr. Wah was offered an excellent job in another country. He sees advantages and 
disadvantages to moving. 

He is . . . 



1 . ead to J prepared to / reluctant to leave his country. 

2. move away from his parents. 

3. take his wife and children away from 

family and friends. 

4. try a new job. 

5. learn a new language. 

Situation 2: There have been a lot of nighttime burglaries in the town of Viewmont. 
The residents have been . . . 

6. leave their homes overnight. 

7. lock their doors and windows at night. 

8. watch for strangers on the streets. 



334 CHAPTER 15 



9. have weekly meetings with the police 

for updates on their progress. 

10. hear that the police suspect 

neighborhood teenagers. 



j Exercise 10. Let's talk: interview. (Chart 15 2) 

Make questions using the words in parentheses. Ask two classmates each question. Share 
some of their answers with the class. 

1. What are children sometimes (afraid \ do)? 

2. When you're tired in the evening, what are you (content \ do)? 

3. What should drivers be (careful \ do) in traffic? 

4. If one of your friends has a problem, what are you (willing \ do)? 

5. What are people who don't speak English well (reluctant \ do)? 

6. What are you (determined \ do) before you are too old? 

7. What are some things people are (ashamed \ do)? 

8. Can you tell me something you were (shocked \ find out)? 

9. Can you tell me something you were (sad \ hear)? 
10. What are you (eager \ do) in the near future? 

□ Exercise 11. Warm-up. (Chart 15-3) 

In which sentences are the speakers expressing a negative idea (in other words, expressing the 
idea that there's something wrong or that there's a bad result)? 

1. The soup is too spicy. I can't eat it. 

2. The soup is very spicy, but I like it. 

3. It's very late, but the restaurant is still open. 

4. We're too late. The restaurant has closed. 



15-3 Using Infinitives with Too and Enough 




compare: 

(a) That box is too heavy tor Bob to lift. 

(b) That box is very heavy, but Bob can lift it. 


In the speaker's mind, the use of too implies a negative result. 

In (a): too heavy = It is impossible for Bob to lift that box. 

In (b): very heavy = It is possible but difficult tor Bob to lift that 
box. 


(c) 1 am strong enough to lift that box. 1 can lift it. 

(d) 1 have enough strength to lift that box. 

(e) 1 have strength enough to lift that box. 


Enough follows an adjective, as in (c). Usually enough 
precedes a noun, as in (d). In formal English, it may follow a 
noun, as in (e). 



Gerunds and Infinitives, Part 2 335 



J 



Exercise 12. Let's talk. (Chart 15 3) 

Work in pairs 3 in small groups 3 or as a class. 



Part I. Think of a negative result for each sentence. Make negative statements using infinitive 
phrases. 

1 . That ring is too expensive. 

— » Negative result: / can't buy it. That ring is too expensive for me to buy. 

2. I'm too tired. 

— > Negative result: / don't zvant to go to the meeting. I'm too tired to go to the meeting. 

3. It's too late. 

4. It's too cold. 

5. Physics is too difficult. 

6. I'm too busy. 

7. My son is too young. 

8. The mountain cliff is too steep. 

Part II. Now think of a positive result for each sentence. Make positive statements using 
infinitive phrases. 

9. That ring is very expensive 3 but it isn't too expensive. 

— > Positive result: / can buy it. That ring isn't too expensive for me to buy. 

10. I'm very tired 3 but I'm not too tired. 

1 1 . My suitcase is very heavy 3 but it's not too heavy. 

12. I'm very busy 3 but I'm not too busy. 

J Exercise 13. Let's talk. (Chart 15 3) 

Discuss possible answers to the given questions. Work in pairs 3 in small groups 3 or as a class. 

1 . What is a child too young to do but an adult old enough to do? 

2. What is your pocket big enough to hold? What is it too small to hold? 

3. What do you have enough time to do after class today? Are you too busy to do something 
you'd like to do or should do? 

4. Is there enough space in this classroom for 100 people? Or is it too small to hold that 
many people? How many people is this room big enough to hold comfortably? 

5. Here's an English saying: "Too many cooks spoil the soup." What do you think it means? 

6. Do you think it is very important to practice your English? Do you get enough practice? 
In your opinion 3 how much practice is enough? 

7. Is it very difficult or too difficult to learn English? 

□ Exercise 14. Listening. (Chart 15-3) 

^ Listen to Speaker A. Choose the response that you expect Speaker B to give. 



CD 2 
Track 17 



Example: You will hear: Oh 3 no. I spilled the coffee! 

You will choose: a. I'm sorry. I didn't fill your cup full enough. 




336 CHAPTER 15 



Speaker B: 

1. a. Yes. It was too good to eat. 
b. Yes. It was very good. 

2. a. No. She's old enough to stay home alone, 
b. Never. She's too young to stay home alone. 

3. a. I agree. It can be very difficult at times, 
b. I agree. It's too difficult. 

4. a. Really well. They're too clean. Thanks, 
b. Really well. They're very clean. Thanks. 

5. a. I know. He shouldn't be driving. 

b. I know he's very old, but it's okay for him to keep driving. 

6. a. I guess we don't have enough big envelopes, 
b. I guess we don't have big enough envelopes. 

Exercise 15. Grammar and speaking. (Charts 14-7, 14-8, 14-1 1, and 15-1 ► 15-3) 

Complete the sentences with your own words. Try to use a gerund or infinitive in each 
statement. Then work with a partner. Ask him/her to agree or disagree with your statements 
(and to explain why). Share some of their answers with the class. 

PARTNER AGREES? 

1 . It's important for yes no 

2. A person should never forget to yes no 

3. Teachers often advise their students to yes no 

4. I'm not willing to yes no 

5. It's too difficult for most people to yes no 

6. In order to , employees should yes no 

7. It's easy to yes no 

8. It's hard to get accustomed to yes no 



Exercise 16. Warm-up. (Chart 15-4) 

Choose the correct form of the passive verbs. Reminder: A passive verb is a form of be + the 
past participle.* For example, the patient was seen by a specialist. 

1 . The patient appreciated {to be seen I being seen) by a specialist. 

2. It was important for him {to be seen I being seen) by a specialist. 



*See Chart 11-2, p. 213. 



Gerunds and Infinitives, Part 2 337 



15-4 Passive Infinitives and Gerunds 



(a) I didn't expect to be asked to his party. 



passive infinitive: to be + past participle 
In (a): to be asked is a passive infinitive. 

The understood by-phrase is by him: I didn't expect to be asked to his 
party (by him). 



(b) I enjoyed being asked to his party. 



passive gerund: being + past participle 
In (b): being asked is a passive gerund. 

The understood by-phrase is by him: I enjoyed being asked to his party 
(by him). 



Exercise 17. Looking at grammar. (Chart 15-4) 

Complete the sentences with the passive form of invite. 



1 . Sam would like . 

2. Mark also hopes 



to be Invited 



3. Maria has no doubts. She expects 

4. Omar is looking forward to 

5. I would enjoy 



6. Everyone I know wants 



to Ann's birthday party. 



to it. 



too. 



to it 3 but I probably won't be. 
to Ann's birthday party. 



□ Exercise 18. Looking at grammar. (Chart 15-4) 

Complete each sentence with the correct form of the verb in parentheses. 



1 . I don't enjoy {laugh) 
2 



be'ma \auahed 



at by other people. 

Ryan is a convincing liar. It's easy (fool) to be fooled by his lies. 



Sometimes adolescents complain about not (understand) 
by their parents. 

Your compositions are supposed (zvrite) 



in ink. 



Ms. Thompson is always willing to help if there is a problem in the office, but she doesn't 
want (call) at home unless there is an emergency. 



6. Despite his name, Freddie Frankenstein has a good chance of (elect) 
to the local school board. 

7. You must tell me the truth. I insist on your (tell) 

8. Don't all of us want (love) 

by other people? 



the truth. 



and (need) 



338 CHAPTER 15 



□ Exercise 19. Let's talk. (Chart 15-4) 

Agree or disagree with the following statements and explain your reasons why. Work in pairs, 
in small groups, or as a class. 

1 . I appreciate being given advice by my family and friends. 

2. I didn't like being given advice by my family when I was young. 

3. I always expect to be told the absolute and complete truth by everyone at all times. 

4. I would like to be invited to an event where there are a lot of famous people. 

J Exercise 20. Warm-up. (Chart 15 5) 

Make statements that are true for you. Use the same noun to complete each sentence. Do the 
sentences have the same or different meanings? 

1. I need to clean my . 

2. My needs cleaning. 

3. My needs to be cleaned. 



15-5 Using Gerunds or Passive Infinitives Following Need 


(a) 1 need to paint my house. 

(b) John needs to be told the truth. 


Usually an infinitive follows need, as in (a) and (b). 


(c) My house needs painting. 

(d) My house needs to be painted. 


In certain circumstances, a gerund may follow need, as in (c). In this case, the 
gerund carries a passive meaning. Usually the situations involve fixing or 
improving something. 

Examples (c) and (d) have the same meaning. 



□ Exercise 21. Looking at grammar. (Chart 15-5) 

Complete each sentence with an appropriate form of the verb in parentheses. 

1. The chair is broken. I need (fix) to fix it. The chair needs (fix) 

fixing / to be fixed . 

2. The baby's diaper is wet. It needs (change) 

3. What a mess! This room needs (clean) up. We need 

(clean) it up before the company arrives. 

4. My shirt is wrinkled. It needs (iron) 

5. There is a hole in our roof. The roof needs (repair) . 

6. I have books and papers all over my desk. I need (take) some time to 

straighten up my desk. It needs (straighten) up. 

7. The apples on the tree are ripe. They need (pick) . 

8. The dog's been digging in the mud. He needs (wash) . 

Gerunds and Infinitives, Part 2 339 



□ Exercise 22. Let's talk. (Chart 15 5) 

Look at the picture. What needs doing/to be done? 




□ Exercise 23. Let's talk or write. (Chart 15 5) 

Choose a situation. Think about what needs to be done and make a list of all the tasks. Then 
talk or write about your list. 

Situations: 

1 . a student applying to a university 

2. a parent trying to get young children off to school in the morning 

3. a group of students planning for an end-of-the-year party 

4. a person going on vacation to another country for a month 

5. an engaged couple making plans for a wedding 

6. a farmer on a large farm in the early morning 

7. a restaurant owner preparing to open for dinner 



□ Exercise 24. Warm-up. (Chart 15-6) 

See and hear are called "verbs of perception." In other words, they express things that we can 
perceive (become aware of) through our physical senses. What do you notice about the verb 
forms following see and hear? 

1. a. correct: I saw Mr. Reed give something to the boss. 

b. correct: I saw Mr. Reed giving something to the boss. 

c. INCORRECT: I saw Mr. Reed -te- give something to the boss. 

2. a. correct: I heard Mr. Reed say something to the boss. 

b. correct: I heard Mr. Reed saying something to the boss. 

c. INCORRECT: I heard Mr. Reed -te- say something to the boss. 



340 CHAPTER 15 



15-6 Using Verbs of Perception 



(a) 1 saw my friend run down the street. 

(b) 1 saw my friend running down the street. 

(c) 1 heard the rain fall on the roof. 

(d) 1 heard the rain falling on the roof. 


Certain verbs of perception are followed by either the simple form* or 
the -ing form** of a verb. 

Examples (a) and (b) have essentially the same meaning, except 
that the -ing form emphasizes the idea of "while." In (b): 1 saw my 
friend while she was running down the street. 


(e) When 1 walked into the apartment, 1 heard 
my roommate singing in the shower. 

(f ) 1 heard a famous opera star sing at the 
concert last night. 


Sometimes (not always) there is a clear difference between using the 
simple form or the -ing form. 

The use of the -ing form gives the idea that an activity is already in 
progress when it is perceived, as in (e): The singing was in progress 
when 1 first heard it. 

In (f ): 1 heard the singing from beginning to end. It was not in 
progress when 1 first heard it. 



Verbs of perception followed by the simple form or the -ing form 

see look at hear feel smell 

notice observe listen to 

watch 



*Tlie simple form of a verb = the infinitive form without to. ixcorrect: I saw my friend -te- run down the street. 
**Tlie -ing form refers to the present participle. 



□ Exercise 25. Let's talk. (Chart 15 6) 

Describe what you see and hear. 

1. Ask a classmate to stand up and sit back down. What did you just see him/her do? 

2. Close your eyes. What do you hear happening right now? 

3. Ask a classmate to do something. As he/she continues to do this, describe what you see 
and hear him/her doing. 

□ Exercise 26. Looking at grammar. (Chart 15-6) 

Part I. Complete the sentences with any appropriate verbs. Both the simple form and the 
-ing form are possible with little or no difference in meaning. 

1 . Polly was working in her garden, so she didn't hear the phone ring / ringing 

2. I like to listen to the birds when I get up early in the morning. 

3. The guard observed a suspicious-looking person into the bank. 

4. There was an earthquake in my hometown last year. It was just a small one, but I could 
feel the ground 

5. I was almost asleep last night when I suddenly heard someone 

on the door. 

6. While I was waiting for my plane, I watched other planes and 



Gerunds and Infinitives, Part 2 341 



Part II. Read each situation. Complete the sentence below it with the verb form that seems 
better to you. Remember that the -ing form gives the idea that an activity is in progress when 
it is perceived. 

Both the simple form and the -ing form of a verb are grammatically correct, so you can't 
make a grammar mistake. But a speaker might choose one instead of the other. 

Situation 1: I smell smoke. Something must be burning. 
Do you smell something burning ? I do. 

Situation 2: The front door slammed. I got up to see if someone had come in. 

When I heard the front door , 1 got up to see if someone had come in. 



Situation 3: Uncle Ben is in the bedroom. He is snoring. 
I know Uncle Ben is in the bedroom because 
I can hear him . 



Situation 4: When I walked past the park, some children 
zuere playing softball. 

When I walked past the park, I saw some children 




Situation 5: It was graduation day in the auditorium. Wlien the school principal called my name, 
I zualked to the front of the room. 

When I heard the school principal my name, I walked to the front of the 

auditorium to receive my diploma. 

Situation 6: I glanced out the windozu. Adam zvas zualking toward the house. I zvas surprised. 
I was surprised when I saw Adam toward the house. 

Situation 7: A fly landed on the table. I swatted it with a rolled-up newspaper. 

As soon as I saw the fly on the table, I swatted it with a rolled-up newspaper. 

Situation 8: Someone is calling for help in the distance. I suddenly hear that. 
Listen! Do you hear someone for help? I do. 



Exercise 27. Warm-up. (Chart 15 7) 

Check (/) the sentences that are correct. 

1 . My parents let me sleep late on weekends. 

2. My parents let me to sleep late on weekends. 

3. After I wake up, I help them do the chores. 

4. After I wake up, I help them to do the chores. 



CHAPTER 15 



15-7 Using the Simple Form after Let and Helj 



(a) My father lets me drive his car. 

(b) I let my friend borrow my bicycle. 

(c) Let's go to a movie. 



Si 

Let is followed by the simple form of a verb, not an infinitive. 
incorrect: My father lets me -to- drive his car. 



(d) My brother helped me wash my car. 

(e) My brother helped me to wash my car. 



Help is often followed by the simple form of a verb, as in (d). 
Although less common, an infinitive is also possible, as in (e). 
Both (d) and (e) are correct. 



Exercise 28. In your own words. (Chart 15-7) 

Complete the sentences with your own words. Use verb phrases. 
1. Don't let me fomet to take my house keys with me. 



2. The teacher usually lets us 



3. Why did you let your roommate 

4. You shouldn't let other people _ 

5. A stranger helped the lost child . 



6. It was very kind of my friend to help me 

7. Keep working. Don't let me 

8. Could you help me 



Exercise 29. Warm-up. (Chart 15 8) 

Match the conversations with the descriptions that follow them. 

1. ADAiVi: Mom, can I go out and play? 

Mrs. Lee: No, Adam, you cannot go out and play until you clean up your room. I don't know 

how many times I have to say this. Go clean up your room, and I mean now! 
Adam: Okay, okay! 

2. Adam: Mom, can I go out and play? 

Mrs. Lee: Well, let's make a deal. First you clean up your room. Then you can go out 
and play. How does that sound? It needs to be clean before Grandma comes 
for a visit this evening. And if you do it now, you can stay out and play until 
dark. You won't have to come home early to clean your room. Okay? 

Adam: Okay. 

3. Adam: Mom, can I go out and play? 

Mrs. Lee: Sure, but first you need to clean up your room. Okay? 
Adam: Okay. 

Descriptions of conversations: 

a. Mrs. Lee got Adam to clean up his room. 

b. Mrs. Lee made Adam clean up his room. 

c. Mrs. Lee had Adam clean up his room. 



Gerunds and Infinitives, Part 2 343 





(a) 1 made my brother carry my suitcase. 

(b) 1 had my brother carry my suitcase. 

(c) 1 got my brother to carry my suitcase. 


Make, have, and gef can be used to express the idea that 
"X" causes "Y" to do something. When they are used as 
causative verbs, their meanings are similar but not identical. 

In (a): My brother had no choice. 1 insisted that he carry 
my suitcase. 

In (b): My brother carried my suitcase because 1 asked 
him to. 

In (c): 1 managed to persuade my brother to carry my 
suitcase. 


Forms 

X makes Y do something. (simple form) 
X has Y do something. (simple form) 
X gets Y to do something, (infinitive) 


Causative Make 


(d) Mrs. Lee made her son clean his room. 

(e) Sad movies make me cry. 


Causative make is followed by the simple form of a verb, 
not an infinitive. 

incorrect: She made him -to- clean his room. 

Make gives the idea that "X" gives "Y" no choice. 
In (d): Mrs. Lee's son had no choice. 


Causative Have 


(f) 1 had the plumber repair the leak. 

(g) Jane had the waiter dr/ng her some tea. 


Causative have is followed by the simple form of a verb, 
not an infinitive. 

incorrect: 1 had him to- repair the leak. 

Have gives the idea that "X" requests "Y" to do something. 
In (f ): The plumber repaired the leak because 1 asked him to. 


Causative Get 


(h) The students got the teacher to dismiss class early. 

( i ) Jack got his friends to play soccer with him 
after school. 


Causative get is followed by an infinitive. 

Get gives the idea that "X" persuades "Y" to do something. 

In (h): The students managed to persuade the teacher to 
let them leave early. 


Passive Causatives 


( j) 1 had my watch repaired (by someone), 
(k) 1 got my watch repaired (by someone). 


The past participle is used after have and gef to give a 
passive meaning. In this case, there is usually little or no 
difference in meaning between have and get. 

In ( j) and (k): 1 caused my watch to be repaired by someone. 



□ Exercise 30. Looking at grammar. (Chart 15-8) 

Choose the meaning that is closest to the meaning of the verb in boldface. 

1 . The teacher had her class write a composition. 

a. gave them no choice b. persuaded them c. requested them to do this 

2. Mrs. Wilson made the children wash their hands before dinner. 

a. gave them no choice b. persuaded them c. requested them to do this 

3. Kostas got some neighborhood kids to help him clean out his garage. 

a. gave them no choice b. persuaded them c. requested them to do this 



344 CHAPTER 15 



4. My boss made me redo my report because he wasn't satisfied with it. 

a. gave me no choice b. persuaded me c. requested me to do this 

5. I got Rosa to lend me some lunch money. 

a. gave her no choice b. persuaded her c. requested her to do this 

6. The police officer had the driver get out of his car. 

a. gave him no choice b. persuaded him c. requested him to do this 

□ Exercise 31. Looking at grammar. (Chart 15 8) 

Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in parentheses. 

1 . I made my son (zuash) waeh the windows before he could go outside to play. 

2. Mrs. Crane had her house {paint) painted 

3. I went to the bank to have a check (cash) . 

4. Tom had a bad headache yesterday, so he got his twin brother, Tim, (go) 
to class for him. The teacher didn't know the difference. 

5. When Scott went shopping, he found a jacket that he 
really liked. After he had the sleeves (shorten) 
, it fit him perfectly. 

6. When my laptop stopped working, I took it to the 
computer store to have it (fix) . 

7. Peeling onions always makes me (cry) 

8. Tom Sawyer was supposed to paint the fence, but he 
didn't want to do it. He was a very clever boy. Somehow he got his friends (do) 
it for him. 

9. We had a professional photographer (take) pictures of everyone at 

the wedding. We had over 500 pictures (take) 

□ Exercise 32. Let's talk or write. (Chart 15 8) 

Think about the shopping area nearest your home. What can people do there? Make 
sentences with can and can't. 

At the shopping area nearest my home, people can I can't get . 

1 . car \ fix 4. laundry \ do 

2. hair \ cut 5. picture \ take 

3. checks \ cash 6. blood pressure \ check 

Gerunds and Infinitives, Part 2 345 




7. shoes \ repair 

8. clothes \ dry-clean 

9. money \ exchange 



□ Exercise 33. Let's talk or write. (Chart 15 -8) 

Ask and answer the questions. Work in pairs, in small groups, or as a class. 

1 . What do children sometimes try to get their parents to do (perhaps at a toy store or 
grocery store)? 

2. What do bosses sometimes make their employees do? 

3. What does our teacher sometimes have us do? 

4. Do teachers usually let their students leave the classroom whenever they want to? What 
kinds of things do teacher usually not let their students do inside a classroom? 

5. What do your classmates (or friends) sometimes help you do? 

{Change roles if working in pairs.) 

6. What didn't your parents let you do when you were a child? 

7. Will you let your children do those things? (Or, if you're a parent, do you let your 
children do those things?) 

8. Did your parents make you do certain things when you were a child? 

9. What do you sometimes have the server at a restaurant do? 
10. What do you sometimes get your friends to do? 

□ Exercise 34. Check your knowledge. (Chapter 1 5) 

Correct the errors. 

1 . My parents made me -to- promise to write them once a week. 

2. I asked my roommate to let me to use his shoe polish. 

3. I heard a car door to open and closing. 

4. I had my friend to lend me his car. 

5. You should visit my country. It is too beautiful. 

6. I went to the college bookstore for getting my books for the new term. 

7. One of our fights ended up with me having to sent to the hospital for getting stitches. 

8. Lilly deserves to be tell the truth about what happened last night. 

9. Barbara always makes me laughing. She has a great sense of humor. 

10. Stop telling me what to do! Let me to make up my own mind. 

11. I went to the pharmacy for having my prescription to be filled. 

12. You shouldn't let children playing with matches. 

13. When Shelley needed a passport photo, she had her picture taking by a professional 
photographer. 



346 CHAPTER 15 



14. I've finally assembled enough information for beginning writing my research paper. 

15. Omar is at the park right now. He is sit on a park bench watch the ducks swimming in the 
pond. The sad expression on his face makes me to feel sorry for him. 

16. The music director tapped his baton for beginning the rehearsal. 

Exercise 35. Looking at grammar. (Chapters 14 and 15) 

Choose the correct completions. 

1. My cousins helped me into my new apartment. 

(a) move (R) to move c. moving d. being moved 

2. It was a hot day, and the work was hard. I could feel sweat down my back. 

a. trickle b. to trickle c. trickling d. trickled 

3. You can lead a horse to water, but you can't make him 

a. drink b. to drink c. drinking d. to be drunk 




4. As he contemplated the meaning of life, Edward stood on the beach 

the ocean. 

a. look b. to look c. looking 

5. He's a terrific soccer player! Did you see him that goal? 

a. make b. to make c. making 

6. We spent the entire class period about the revolution. 

a. talk b. to talk c. talking 

7. Only seven people applied for the sales job, so Maleek has a good chance 
an interview. 

a. chosen b. being chosen c. to be chosen 



. out over 
d. looked 

d. made 

d. being talked 
of for 

d. to choose 



Gerunds and Infinitives, Part 2 347 



8. If you hear any news, I want immediately. 

a. told b. being told c. to be told d. telling 

9. I was getting sleepy, so I had my friend the car. 

a. drive b. being driven c. to be driven d. to drive 

10. The witness to the murder wanted her name kept secret. She asked not in 

the newspaper. 

a. identify b. being identified c. to be identified d. to identify 



□ Exercise 36. Reading and listening. (Chapters 14 and 15) 

First, read the paragraph and try to complete the sentences using the words in the list. 
®$ Second, listen to the paragraph and check your answers. 

CD 2 
Track 18 

to be understood to solve to read 

able to read using being 



An Issue in Health Care: Illiteracy 

According to some estimates, well over half of the people in the world are functionally 

illiterate. This means they are unable to perform everyday tasks because they can't read, 

understand, and respond appropriately to information. One of the problems this creates in 

health care is that millions of people are not directions on 

l 

medicine bottles or packages. Imagine a parent with a sick 

2 

child and being unable the directions on a medicine bottle. We 

3 

all know that it is important for medical directions clearly. 

4 

One solution is pictures. Many medical professionals are working today 

this problem by pictures to 

5 6 

convey health-care information. 

□ Exercise 37. Looking at grammar. (Chapters 14 and 15) 

Complete each sentence with an appropriate form of the verb in parentheses. 

1. My children enjoy {allow) being allowed to stay up late when there's 

something special on TV. 

2. I couldn't get to sleep last night, so for a long time I just lay in bed (think) 
about my career and my future. 



348 CHAPTER 15 



3. Jacob's at an awkward age. He's old enough {have) 

but too young (knoio) how {handle) 



adult problems 
them. 



4. I don't anticipate (Jiave) 



any difficulties (adjust) 



to a different culture when I go abroad. 
5 . We sat in his kitchen (sip) 



very hot, strong tea and (eat) 



6. I don't like (force) 



pastries from the bakery. 
(leave) 



the room (study) 



whenever my roommate feels like (have) 
a party. 



7. Let's (have) 



Ron and Maureen (join) 



us for dinner tonight, okay? 




Do you know that your co-workers complain about your* (come) 
late to work and (leave) 



early? 



9. Fish don't use their teeth for (chezo) 
, (hold) 



.. They use them for (grab) 



., or (tear) 



Most fish (sivallozu) 



their prey whole. 



10. It is the ancient task of the best artists among us (force) 

our ability (feel) and (share) 



us (use) 



emotions. 



1 1 . Traffic has become too heavy for the Steinbergs (commute) 



easily to their jobs in the city from their suburban apartment. They're considering (move) 

to an apartment in the city (be) closer to 

their work. Both of them hate the long commute. They want (spend) 

more time (do) things they really enjoy (do) 



in their free time rather than being tied up on the highway during rush hour. 



*In formal English, a possessive adjective (e.g., your coining) is used to modify a gerund. In informal English, the object form 
of a pronoun is frequently used (you coming). 



Gerunds and Infinitives, Part 2 349 



□ Exercise 38. Looking at grammar. (Chapters 14 and 15) 

Complete each sentence with the correct form of the verb in parentheses. 

1. I was tired, so I just watched them (play) volleyball instead of 

(join) them. 

2. Emily stopped her car (let) a black cat (run) across the 

street. 

3. I'm tired. I wouldn't mind just (stay) home tonight and (get) 

to bed early. 

4. I can't seem (get) rid of the cockroaches in my apartment. Every night I 

see them (run) all over my kitchen counters. It drives me crazy. I'm 

considering (have) the whole apartment (spray) 

by a professional pest control expert. 

5. Last week I was sick with the flu. It made me (feel) awful. I didn't have 

enough energy (get) out of bed. I just lay there (feel) 

sorry for myself. When my father heard me (sneeze) and 

(cough) j he opened my bedroom door (ask) me if 

I needed anything. I was really happy to see his kind and caring face, but there wasn't 
anything he could do to make the flu (go) away. 



□ Exercise 39. Let's talk and listen. (Chapters 14 and 15) 

Part I. Answer these questions. Then listen to the lecture on lightning storms with your 
book closed. 

1 . Have you ever been in a lightning storm? 

2. How did you protect yourself? 

Part II. Open your book and read the statements. Circle "T" for true and "F" for false. 

1. It's important to hide under a tree during a lightning storm. T F 

2. It's advisable to make yourself as small as possible when a storm is nearby. T F 

3. If you are lucky enough to be near a car during a storm, get inside it. T F 

4. Few lightning deaths occur after a storm has passed. T F 




350 CHAPTER 15 



Part HI. Listen to the lecture again. Complete the sentences with the words you hear. 

Protecting Yourself in a Lightning Storm 

Lightning storms can occur suddenly and without warning. It's important 

safe if you're outside when a storm begins. Some people 



1 

stand under trees or in open shelters like picnic areas themselves. 

2 

They are that this can be a fatal mistake. Tall objects are 

3 

lightning, so when you are out in the open, you should try 

4 

yourself as small as possible. 



5 

into a ball lessens the chance that a lightning bolt will strike you. 



a depression in the ground to hide in, like a hole or a ditch, is even better. 

a building is safer than , but it's not 

8 9 

without dangers. away from doors and windows. If 

10 

you're talking on a phone with a cord, hang up. Lightning has been known to travel along a 

phone cord and strike the person holding the phone. Even TVs can conduct lightning through 

the cable or antenna, so it's a good idea away from the television. It's also 

n 

inadvisable a shower or bath since plumbing can conduct electricity 

12 

from lightning. How safe are cars? Surprisingly, the inside of a car is safe as long as it has a 
metal roof, but any part of the car that leads to the outside. 

13 

There's a 30/30 rule regarding lightning. As soon as you see lightning, 



14 

the seconds until you hear thunder. If you hear thunder before you reach 30, this means you 

shelter immediately. Additionally, even if the storm 



15 



you want in a protected place for 30 minutes 



16 17 

after you hear the last sounds of thunder or have seen the last flashes of lightning. Many 
lightning deaths, in fact more than half in the United States, occur after a storm has passed. 



Gerunds and Infinitives, Part 2 351 



Chapter 16 

Coordinating Conjunctions 




□ Exercise 1. Warm-up. (Chart 16-1) 

Identify the parts of speech of the words in blue and the word that connects them. What do 
you notice about the words in blue? 





Part of speech 


Connective 


1 . The old man is extremely kind and generous. 


adjective 


and 


2. He received a book and a sweater for his birthday. 






3. She spoke angrily and bitterly about the war. 






4. In my spare time, I enjoy reading novels or 
watching television. 






5. He will leave early but arrive late. 







16-1 Parallel Structure 



One use of a conjunction is to connect words or phrases that have the same grammatical function in a sentence. This 
use of conjunctions is called "parallel structure." The conjunctions used in this pattern are and, but, or, and nor. These 
words are called "coordinating conjunctions." 



(a) 


Steve and his friend are coming to dinner. 


In (a): noun + and + noun 


(b) 


Susan raised her hand and snapped her fingers. 


In (b): verb + and + verb 


(c) 


He is waving his arms and {is) shouting at us. 


In (c): verb + and + verb (The second auxiliary may be 
omitted if it is the same as the first auxiliary.) 


(d) 


These shoes are old but comfortable. 


In (d): adjective + but + adjective 


(e) 


He wants to watchTV or {to) listen to some music. 


In (e): infinitive +or+ infinitive (The second to is usually 
omitted.) 



□ Exercise 2. Looking at grammar. (Chart 16-1) 

Choose the correct completions. 

1 . My roommate is friendly and 

0 helpful ®kind 

2. Jack opened the window and 

a. turn on the fan b. turning on the fan 



c. kindness 



c. turned on the fan 



352 



Honesty and are admirable qualities in a person. 

a. generous b. generosity 



c. intelligence 



Kate was listening to the radio and 

a. study b. studying 



at the same time. 



5. I was tired and 
a. hungry 



after our long hike, 
b. hunger 



Everyone had a good time at the party and 
a. go b. went 

No one wanted to stay after the party and _ 
a. clean b. cleaning 



c. studies 



c. thirsty 

home happy. 

c. going 



up. 



c. cleaned 



No one enjoys staying and up at the end of a party. 

a. clean b. cleaning c. cleaned 



□ Exercise 3. Looking at grammar. (Chart 16-1) 

Complete each sentence with one word that gives the same idea as the words in parentheses. 

1 . Lisa was saddened and upeet by the news. 

(her feelings zvere upset) 

2. We enjoy fish and for dinner. 

(we eat vegetables) 

3. The clerk spoke impatiently and when I asked for help. 

(her zvords were rude) 

4. Mr. Evans is very old but 

(has a lot of strength) 

5. The driver ran a stop sign and down the street. 

(he zvas driving at a high speed) 

□ Exercise 4. Warm-up. (Chart 16-2) 

Check (/) the sentences that are correctly punctuated. Notice the use of commas. 



1. Oranges, and strawberries are high in vitamin C. (not correct) 

2. ^ Oranges and strawberries are high in vitamin C. 

3. Oranges, strawberries, and broccoli are high in vitamin C. 

4. Oranges, strawberries and broccoli are high in vitamin C. 

5. Oranges strawberries and broccoli are high in vitamin C. 

6. Oranges, strawberries, and broccoli, are high in vitamin C. 




Coordinating Conjunctions 353 





(a) Steve and Joe are in class. 

(b) incorrect punctuation: 
Steve, and Joe are in class. 


No commas are used when and connects two parts of a parallel 
structure, as in (a). 


(c) Steve, Joe and Rita are in class. 

(d) Steve, Joe, and Rita are in class. 

(e) Steve, Joe, Rita, Jan and Kim are in class. 

(f ) Steve, Joe, Rita, Jan, and Kim are in class. 


When and connects three or more parts of a parallel structure, a 
comma is used between the first items in the series. 

A comma may also be used before and, as in (d) and (f). The 
use of this comma is optional (i.e., the writer can choose).* 

note: A comma often represents a pause in speech. 



*The purpose of punctuation is to make writing clear for readers. This chart and others in this chapter describe the usual use of 
commas in parallel structures. Sometimes commas are required according to convention (i.e., the expected use by educated 
language users). Sometimes use of commas is a stylistic choice made by the experienced writer. 



□ Exercise 5. Listening and punctuation. (Chart 16-2) 

£^ Listen to the sentences and add commas as necessary. Practice pronouncing the sentences. 
My bedroom has a bed 5 a desk {optional comma) 5 and a lamp. 
The price of the meal includes a salad a main dish and dessert. 
The price of the meal includes a salad and a main dish. 
Elias waited for his son wife and daughter. 
Elias waited for his son's wife and daughter. 
Susan raised her hand snapped her fingers and asked a question. 
Red yellow gold and olive green are the main colors in the fabric. 
I love films full of action adventure and suspense. 
I love action and adventure films. 

"Travel is fatal to prejudice bigotry and narrow-mindedness." — Mark Tzvain* 

□ Exercise 6. Looking at grammar. (Charts 16-1 and 16-2) 

Parallel structure makes repeating the same words unnecessary. Cross out the words that are 
unnecessary, and then combine the two given sentences into one concise sentence that 
contains parallel structure. 

1. Molly opened the door. -Motty- greeted her guests. 
— > Molly opened the door and greeted her guests. 

2. Molly is opening the door. Molly is greeting her guests. 

3. Molly will open the door. Molly will greet her guests. 

4. Linda is kind. Linda is generous. Linda is trustworthy. 

5. Please try to speak more loudly. Please try to speak more clearly. 



*Mark Twain (1835-1910) is a well-known American writer and humorist. His most famous novel is The Adventures of 
Huckleberry Finn. He is also famous for his witty quotations. 



354 CHAPTER 16 



6. He gave her flowers on Sunday. He gave her candy 
on Monday. He gave her a ring on Tuesday. 

7. He decided to quit school. He decided to go to 
California. He decided to find a job. 

8. I am looking forward to going to Italy. I am 
looking forward to eating wonderful pasta every 
day. 

9. The boy was old enough to work. The boy was 
old enough to earn some money. 

10. I should have finished my homework. Or I 
should have cleaned up my room. 

11. I like coffee. I do not like tea. 
— > / like coffee but not tea. 

12. I have met his mother. I have not met his father. 

13. Jake would like to live in Puerto Rico. He would not like to live in Iceland. 

Exercise 7. Looking at grammar. (Charts 16-1 and 16-2) 

First, complete the unfinished sentence in each group. Second, combine the sentences into 
one concise sentence that contains parallel structure. 

1. The country lane was narrow. 
The country lane was steep. 

The country lane was muddy 

The country lane was narrow, eteep. and muddy 

2. I dislike living in a city because of the air pollution. 
I dislike living in a city because of the crime. 

I dislike living in a city because of 

I dislike living in a city because of the air pollution, 




3. Hawaii has a warm climate. 
Hawaii has beautiful beaches. 
Hawaii has many interesting tropical trees. 

Hawaii has many interesting tropical 

Hawaii has a warm climate, beautiful beaches, 



4. Mary Hart would make a good president because she works effectively with others. 
Mary Hart would make a good president because she has a reputation for integrity. 
Mary Hart would make a good president because she has a reputation for independent 
thinking. 

Mary Hart would make a good president because she 

Mary Hart would make a good president because she works effectively with others, 



Coordinating Conjunctions 355 



Exercise 8. Looking at grammar. (Charts 16-1 and 16-2) 

Complete the sentences with your own words. Use parallel structure. 

1 . Judge Holmes served the people of this country with fairness, ability, and honesty 

2. Ms. Garcia has proven herself to be a hard-working, responsible, and 

manager. 

3. The professor walked through the door and 

4. I was listening to music and 



when I heard a knock at the door. 
5. I get up at seven every morning, eat a light breakfast, and 



6. and attending concerts in the park 

are two of the things my wife and I like to do on summer weekends. 

7. Our whole family enjoys camping. We especially enjoy fishing in mountain streams and 



□ Exercise 9. Let's talk. (Charts 16-1 and 16-2) 

Complete the sentences in pairs or small groups. Share some of your completions with the class. 

1. A good friend needs to be and 

2. English teachers should have these qualities: 

, and 



3. Parents need to and 

4. Doctors should or . 



., and 



are three easy ways for me to relax at the end of the day. 
6. In my free time, I like to , , and 



7. Three activities I don't enjoy are , , and 



., and are difficult 



subjects for me. 



356 CHAPTER 16 



□ Exercise 10. Check your knowledge. (Charts 16-1 and 16-2) 

Correct the errors. All of the sentences are adapted from student writing. 

1 . By obeying the speed limit, we can save energy, lives, and it costs us less. 

2. My home offers me a feeling of security, warm, and love. 

3. The pioneers hoped to clear away the forest and planting crops. 

4. When I refused to help Alice, she became very angry and shout at me. 

5. When Nadia moved, she had to rent an apartment, make new friends, and to find a job. 

6. All plants need light, to have a suitable climate, and an ample supply of water and minerals 
from the soil. 

7. Slowly and being cautious, the firefighter climbed the burned staircase. 

8. On my vacation, I lost a suitcase, broke my glasses, and I missed my flight home. 

9 . With their keen sight, fine hearing, and they have a refined sense of smell, wolves hunt elk, 
deer, moose, and caribou. 

10. When Anna moved, she had to rent an apartment, make new friends, and to find a job. 

1 1 . The Indian cobra snake and the king cobra use poison from 
their fangs in two ways: by injecting it directly into their prey 
or they spit it into the eyes of the victim. 

J Exercise 11. Warm-up. (Chart 16-3) 

What do you notice about the subject-verb agreement in each pair of sentences? 

1. a. Either my brother or my sister is going to tutor me in science, 
b. Either my brother or my sisters arc going to tutor me in science. 

2. a. Neither my brother nor my sister is a teacher, 
b. Neither my brother nor my sisters are teachers. 

3. a. Not only my brother but also my sister has a doctorate in science, 
b. Not only my brother but also my sisters have doctorates in science. 




Coordinating Conjunctions 357 



16-3 Paired Conjunctions: Both . . . And; Not Only . . . But Also; 
Either . . . Or; Neither . . . Nor 


(a) Both my mother and my sister are here. 


Two subjects connected by both . . . and take a plural 
verb, as in (a). 


(b) Not only my mother but also my sister is here. 

(c) Not only my sister but also my parents are here. 

(d) Neither my mother nor my sister is here. 

(e) Neither my sister nor my parents are here. 


When two subjects are connected by not only . . . but 
also, either ...or, or neither . . . nor, the subject that is 
closer to the verb determines whether the verb is 
singular or plural. 


(f ) The research project will take both time and money. 

(g) Sue saw not only a fox in the woods but (also) a bear. 

(h) I'll take either chemistry or physics next quarter. 

( i ) That book is neither interesting nor accurate. 


Notice the parallel structure in the examples. The same 
grammatical form should follow each part of the paired 
conjunctions.* 


In (f ): both + noun + and + noun 

In (g): not only + noun + but also + noun 

In /hV &ith&r 4- nmtn 4- nr 4- nmtn 

III CilllCI i 1 IL/UI 1 i L/l i 1 IL/UI 1 

In (i): neither + adjective + nor + adjective 

note: Paired conjuctions are usually used for emphasis; 
they draw attention to both parts of the parallel structure. 



*Paired conjunctions are also called "correlative conjunctions." 



□ Exercise 12. Looking at grammar. (Chart 16-3) 

Complete the sentences with is/are. 

1. Both the teacher and the student are here. 

2. Neither the teacher nor the student here. 

3. Not only the teacher but also the student here. 

4. Not only the teacher but also the students here. 

5. Either the students or the teacher planning to come. 

6. Either the teacher or the students planning to come. 

7. Both the students and the teachers planning to come. 

8. Both the students and the teacher planning to come. 

□ Exercise 13. Looking at grammar. (Chart 16-3) 

Answer the questions. Use paired conjunctions. Work in pairs, in small groups, or as a class. 
Part I. Use both . . . and. 

1 . You've met his father. Have you met his mother? 
— > Yes. I've met both his father and his mother. 

2. The driver was injured in the accident. Was the passenger injured in the accident? 

3. Wheat is grown in Kansas. Is corn grown in Kansas? 

4. The city suffers from air pollution. Does it suffer from water pollution? 



358 CHAPTER 16 



Part II. Use not only . . . but also. 

5. I know you are studying math. Are you studying chemistry too? 
— > Yes. I'm studying not only math but also chemistry. 

6. I know his cousin is living with him. Is his mother-in-law living with him too? 

7. I know you lost your wallet. Did you lose your keys too? 

8. I know she goes to school. Does she have a full-time job too? 

Part III. Use either . . . or. 

9. Omar has your book, or Rosa has your book. Is that right? 
— > Yes. Either Omar or Rosa has my book. 

10. You're going to give your friend a book for her birthday, or you're going to give her some 
jewelry. Is that right? 

1 1 . Your sister will meet you at the airport, or your brother will meet you there. Right? 

12. They can go swimming, or they can play tennis. Is that right? 

Part IV. Use neither . . . nor. 

13. He doesn't like coffee. Does he like tea? 
— > No. He likes neither coffee nor tea. 

14. Her husband doesn't speak English. Do her children speak English? 

15. They don't have a refrigerator for their new apartment. Do they have a stove? 

16. The result wasn't good. Was the result bad? 



U Exercise 14. Listening. (Chart 16-3) 




Choose the sentence (a. or b.) that has the same meaning as the sentence you hear. 



2 2i Example: You will hear: Sarah is working on both a degree in biology and a degree in 

chemistry. 

You will choose: a. Sarah is working on only one degree. 

(b?) Sarah is working on two degrees. 

1. a. Ben will call Mary and Bob. 

b. Ben will call one of them but not both. 

2. a. My mother and my father talked to my teacher. 

b. Either my mother or my father talked to my teacher. 

3. a. Simon saw both a whale and a dolphin. 

b. Simon didn't see a whale, but he did see a dolphin. 

4. a. Our neighborhood had electricity but not water, 
b. Our neighborhood didn't have electricity or water. 

5. a. We will have two teachers today, 
b. We will have one teacher today. 



Coordinating Conjunctions 359 



□ Exercise 15. Looking at grammar. (Chart 16-3) 

Combine each pair of sentences into one new sentence with parallel structure. Use both . . . 
and; not only . . . but also; either . . . or; neither . . . nor. 

1. He does not have a pen. He does not have paper. 
— > He has neither a pen nor paper. 

2. You can have tea, or you can have coffee. 
— > You can have tea or coffee. 

3. Tanya enjoys horseback riding. Beth enjoys horseback riding. 

4. Arthur is not in class today. Ricardo is not in class today. 

5. Arthur is absent. Ricardo is absent. 

6. We can fix dinner for them here, or we can take them to a restaurant. 

7. The leopard faces extinction. The tiger faces extinction. 

8. The library doesn't have the book I need. The bookstore doesn't have the book I need. 

9. We could fly, or we could take the train. 

10. The hospital will not confirm the story. The hospital will not deny the story. 

11. Coal is an irreplaceable natural resource. Oil is an irreplaceable natural resource. 

12. Her roommates don't know where she is. Her brother doesn't know where she is. 



□ Exercise 16. Listening. (Charts 16-1 -> 16-3) 

Part I. Answer these questions. Then listen to the short lecture on bats with your 
book closed. 

CD 2 
Track 22 

1. Do you ever see bats? 

2. Are you afraid of them? 

Part II. Open your book. Choose the correct completions. Then 
listen again and check your answers. 

Bats 

(1) What do people in your country think of bats? Are they mean and scary creatures, or are 
they symbols of both happiness and ((hidz), lucky)? 

(2) In Western countries, many people have an unreasoned fear of bats. According to 
scientist Dr. Sharon Horowitz, bats are not only (harm, harmless) but also (benefit, beneficial) 
mammals. "When I was a child, I believed that a bat would attack me and (tangle, tangled) itself 
in my hair. Now I know better," said Dr. Horowitz. 

(3) Contrary to popular Western myths, bats do not (attack, attacking) humans. Although a 
few bats may have diseases, they are not major carriers of rabies or other frightening diseases. 
Bats help natural plant life by pollinating plants, spreading seeds, and (to eat, eating) insects. If 
you get rid of bats that eat overripe fruit, then fruit flies can flourish and (destroy, destruction) the 
fruit industry. 

(4) According to Dr. Horowitz, bats are both gentle and (train, trainable) pets. Not many 
people, however, own or train bats, and bats themselves prefer to avoid people. 





360 CHAPTER 16 



□ Exercise 17. Warm-up. (Chart 16 4) 

Check (/) the items with correct punctuation, note: Only one of the items has incorrect 
punctuation. 

1. Thunder clouds rolled by. Flashes of lightning lit the sky. 

2. Thunder clouds rolled by 5 flashes of lightning lit the sky. 

3. Thunder clouds rolled by, and flashes of lightning lit the sky. 

4. Thunder clouds rolled by. And flashes of lightning lit the sky. 



16-4 Separating Independent Clauses with Periods; 
Connecting Them with And and But 


(a) It was raining hard. There was a strong wind. 

(b) incorrect punctuation: It was raining hard, there 
was a strong wind. 


Example (a) contains two independent clauses (i.e., two 
complete sentences). 

punctuation: 

A period,* not a comma, is used to separate two independent 
clauses. The punctuation error in (b) is called a "run-on 
sentence." 

In spoken English, a pause, slightly longer than a pause for a 
comma, separates the two sentences. 


(c) It was raining hard, and there was a strong wind. 

(d) It was raining hard. And there was a strong wind. 

(e) It was raining hard and there was a strong wind. 

(f ) It was late, but he didn't care. 

(g) It was late. But he didn't care. 


And and but (coordinating conjunctions) are often used to 
connect two independent clauses. 

punctuation: 

Usually a comma immediately precedes the conjunction, as in 
(c) and (f). 

In informal writing, a writer might choose to begin a sentence 
with a conjunction, as in (d) and (g). 

In a very short sentence, a writer might choose to omit the 
comma in front of and, as in (e). (Omitting the comma in front 
of but is rare.) 



*In British English, a period is called a "full stop." 



□ Exercise 18. Looking at grammar. (Chart 16-4) 

Punctuate the sentences by adding commas and periods. Do not add any words. Add 
capitalization as necessary. 

1. The boys walked the girls ran. 

— » The boys walked. The girls ran. 

2. The boys walked and the girls ran. 

3. The teacher lectured the students took notes. 

4. The teacher lectured and the students took notes. 

5. Elena came to the meeting but Pedro stayed home. 

6. Elena came to the meeting her brother stayed home. 



Coordinating Conjunctions 361 



□ Exercise 19. Listening and grammar. (Chart 16-4) 




Listen to the sentences, paying special attention to pauses. Add periods and commas where 
you hear pauses. Add capitalization as necessary. 



CD 2 



1. Both Jamal and I had many errands to do yesterday. Jamal had to go to the post office 

A 

and the bookstore I had to go to the post office the travel agency and the bank. 

2. Roberto slapped his hand on his desk in frustration he had failed another examination and 
had ruined his chances for a passing grade in the course. 

3. When Alex got home he took off his coat and tie threw his briefcase on the kitchen table 
and opened the refrigerator looking for something to eat Ann found him sitting at the 
kitchen table when she got home.* 

4. WhenTara went downtown yesterday she bought birthday presents for her children 
shopped for clothes and saw a movie at the theater it was a busy day but she felt fine 
because it ended on a relaxing note. 

5. It was a wonderful picnic the children waded in the stream collected rocks and insects and 
flew kites the teenagers played an enthusiastic game of baseball the adults busied 
themselves preparing the food supervising the children and playing some volleyball. 



□ Exercise 20. Looking at grammar. (Charts 16-2 and 16-4) 

Punctuate the sentences by adding commas and periods. Do not add any words. Add 
capitalization as necessary. 

1. Janice entered the room and looked around she knew no one. 

2. A thermometer is used to measure temperature a barometer measures air pressure. 

3. Derek made many promises but he had no intention of keeping them. 

4. The earthquake was devastating tall buildings crumbled and fell to the ground. 

5. Birds have certain characteristics in common they have feathers wings and a beak with no 
teeth birds lay hard-shelled eggs and their offspring are dependent on parental care for an 
extended period after birth. 

6. The ancient Egyptians had good dentists archeologists have found mummies that had gold 
fillings in their teeth. 




* See Chart 17-1, p. 365, for the punctuation of adverb clauses. Commas are used when the adverb clause comes before the 
main clause but not when it comes after the main clause. 

Examples: \VJien the phone rang, I anszvered it. (comma used) 
/ answered the phone when it rang, (no comma used) 



362 CHAPTER 16 



CD 2 
Track 24 



Exercise 21. Listening and grammar. (Chart 16 4) 

Part I. Read the passage on butterflies quickly. How does the lack of punctuation 
and capitalization make a difference in how easily you can read the passage? 

Butterflies 

A butterfly is a marvel it begins as an ugly caterpillar and turns into a work of art the sight of 
a butterfly floating from flower to flower on a warm, sunny day brightens anyone's heart a 
butterfly is a charming and gentle creature caterpillars eat plants and cause damage to some 
crops but adult butterflies feed principally on nectar from flowers and do not cause any harm 
when cold weather comes some butterflies travel great distances to reach tropical climates they 
can be found on every continent except Antarctica because they are so colorful and beautiful 
butterflies are admired throughout the world. 

Part II. Listen to the passage with your book open. Listen for pauses and add periods, 
commas, and capital letters as necessary Then read the passage again and make sure it is 
punctuated the way you think is best. 

Part III. Listen to the passage one more time to see if your punctuation reflects the spoken 
pauses. 



J Exercise 22. Let's read and talk. (Chapter 16) 

Part I. Read the paragraph about Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. 

Martin Luther King, Jr., was the leader of the 1960s civil rights 
movement in the United States that sought to end segregation and racial 
discrimination against African- Americans. In 1964, Dr. King became 
the youngest person to receive the Nobel Peace Prize. He was 
assassinated in 1968, but his powerful and inspiring words still live. 

Part II. Underline the parallel structures that you find in these quotes from the speeches and 
writings of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Discuss the ideas. Work in pairs, in small groups, or as 
a class. 

1. "The hope of a secure and livable world lies with disciplined nonconformists who are 
dedicated to justice, peace and brotherhood." 

2. "The ultimate measure of a man is not where he stands in moments of comfort and 
convenience, but where he stands at times of challenge and controversy." 

3. "In the end, we will remember not the words of our enemies, but the silence of our friends." 

4. "Nonviolence is the answer to the crucial political and moral question of our time: the 
need for mankind to overcome oppression and violence without resorting to oppression 
and violence. Mankind must evolve for all human conflict a method which rejects revenge, 
aggression, and retaliation. The foundation of such a method is love." 




Coordinating Conjunctions 363 



Exercise 23. Let's write. (Chapter 16) 

Choose one of the given topics. Write two versions of the same paragraph. The first version 
should be a draft in which you get your ideas on paper. Then the second version should be a 
"tightened" revision of the first. Look for places where two or three sentences can be 
combined into one by using parallel structure. In the second version, use as few words as 
possible and still communicate your meaning. 

Topics: 

1. Give a physical description of your place of residence (apartment, dorm room, etc.) 

2. Describe the characteristics and activities of a successful student. 

3. Give your reader directions for making a particular food dish. 

Example: 

First Draft: You'll need several ingredients to make spaghetti sauce. You'll need some ground 
beef. Probably about one pound of ground beef is enough. You should also have an 
onion. If the onions are small, you should use two. Also, find a green pepper and put 
it in the sauce. Of course, you will also need some tomato sauce or tomatoes. 

Revision: To make spaghetti sauce, you will need one pound of ground beef, one large or two 
small onions, a green pepper, and some tomato sauce or tomatoes. 



CHAPTER 16 



Chapter 17 

Adverb Clauses 




□ Exercise 1. Warm-up. (Chart 17-1) 

The words in blue are adverb clauses. What do you notice about their sentence placement and 
punctuation? 

1 . He closed the window when it got windy. 

2. Because it got windy, he closed the window. 

3. Even though it was windy, he opened the window. 

4. Would you please close the window if it gets windy? 



1 7-1 Introduction 



Adverb clauses are used to show relationships between ideas. They show relationships of time, cause and effect, 
contrast, and condition. 



adverb clause 



main clause 



(a) When the phone rang, the baby woke up. 

(b) The baby woke up when the phone rang. 



In (a) and (b): when the phone rang is an adverb clause of 
time. Examples (a) and (b) have the same meaning. 

punctuation: 

When an adverb clause precedes a main clause, as in (a), a 
comma is used to separate the clauses. 
When the adverb clause follows, as in (b), usually no comma 
is used. 



(c) Because he was sleepy, he went to bed. 

(d) He went to bed because he was sleepy. 



In (c) and (d), because introduces an adverb clause that 
shows a cause-and-effect relationship. 



(e) incorrect punctuation: 

When we were in New York. We saw several plays. 

( f ) INCORRECT PUNCTUATION: 

He went to bed. Because he was sleepy. 



Adverb clauses are dependent clauses. They cannot stand 
alone as a sentence in written English. They must be 
connected to a main (or independent) clause.* 



Summary list of words used to introduce adverb clauses' 



TIME 



after 

before 

when 

while 

as 

as soon as 

since 

until 



by the time (that) 
once 

as/so long as 
whenever 
every time (that) 
the first time (that) 
the last time (that) 
the next time (that) 



CAUSE AND EFFECT 

because 

now that 

since 



CONTRAST 

even though 

although 

though 

DIRECT CONTRAST 

while 



CONDITION 

if 

unless 
only if 

whether or not 
even if 
in case 



*See Chart 13-1, p. 270, for the definition of dependent and independent clauses. 
**Words that introduce adverb clauses are called "subordinating conjunctions." 



365 



□ Exercise 2. Looking at grammar. (Chart 17-1) 

Check (/) the sentences that are grammatically complete and contain the correct punctuation. 



1 . S I woke up. 

2. When the door slammed. 

3. I woke up. When the door slammed. 

4. I woke up when the door slammed. 

5. When the door slammed, I woke up. 

6. The door slammed. I woke up. 

7. As soon as you finish dinner, you will need to pick up Andy at work. 

8. The first time I saw you at the school dance last February. 

9. Every time the phone rings and I answer it. 

10. We won't know the results until the doctor calls. 

11. We got something to eat. After we went to the movie. 



□ Exercise 3. Looking at grammar. (Chart 17-1) 

Underline the adverb clauses . Add punctuation and capitalization as necessary. Do not add or 
delete any words. 

IV 

1. when Abder was in New York , he stayed with his cousins. 

2. we went inside when it began to rain 

3. it began to rain we went inside 

4. when it began to rain we went inside 

5. when the mail comes my assistant opens it 

6. my assistant opens the mail when it comes 

7. the mail comes around ten o'clock every morning my assistant opens it 

□ Exercise 4. Looking at grammar. (Charts 16-2, 16-4 and 1 7-1 ) 

Add punctuation and capitalization as necessary. Do not add or delete any words. 

1 . As soon as the rain began the children wanted to go outdoors they love to play outside in 
the warm summer rain I used to do the same thing when I was a child. 

2. I had a cup of tea before I left for work this morning but I didn't have anything to eat I 
rarely eat breakfast. 

3. When Jack and his wife go on vacation they have to drive or take the train because his wife 
is afraid of flying. 



366 CHAPTER 17 



4. After Ellen gets home from work she likes to read the newspaper she follows the same 
routine every day after work as soon as she gets home she changes her clothes gets a snack 
and a drink and sits down in her favorite chair to read the newspaper in peace and quiet 
she usually has about half an hour to read the paper before her husband arrives home. 

5. When you speak to someone who is hard of hearing you do not have to shout it is 
important to face the person directly and speak clearly my elderly father is hard of hearing 
but he can understand me when I look directly at him and say each word clearly. 

6. Jane wears contact lenses because she is near-sighted without them, she can't see from one 
end of a basketball court to the other when one of her contacts popped out during a recent 
game both teams stopped playing and searched the floor for the lens. 




Exercise 5. Warm-up. (Chart 17 2) 

Add the word(s) in parentheses to the correct place in each sentence. Add commas and 
capitalization as necessary. 

while 

1 . Anya listened to some music^she was working at her computer, (zvhile) 

2. I go to bed I always brush my teeth, (before) 

3. I was a child I've been interested in butterflies, (ever since) 

4. I'm going to meet some friends I leave class today, (after) 

5. People speak English too fast Oscar can't catch the meaning, (when) 

6. The teacher speaks too fast Oscar is going to ask her to slow down, (the next time) 



Adverb Clauses 367 



1 7-2 Using Adverb Clauses to Show Time Relationships 


after* 


( a ) After she graduates, she will get a job. 

( b ) After she (had) graduated, she got a job. 


A present tense, not a future tense, is used 
in an adverb clause of time, as in (a) and (c) 

(See Chart 4-3, p. 67, for tense usage in 
future time clauses.) 


before* 


( c ) 1 will leave before he comes. 

( d ) 1 (had) left before he came. 


when 


( e ) When 1 arrived, he was talking on the phone. 

( f ) When 1 got there, he had already left. 

( g ) When it began to rain, 1 stood under a tree. 

( h ) When 1 was in Chicago, 1 visited the museums. 

( i ) When 1 see him tomorrow, 1 will ask him. 


when = at that time 

Notice the different time relationships 

expressed by the tenses. 


while 
as 


( j ) While 1 was walking home, it began to rain. 
( k ) As 1 was walking home, it began to rain. 


while, as = during that time 


by the time 


( 1 ) By the time he arrived, we had already left. 

(m) By the time he comes, we will have already 
left. 


by the time - one event is completed before 
another event 

Notice the use of the past perfect and future 
perfect in the main clause. 


since 


( n ) 1 haven't seen him since he left this morning. 
( o ) 1 've known her ever since 1 was a child. 


since = from that time to the present 
In (o): ever adds emphasis. 

note: The present perfect is used in the main 
clause. 


until 
till 


( p ) We stayed there until we finished our work. 
( q ) We stayed there till we finished our work. 


until, till - to that time and then no longer 
(Till is used more in speaking than in writing; 
it is generally not used in formal English.) 


as soon as 
once 


( r ) As soon as it stops raining, we will leave. 
( s ) Once it stops raining, we will leave. 


as soon as, once = when one event 
happens, another event happens soon 
afterward 


as long as 
so long as 


( t ) 1 will never speak to him again as long as 1 live. 
( u ) 1 will never speak to him again so long as 1 live. 


as long as, so long as = during all that 
time, from beginning to end 


whenever 
every time 


( v ) Whenever 1 see her, 1 say hello, 
(w) Every time 1 see her, 1 say hello. 


whenever = every time 


the first time 
the last time 
the next time 


( x ) The first time (that) 1 went to New York, 1 went 
to an opera. 

( y ) 1 saw two plays the last time (that) 1 went to 
New York. 

( z ) The next time (that) 1 go to New York, I'm 
going to see a ballet. 


Adve 
the ' 


rb clauses c< 
' first 

second 

third, etc. 

last 

next 

etc. 


an be introduced by: 
> time (that) 



* 'After and before are commonly used in the following expressions: 
shortly after shortly before 

a short time after a short time before 

a little while after a little while before 

not long after not long before 

soon after 



368 CHAPTER 17 



□ Exercise 6. Looking at grammar. (Charts 17-1 and 17-2) 

Complete the sentences with your own words. Add brackets around the adverb clause in each 
sentence. 

1. I will call you [before I come over .] 

2. Last night I went to bed after I my homework. 

3. Tonight I will go to bed after I my homework. 

4. Ever since I was a child, I afraid of dogs. 

5. Be sure to reread your composition for errors before you it to the 

teacher tomorrow. 

6. By the time I left my apartment this morning, the mail carrier 

the mail. 

7. I have known Jim Bates since he ten years old. 

8. A black cat ran across the road as I my car to work this 

morning. 

9. By the time I leave this city, I here for four months. 

10. Whenever Mark angry, his nose gets red. 

11. I to the beach whenever the weather was nice, but now I don't have 

time to do that because I have to study. 

12. We will have a big party when 



13. The next time I to Hawaii, I'm going to visit Mauna Loa, the world's 

largest active volcano. 

14. I had fried chicken the last time I at that restaurant. 

□ Exercise 7. Looking at grammar. (Charts 17-1 and 1 7-2) 

Combine each pair of sentences with the words in parentheses. Add commas as necessary. 

1. The other passengers will get on the bus soon. We'll leave, (as soon as) 
— » As soon as the other passengers get on the bus, zue'll leave. 

2. I left the room. I turned off the lights, (after) 

3. I left the room. I turned off the lights, (before) 

4. Suki feels nervous. She bites her nails, (whenever) 

5. The frying pan caught on fire. I was making dinner, (while) 

6. We were sitting down to eat. Someone knocked on the door, (just as*) 

*Just adds the idea of "immediately": 

just as = at that immediate or same moment. 
just before = immediately before. 
just after = immediately after. 



Adverb Clauses 369 



7. The audience burst into applause. The singer finished her song, (as soon as) 

8. We have to wait here. Nancy will come, (until) 

9. Julia will come. We can leave for the theater, (as soon as) 

10. My roommate walked into the room. I knew something was wrong, (just as soon as) 

11. I stood up to give my speech. I got butterflies in my stomach, (just before) 

12. I saw the great pyramids of Egypt in the moonlight. I was speechless, (the first time) 

13. Lori started working at this company six months ago. Lori has gotten three promotions in 
the last six months, (since) 

14. The weather will get warmer soon. We can start spending more time outside, (once) 

15. Shakespeare died in 1616. He had written more than 37 plays, (by the time) 

16. Sam will go to get his driver's license. He'll remember to take his glasses, (the next time) 

Exercise 8. Looking at grammar. (Chart 1 7-2) 

Choose the best completions. 

1 . As soon as Martina saw the fire, she the fire department. 

a. was telephoning c. had telephoned 

(R) telephoned d. has telephoned 

2. Before Jennifer won the lottery, she any kind of contest. 

a. hasn't entered c. wasn't entering 

b. doesn't enter d. hadn't entered 

3. Every time Prakash sees a movie made in India, he homesick. 

a. will have felt c. feels 

b. felt d. is feeling 

4. Since I left Venezuela six years ago, I to visit friends and family several times. 

a. return c. am returning 

b. will have returned d. have returned 

5. While he was washing his new car, Mr. De Rosa a small dent in the rear fender. 

a. has discovered c. is discovering 

b. was discovering d. discovered 

6. Yesterday while I was attending a sales meeting, Matthew on the company's annual 

report. 

a. was working c. has worked 

b. had been working d. works 

7. Tony to have children until his little daughter was born. After she won his heart, he 

decided he wanted a big family. 

a. doesn't want c. wasn't wanting 

b. hadn't wanted d. hasn't wanted 



CHAPTER 17 



8. After the horse threw her to the ground for the third time, 

Jennifer picked herself up and said, "I on another 

horse as long as I live." 

a. never ride c. will never ride 

b. have never ridden d. do not ride 

9. The next time Paul to New York, he will visit the 

Metropolitan Museum of Art's famous collection of 
international musical instruments. 

a. will fly c. has flown 

b. flies d. will have flown 

10. Ever since Maurice arrived, he quietly in the corner. Is something wrong? 

a. sat c. had been sitting 

b. has been sitting d. will have sat 

1 1 . After Nela for twenty minutes, she began to feel tired. 

a. jogging c. has been jogging 

b. had been jogging d. has jogged 

12. Peter, since you got home from football practice? 

a. have you eaten c. are you eating 

b. will you eat d. do you eat 

13. By the time the young birds the nest for good, they will have learned how to fly. 

a. will leave c. are leaving 

b. will have left d. leave 

14. The last time I in Athens, the weather was hot and humid. 

a. had been c. am 

b. was d. will have been 




u Exercise 9. Looking at grammar. (Charts 17-1 and 1 7-2) 

Read the description of events. Make sentences using the words below the example. 
Events: 

4:00 Judy parked her car at the mall and went to buy some jeans. 

4:03 A thief broke into her car and stole her radio. 

4:30 Judy returned to her car. 

4:31 Judy called the police. 

4:35 The police arrived. 

4:35 Judy began crying in frustration. 

Example: just after 

— > Just after Judy parked her car, a thief broke into it. 

1. just after 3. when 5. by the time 

2. just as 4. while 6. as soon as 



Adverb Clauses 371 



□ Exercise 10. Let's talk. (Charts 17-1 and 17-2) 

Work in small groups. Complete the sentences with your own words. Each member of the 
group should finish each sentence. 

Example: After I left class yesterday, .... 

— > After I left class yesterday, I met my cousin for tea. 

1. After I leave class today, .... 

2. Before I go to bed tonight, .... 

3. As soon as I get up tomorrow, .... 

4. Whenever I feel nervous, .... 

5. The first time I came to this class, .... 

6. Ever since I was a child, .... 

7. As long as I live, .... 

8. Just as I was falling asleep last night, .... 

□ Exercise 11. Listening and grammar. (Charts 1 7-1 and 17-2) 

Listen to the story about Marco's and Anya's cultural misunderstandings with your book 
closed. Then open your book and complete the sentences. 

CD 2 
'rack 25 

1. The first time Marco was asked "How's it going?", 



2. At first, every time someone asked Anya how she was, 



3. The next time Marco wants to get the server's attention at a restaurant, 



4. Since Marco and Anya have come to this country, 



5. Whenever they have a cultural misunderstanding, 



□ Exercise 12. Warm-up. (Chart 17-3) 

Which adverb clauses give the idea of "because"? 

1. Now that I've finished art school, I can focus on finding work as an illustrator. 

2. Since I was young, I have been artistic. 

3. Since you're artistic, you can illustrate the story. 



372 CHAPTER 17 



17-3 Using Adverb Clauses to Show Cause and Effect 



because 


(a) Because he was sleepy, he went to bed. 

(b) He went to bed because he was sleepy. 


An adverb clause may precede or follow the 
independent clause. Notice the punctuation in (a) 
and (b). 


now that 


(c) Now that I've finished the semester, I'm going 
to rest a few days and then take a trip. 

(d) Jack lost his job. Now that he's unemployed, 
he can't pay his bills. 


Now that means "because now." In (c): Now that 
I've finished the semester means "because the 
semester is now over." Now that is used for present 
causes of present or future situations. 


since 


(e) Since Monday is a holiday we don't have to 
go to work. 

(f ) Since you're a good cook and I'm not, you 
should cook the dinner. 


When since is used to mean "because," it 
expresses a known cause; it means "because it is a 
fact that" or "given that it is true that." Cause-and- 
effect sentences with since say, "Given the fact that 
X is true, Y is the result." In (e): "Given the fact that 
Monday is a holiday, we don't have to go to work." 




(g) Since 1 came here, 1 have met many people. 


note: Since has two meanings. One is "because." 
It is also used in time clauses, as in (g). See Chart 
17-2. 



□ Exercise 13. Looking at grammar. (Chart 17-3) 

Combine each pair of sentences with the words in parentheses. Add commas as necessary. 

1 . We can go swimming every day. The weather is warm, (nozo that) 
— > We can go swimming every day now that the weather is warm. 

2. The students had done poorly on the test. The teacher decided to give it again, (since) 
— > Since the students Jiad done poorly on the testy the teacher decided to give it again. 

3. Cold air hovers near the earth. It is heavier than hot air. (because) 

4. You paid for the theater tickets. Please let me pay for our dinner, (since) 

5. Do you want to go for a walk? The rain has stopped, (nozo that) 

6. Our TV set was broken. We listened to the news on the radio, (because) 

7. Many young people move to the cities in search of employment. There are few jobs 
available in the rural areas, (since) 

8. The civil war has ended. A new government is being formed, (now that) 

9. Ninety-two thousand people already have reservations with an airline company for a trip to 
the moon. I doubt that I'll get the chance to go on one of the first tourist flights, (since) 




Adverb Clauses 373 



□ Exercise 14. Looking at grammar. (Chart 1 7-3) 

Complete the sentences with your own words. Punctuate carefully. 

1 . Now that I've finally finished 

2. The teacher didn't 

because 

3. Since it's too expensive to 

4. Gary can't stay out all night with his friends now that 

5. Since we don't have class tomorrow 



□ Exercise 15. Warm-up. (Chart 17 4) 

Which sentence expresses an unexpected result? 

1 . Because I was very tired, I went to bed early. 

2. Even though I was very tired, I stayed up late. 



17-4 Expressing Contrast (Unexpected Result): Using 
Even Though 



(a) Because the weather was cold, I didn't go swimming. 

(b) Even though the weather was cold, I wen? swimming. 

(c) Because I wasn't tired, I didn't go to bed. 

(d) Even though I wasn't tired, I went to bed. 



Because is used to express expected results. 

Even though is used to express unexpected results.* 

note: Like because, even though introduces an adverb 
clause. 



* Although and though have basically the same meaning and use as even though. See Chart 19-6, p. 406, for information on the use of 
although and though. 



□ Exercise 16. Looking at grammar. (Chart 1 7-4) 

Choose the correct completions. 
1 . Because it was a dark, cloudy day, 



(a?) I didn't put on my sunglasses b. I put on my sunglasses 



Even though it was a dark, cloudy day, 
a. I put on my sunglasses 

Even though Mira has a cold, 

a. she feels okay 

Because gas is so expensive, 

a. I drive my car a lot 



b. I didn't put on my sunglasses 

b. she feels tired 

b. I avoid driving my car a lot 



374 CHAPTER 17 



□ Exercise 17. Looking at grammar. (Chart 1 7-4) 

Complete the sentences with even though or because. 

1. Tim's in good shape physically even though he doesn't get much exercise. 

2. Barry's in good shape physically becauee he gets a lot of exercise. 

3. Melissa has a job, she doesn't make enough money to support 

her four children. 

4. Yoko has a job, she is able to pay her rent and feed her family. 

5. Sherry didn't learn Spanish she lived in Mexico for a year. 

6. Joe speaks Spanish well he lived in Mexico for a year. 

7. Jing-Won jumped into the river to rescue a little girl who was drowning 
he wasn't a good swimmer. 

8. A newborn kangaroo can find its mother's pouch its eyes are 

not yet open. 

9. Some people protest certain commercial fishing operations 

dolphins, considered to be highly intelligent and social mammals, are killed unnecessarily. 

10. the earthquake damaged the bridge across Skunk River, the 

Smiths were able to cross the river they had a boat. 

□ Exercise 18. Let's talk. (Chart 17-4) 

Work in pairs, in small groups, or as a class. Speaker A asks the question. Speaker B answers 
the question beginning with Yes/No and followed by Even though. 

Examples: 

Speaker A {book open): It was raining. Did you go to the zoo anyway? 
Speaker B {book closed): Yes. Even though it was raining, 1 went to the zoo. 

Speaker A {book open): You studied hard. Did you pass the test? 

Speaker B {book closed): No. Even though I studied hard, 1 didn't pass the test. 

1. You weren't tired. Did you go to bed anyway? 

2. The phone rang many times, but did you wake up? 

3. The food was terrible. Did you eat it anyway? 

4. You didn't study. Did you pass the test anyway? 

5. The weather is terrible today. Did you stay home? 

6. You fell down the stairs. Did you get hurt? 

{Change roles if working in pairs.) 

7. You told the truth, but did anyone believe you? 

8. You turned on the air conditioner. Is it still hot in here? 

9. You mailed the letter a week ago. Has it arrived yet? 

10. You have a lot of money. Can you afford to buy an airplane? 

1 1 . Your grandmother is ninety years old. Is she still young at heart? 

12. (...) told a joke. You didn't understand it. Did you laugh anyway? 

Adverb Clauses 375 



J Exercise 19. Warm-up. (Chart 17-5) 

Check (/) the sentences that show contrast (i.e., show that "this" is the opposite of "that"). 

1 . I am a vegetarian, while my husband is a meat-eater. 

2. While I was shopping, I ran into some friends from high school. 

3. While some people prefer hot weather, I prefer cooler climates. 



17-5 Showing Direct Contrast: While 


(a) Mary is rich, while John is poor. 

(b) John is poor, while Mary is rich. 

(c) While John is poor, Mary is rich. 

(d) While Mary is rich, John is poor. 


While is used to show direct contrast: "this" is exactly the opposite of 
"that."* 

Examples (a), (b), (c), and (d) all have the same meaning. 

Note the use of the comma in (a) and (b): In using while for direct 
contrast, a comma is often used even if the wMe-clause comes second 
(unlike the punctuation of most other adverb clauses). 


compare: 

(e) The phone rang while 1 was studying. 


reminder: While is also used in time clauses and means "during that 
time," as in (e). See Chart 17-2. 



*\\liereas can have the same meaning and use as while, but it occurs mostly in formal written English and occurs with 
considerably less frequency than while: Mary is rich, whereas John is poor. 



□ Exercise 20. Looking at grammar. (Chart 1 7-5) 

Choose the best completion for each sentence. 



1 . Some people are tall, while others are 

a. intelligent 

b. thin 

2. A box is square, while 



(c?) short 
d. large 



a. a rectangle has four sides 

b. my village has a town square in the center 



c. we use envelopes for letters 

d. a circle is round 



3. While some parts of the world get an abundance of rain, others 

a. are warm and humid c. get little or none 

b. are cold and wet d. get a lot 

4. In some nations the favorite beverage is coffee, while 



a. I like tea 

b. it has caffeine 



c. in others it is tea 

d. they drink tea 



Some people like cream and sugar in their coffee, while 

a. others like it black c. milk is good in coffee too 

b. others drink hot coffee d. sugar can cause cavities 

Steve is an interesting storyteller and conversationalist, while his brother 

a. is a newspaper reporter c. has four children 

b. bores other people by talking d. knows a lot of stories too 
about himself all the time 



j Exercise 21. Let's talk. (Chart 17 5) 

Ask two classmates to complete each sentence. Share some of their completions with the class. 

Example: Some people are talkative, while .... 

— > Some people are talkative, zvhile others are quiet. 
— > Wliile some people are talkative, others are quiet. 

1 . Some people have curly hair, while .... 

2. Some people prefer to live in the country, while .... 

3. While some people know only their native language, .... 

4. The climate at sea level at the equator is always hot, while the climate at the North and 
South poles .... 

5. Some people . . . , while .... 

6. Some countries . . . , while .... 

□ Exercise 22. Warm-up. (Chart 1 7-6) 

Check (/) the sentence with ifxhat is grammatically correct. 

1 . If I will need help, I will ask you. 

2. If I need help, I will ask you. 

3. If I will need help, I ask you. 



1 7-6 Expressing Conditions in Adverb Clauses: //-Clauses 



(a) If it rains tomorrow, I will take my umbrella. 



//-clauses (also called "adverb clauses of condition") present 
possible conditions. The main clause expresses results. 

In (a): possible condition = it may rain tomorrow 
result = / will take my umbrella 

A present tense, not a future tense, is used in an //-clause even 
though the verb in the /'/-clause may refer to a future event or 
situation, as in (a).* 



Words that introduce adverb clauses of condition (/7-clauses) 

if even if unless 

whether or not in case only if 



*See Chapter 20 for uses of other verb forms in sentences with //-clauses. 



Exercise 23. Looking at grammar. (Chart 17-6) 

Make sentences with if using the given conditions. 

Example: It may be cold tomorrow. 

— > If it's cold tomorrow, I'm going to stay home. 
— > We can } t go on a picnic if it's cold tomorrow. 

1 . The teacher may not be in class tomorrow. 

2. You will stay up until two in the morning. 

3. Maybe the sun will be shining when you get up tomorrow morning. 

4. Predictions about global warming may be correct. 

5. Think of something that may happen this year in world politics. 



Adverb Clauses 377 



□ Exercise 24. Warm-up. (Chart 17 7) 

Check (/) the sentences that logically follow the question and are grammatically correct. 
Do you have your cell phone zvith you? 



If you do 3 could I use it? 

If so 3 could I use it? 

If notj I can use the pay phone. 

If you don'tj I can use the pay phone. 

If you are 3 could I use it? 




1 7-7 Shortened //"-Clauses 




(a) Are you a student? 

If so /If you are, the ticket is half-price. 
If not / If you aren't, the ticket is full price. 

(b) It's a popular concert. Do you have a ticket? 
If so/ If you do, you're lucky. 

If not / If you don't, you're out of luck. 


When an //-clause refers to the idea in the sentence immediately 
before it, it is sometimes shortened. 

In (a): If sol If you are = If you are a student 

If not / If you aren't = If you aren't a student 

In (b): If sol If you do = If you have a ticket 

If not/ If you don't = If you don't have a ticket 



J Exercise 25. Looking at grammar. (Chart 17-7) 

First 3 complete the sentences in two ways: 

a. Use so or not. 

b. Use a helping verb or main verb be. 
Second^ give the full meaning of the shortened //-clause. 

1 . Does Lisa want to go out to dinner with us? 

a. If so , tell her to meet us at 8:00. 

b. If she does , tell her to meet us at 8:00. 

— » Meaning: if Lisa zuants to go out to dinner with us 

2. Are you free this weekend? 

a. If 3 do you want to go to a movie? 

b. If you 3 do you want to go to a movie? 

3. Do you have a ride to the theater? 

a. If 3 would you like to ride with us? 

b. If you 3 would you like to ride with us? 



378 CHAPTER 17 



4. 



Are you coming to the meeting? 

a. If , I'll see you there. 

b. If you , I'll see you there. 



5. Did you use a spellcheck on your email to me? 

a. If , it didn't catch all the spelling errors. 

b. If you , it didn't catch all the spelling errors. 

6. We need some rice. Can you stop at the store on your way home today? 

a. If , I'll do it. 

b. If you , I'll do it. 

□ Exercise 26. Warm-up. (Chart 17-8) 

Check (/) all the sentences that are true for David. 

Situation: If David gets married, he will be happy. If he doesn't get married, he will be happy. 

1. David will be happy if he doesn't get married. 

2. If he gets married, David won't be happy. 

3. Even if David gets married, he won't be happy. 

4. Even if David doesn't get married, he will be happy. 

5. David will be happy whether or not he gets married. 

6. Whether or not David gets married, he will be happy. 



17-8 Adverb Clauses of Condition: Using Whether Or Not 


Whether or not 


(a) I'm going to go swimming tomorrow 
whether or not it is cold, or 
whether it is cold or not. 


Whether or not expresses the idea that neither this condition 
nor that condition matters; the result will be the same. 

In (a): "If it is cold, I'm going swimming. If it is not cold, I'm 
going swimming. 1 don't care about the temperature. It doesn't 
matter." 


Even if 


(b) 1 have decided to go swimming tomorrow. 
Even if the weather is cold, I'm going to go 


Sentences with even if are close in meaning to those with 
whether or not. 


swimming. 


Even if gives the idea that a particular condition does not 
matter. The result will not change. 



Adverb Clauses 379 



□ Exercise 27. Looking at grammar. (Chart 17-8) 

Choose the sentence (a. or b.) that has the same meaning as the given sentence. 

1 . Even if I get an invitation to the reception, I'm not going to go. 
a. I won't go to the reception without an invitation. 

(b^) I don't care if I get an invitation. I'm not going. 

2. Even if the weather improves, I won't go to the beach. 

a. I'm going to the beach if the weather improves. 

b. I don't care if the weather improves. I'm not going to the beach. 

3. Whether or not you want help, I plan to be at your house at 9:00. 

a. I'm going to help you because I think you need help. 

b. I'm going to help you because you want me to. 

4. I won't tell even if someone pays me. 

a. I won't tell whether or not someone gives me money. 

b. If someone pays me enough money, I will tell. 

5. Even if John apologizes, I won't forgive him! 

a. John needs to apologize for me to forgive him. 

b. I don't care if John apologizes. It doesn't matter. 

6. I have to go to work tomorrow whether I feel better or not. 

a. Whether I go to work or not depends on how I feel. 

b. I'm going to work tomorrow no matter how I feel. 

□ Exercise 28. Looking at grammar. (Chart 1 7-8) 

Use the given information to complete sentences a. and b. 

Situation 1: Usually people need to graduate from school to get a good job. But it's different for Ed. 
Maybe Ed will graduate from school } and maybe he zvon't. It doesn't matter because he has a good job 
zvaiting for him in his father's business. 

a. Ed will get a good job whether or not .... 

— > Ed will get a good job whether or not he graduates. 

b. Ed will get a good job even if ... . 

— > Ed will get a good job even if he doesn 't graduate. 

Situation 2: Cindy's uncle tells a lot of jokes. Sometimes they're funny } and sometimes they're not. It 
doesn 't matter. 

a. Cindy laughs at the jokes whether ... or not. 

b. Cindy laughs at the jokes even if ... . 

Situation 3: Maybe you are finished zvith the exam, and maybe you're not. It doesn't matter. The 
time is up. 

a. You have to hand in your examination paper whether ... or not. 

b. You have to hand in your examination paper even if ... . 

Situation 4: It might snozv } or it might not. We don't zvant to go camping in the snow, but it doesn't 
matter. 

a. We're going to go camping in the mountains whether ... or not. 

b. We're going to go camping in the mountains even if ... . 



380 CHAPTER 17 



Situation 5: Max's family doesn't have enough money to send him to college. He would like to get a 
scholarship, but it doesn't matter because he's saved some money to go to school and has a part-time job. 

a. Max can go to school whether or not .... 

b. Max can go to school even if ... . 

Situation 6: Sometimes the weather is hot, and sometimes the weather is cold. It doesn't matter. My 
grandfather always zvears his gray szueater. 

a. My grandfather wears his gray sweater whether or not .... 

b. My grandfather always wears his gray sweater even if ... . 

Situation 7: Your approval doesn't matter to me. 

a. I'm going to marry Harry whether ... or not. 

b. I'm going to marry Harry even if ... . 



J Exercise 29. Warm-up. (Chart 17 9) 

Choose the sentence (1. or 2.) that has the same meaning as the given sentence. 
If by chance you have trouble, you can reach me at this number. 

1 . In case you have trouble, you can reach me at this number. 

2. When you have trouble, you can reach me at this number. 



17-9 Adverb Clauses of Condition: Using In Case 


(a) I'll be at my uncle's house in case you 
(should) need to reach me. 


In case expresses the idea that something probably won't happen, 
but it might. In case means "if by chance this should happen." 

note: Using should in an adverb clause emphasizes the 
speaker's uncertainty that something will happen. 



Li Exercise 30. Looking at grammar. (Chart 17-9) 

Combine each pair of sentences. Begin your new sentence with In case. 

1 . You probably won't need to get in touch with me, but maybe you will. If so 3 I'll give you 
my phone number. 

— > In case you (should) need to get in touch with me, I'll give you my phone number. 

2. You probably won't need to see me, but maybe you will. If so 3 I'll be in my office 
tomorrow morning around ten. 

3. I don't think you need any more information, but maybe you do. If so 3 you can call me. 

4. You probably don't have any more questions, but maybe you do. If so 3 ask Dr. Smith. 

5. Russ probably won't call, but maybe he will. If so 3 please tell him that I'm at the library. 

6. You will probably be satisfied with your purchase, but maybe not. If not, you can return it 
to the store. 



Adverb Clauses 381 



□ Exercise 31. Looking at grammar. (Charts 1 7-8 and 1 7-9) 

Complete the sentences with your own words. Work in pairs, in small groups, or as a class. 

1 . I have my umbrella with me just in case .... 

2. It's a good idea for you to keep a written record of your credit card numbers in case 

3. Our boss doesn't accept illness as an excuse for missing work. We have to go to work 
even if ... . 

4. I think I'd better clean up the apartment in case .... 

5. Are you planning to apply for a scholarship? If so, ... . 

6. Do you have to work this Saturday? If not, .... 

□ Exercise 32. Warm-up. (Chart 1 7-10) 

Choose the logical completions. 

1. I'll be at work on time tomorrow if there {is, isn't) a lot of heavy traffic. 

2. I'll be at work on time tomorrow unless there (is, isn't) a lot of heavy traffic. 

3. We'll have the party outside unless it is {rainy, sunny). 

4. We'll have the party inside unless it is {rainy, sunny). 



1 7-1 0 Adverb Clauses of Condition: Using Unless 




(a) I'll go swimming tomorrow unless it's cold. 

(b) I'll go swimming tomorrow if it isn't cold. 


unless = If. . . not 

In (a): unless it's cold means "if it isn't cold." 
Examples (a) and (b) have the same meaning. 



□ Exercise 33. Looking at grammar. (Chart 17-10) 

Make sentences with the same meaning as the given sentences. Use unless. 

1 . I will go to the zoo if it isn't cold. 
— > / will go to the zoo unless it's cold. 

2. You can't travel abroad if you don't have a passport. 

3. You can't get a driver's license if you're not at least sixteen years old. 

4. If I don't get some new batteries for my camera, I won't be able to take pictures when 
Laura and Rob get here. 

5. You'll get hungry during class if you don't eat breakfast. 

□ Exercise 34. Looking at grammar. (Chart 17-10) 

Complete the sentences with your own words. Work in pairs, in small groups, or as a class. 

1 . Your letter won't be delivered unless .... 

— > Your letter zvon't be delivered unless it has the correct postage. 

2. I'm sorry, but you can't see the doctor unless .... 



382 CHAPTER 17 



3. I can't graduate from school unless .... 

4. ... unless you put it in the refrigerator. 

5. Unless it rains, .... 

6. Certain species of animals will soon become extinct unless .... 

7. ... unless I get a raise in salary. 

8. Tomorrow I'm going to . . . unless .... 

9. The political situation in . . . will continue to worsen unless 
10. Unless you .... 



J Exercise 35. Warm-up. (Chart 17 11) 

Answer the questions about Scott. 

Situation: Scott closes his bedroom window at night only if it's raining hard. 

1 . Does Scott close his bedroom window if the temperature is below freezing? 

2. Does Scott close his bedroom window if it's windy outside? 

3. Does Scott close his bedroom window if there's a light rain? 

4. Does Scott close his bedroom window if there is a heavy rain? 



1 7-1 1 Adverb Clauses of Condition: Using Only If 



_ 

(a) The picnic will be canceled only if it rains. Only //expresses the idea that there is only one condition 

If it's windy, we'll go on the picnic. that will cause a particular result. 

If it's cold, we'll go on the picnic. 
If it's damp and foggy, we'll go on the picnic. 
If it's unbearably hot, we'll go on the picnic. 



(b) Only /fit rains will the picnic be canceled. When only if begins a sentence, the subject and verb of the 

main clause are inverted, as in (b).* No commas are used. 



*Other subordinating conjunctions and prepositional phrases preceded by only at the beginning of a sentence require subject-verb 
inversion in the main clause: 

Only when the teacher dismisses us can we stand and leave the room. 
Only after the phone rang did I realize that I had fallen asleep in my chair. 
Only in my hometown do I feel at ease. 



□ Exercise 36. Looking at grammar. (Chart 17-1 1) 

Check (/) the sentences that are true for this situation. 
Situation: You can take Saturday off only if you work Thursday. 

1 . You must work Thursday if you want Saturday off. 

2. You can take Saturday off if you work another day of your choice. 

3. If you work Thursday, you don't have to work Saturday. 

4. You can work Thursday, but it's not a requirement if you want Saturday off. 



Adverb Clauses 383 



Exercise 37. Looking at grammar. (Chart 17-1 1) 

Part I. Read the situations and complete the sentences. Work in pairs, in small groups, or as 
a class. 

Situation 1: John must take an additional science class in order to graduate. That is the only 
condition wider which he can graduate. If he doesn't take an additional science class, he can't 
graduate. 

He can graduate only if ... . 

— > He can graduate only if he takes an additional science class. 

Situation 2: You have to have an invitation in order to go to the party. That is the only condition 
under which you zvill be admitted. If you don't have an invitation, you can't go. 

You can go to the party only if ... . 

Situation 3: You have to have a student visa in order to study here. Unless you have a student visa, 
you can't go to school here. 

You can attend this school only if ... . 

Situation 4: Jimmy's mother doesn't zvant him to chezv gum, but sometimes he chezus it anyzuay. 
Jimmy . . . only if he's sure his mother won't find out. 

Situation 5: If you zvant to go to the movie, zve'll go. If you don 't zvant to go, zve zvon 't go. 
We . . . only if you want to. 

Situation 6: The temperature has to reach 32°F I 0°C before water will freeze. 
Water will freeze only if ... . 

Situation 7: You must study hard. Then you zvill pass the exam. 
Only if you study hard .... 

Situation 8: You have to have a ticket. Then you can get into the soccer stadium. 
Only if you have a ticket .... 

Situation 9: His parents make Steve finish his homezvork before he can zvatch TV in the evening. 
Only if Steve's homework is finished .... 

Situation 10: / have to get a job. Then I will have enough money to go to school. 
Only if I get a job .... 

Part II. Complete the sentences with your own words. 

1 . Yes, Paul, I will marry you — but only if ... . 

2. I... only if 

3. Only if 



CHAPTER 17 



u Exercise 38. Looking at grammar. (Charts 17-10 and 17-1 1) 

Make sentences with the same meaning as the given sentences. Use only if and unless. 

1 . If you don't study hard, you won't pass the test. 
— > You will pass the test only if you study hard. 

— ) You won't pass the test unless you study hard. 

2. If I don't get a job, I can't pay my bills. 

3. Your clothes won't get clean if you don't use soap. 

4. I can't take any pictures if the flash doesn't work. 

5. I don't wake up if the alarm clock doesn't ring. 

6. If eggs aren't kept at the proper temperature, they won't hatch. 

7. Don't borrow money from friends if you don't absolutely have to. 

8. Anita doesn't talk in class if the teacher doesn't ask her specific questions. 



□ Exercise 39. Looking at grammar. (Charts 17-6 ► 17-1 1) 

Combine these two sentences using the words below the example. 

It may or may not rain. The party will be held inside/outside. 

Example: if 

— > If it rains, the party will be held inside. 

— > If it doesn't rain, the party will be held outside. 

1. even if 3. incase 5. only if 

2. whether or not 4. unless 



Exercise 40. Reading and grammar. (Chapter 1 7) 

Part I. Read the passage about the ways people learn. 

How Do People Learn Best? 

How do people learn best? There is not one answer because much 
depends on individual learning styles and needs. Over 300 years 
ago, however, the noted inventor Benjamin Franklin made some 
observations regarding learning that still hold true for a great many 
learners today: "Tell me and I forget. Teach me and I remember. 
Involve me and I learn." 

Imagine that you are learning how to fold a paper airplane. The 
person teaching you presents the information verbally. She begins 
by saying: 

Take a piece of paper. 
Fold it in half. 
Open the paper. 

Look at the crease in the middle. 

Now take one corner and fold it down along the crease 




Benjamin Franklin 



Adverb Clauses 385 



The instructions continue this way. How well are you going to learn how to fold a paper 
airplane? 

Now imagine that your instructor is standing before you with paper and gives the directions 
while folding the paper herself. Will this help you more? 

Finally, imagine that both you and your instructor have paper. Each time she gives you 
instructions, both you and she fold your own papers. 

Of the three methods, which one will be the most effective in helping you learn how to fold a 
paper airplane? 

It's interesting to think about Benjamin Franklin's quote in relation to learning English. 
How do you learn English best? Is "being told" effective for you? What about "being taught"? 
How about "being involved"? 

Part II. Think about your experiences learning English vocabulary and complete the 
sentences with your own words. Punctuate carefully. 

1 . I remember new words best when 

2. I often forget the meanings of new words unless 

3. Even if I 

4. I only if 

5. If you want to increase your vocabulary, 



6. If teachers want to help their class learn new vocabulary, they 



7. Although 



8. When I am involved in my learning, I feel 



386 CHAPTER 17 



Chapter 18 



Reduction of Adverb Clauses 
to Modifying Adverbial Phrases 




LI Exercise 1. Warm-up. (Charts 1 8-1 and 18-2) 
Check (/) the sentences that are grammatically correct. 



1 . While sitting at my desk, I fell asleep. 

2. While I was sitting at my desk, I fell asleep. 

3. While was sitting at my desk, I fell asleep. 

4. Before I went into the theater, I turned off my cell phone. 

5. Before go into the theater, I turned off my cell phone. 

6. Before going into the theater, I turned off my cell phone. 



18-1 Introduction 


(a) Adverb clause: While 1 was walking to class, 1 ran 

into an old friend. 

(b) Modifying phrase: While walking to class, 1 ran into 

an old friend. 

(c) Adverb clause: Before 1 left for work, 1 ate 

breakfast. 

(d) Modifying phrase: Before leaving for work, 1 ate 

breakfast. 


In Chapter 13, we discussed changing adjective 
clauses to modifying phrases. (See Chart 13-11, 
p. 294.) Some adverb clauses may also be changed 
to modifying phrases, and the ways in which the 
changes are made are the same: 

• If there is a be form of the verb, omit the subject 
of the dependent clause and foe verb, as in (b). 

OR 

• If there is no be form of a verb, omit the subject 
and change the verb to -ing, as in (d). 


(e) Change possible: While 1 was sitting in class, 1 fell 

asleep. 

While sitting in class, 1 fell asleep. 

(f) Change possible: While Ann was sitting in class, she 

fell asleep, (clause) 

While sitting in class, Ann fell 

asleep. 


An adverb clause can be changed to a modifying 
phrase only when the subject of the adverb clause 
and the subject of the main clause are the same. 
A modifying adverbial phrase that is the reduction of 
an adverb clause modifies the subject of the main 
clause. 


(g) No change possible: While the teacher was lecturing to 
the class, 1 fell asleep.* 


No reduction (i.e., change) is possible if the subjects 
of the adverb clause and the main clause are 
different, as in (g). 


(h) incorrect: -While-watehing-TV-fastnightr the 
phone rang. 


In (h): While watching is called a "dangling modifier" 
or a "dangling participle," i.e., a modifier that is 
incorrectly "hanging alone" without an appropriate 
noun or pronoun subject to modify. 



* Wliile lecturing to the class, I fell asleep means "While / was lecturing to the class, / fell asleep." 



387 



□ Exercise 2. Looking at grammar. (Chart 18-1) 

Check (/) the sentences that are grammatically correct. 



1 . While sitting at my computer, the fire alarm went off. 

2. S While sitting at my computer, I heard the fire alarm go off. 

3. While standing on the top floor of the building., the crowd below looked like ants. 

4. While standing on the top floor of the building and looking down 3 Patrick suddenly 

felt dizzy. 

5. Before getting up 3 Mary likes to lie in her warm bed and plan her day. 

6. Before getting up., Mary's alarm clock went off three times by accident. 

7. While working on his new novel, William found himself telling the story of his 

childhood. 

8. After standing in line for hours to buy concert tickets^ the theater manager told us 

the concert was sold out. 



18-2 Changing Time Clauses to Modifying Adverbial Phrases 


(a) Clause: Since Maria came to this country, she has 

made many friends. 

(b) Phrase: Since coming to this country, Maria has 

made many friends. 


Adverb clauses beginning with after, before, while, and 
since can be changed to modifying adverbial phrases. 


(c) Clause: After he (had) finished his homework, 

Peter went to bed. 

(d) Phrase: After finishing his homework, Peter went 

to bed. 

(e) Phrase: After having finished his homework, Peter 

went to bed. 


In (c): There is no difference in meaning between After 
he finished and After he had finished. (See Chart 3-5, 
p. 50.) 

In (d) and (e): There is no difference in meaning between 
After finishing and After having finished. 


(f ) Phrase: Peter went to bed after finishing his 
homework. 




The modifying adverbial phrase may follow the main 
clause, as in (f). 



□ Exercise 3. Looking at grammar. (Charts 1 8-1 and 18-2) 

Underline the subject of the adverb clause and the subject of the main clause in each sentence. 
Change the adverb clauses to modifying adverbial phrases if possible. 

1 . While Joe was driving to school yesterday^ he had an accident. 

> Wliile driving to school yesterday, Joe had an accident. 

2. While Joe was watching TV last night, the telephone rang, {no change) 

3. Before I came to class., I had a cup of coffee. 

4. Before the student came to class., the teacher had already given a quiz. 

5. Since I came here 3 1 have learned a lot of English. 

6. Since Alberto opened his new business, he has been working 16 hours a day. 

7. Omar left the house and went to his office after he (had) finished breakfast. 



388 CHAPTER 18 



8. 
9. 
10. 



Before the waiter came to our table, I had already made up my mind to order shrimp. 

You should always read a contract before you sign your name. 

While Jack was trying to sleep last night, a mosquito kept buzzing in his ear. 




1 1. While Susan was climbing the mountain, she lost her footing and fell onto a ledge several 
feet below. 

12. After I heard Marika describe how cold it gets in Minnesota in the winter, I decided not to 
go there for my vacation in January. 

□ Exercise 4. Let's talk: interview. (Chart 18-2) 

Ask two classmates each question. Ask them to answer in complete sentences. Share some of 
their answers with the class. 

What do you do . . . 

1. before going to bed? 4. while sitting in class? 

2. after waking up? 5. before leaving school for the day? 

3. after arriving at school? 6. while preparing for a difficult exam? 



J Exercise 5. Warm-up. (Charts 18-3 and 18-4) 

Read the sentences and answer the questions. 

1 . Hiking through the woods yesterday, Alan saw a bear. 
Question: Who was hiking through the woods? 

2. Walking through the woods, the bear spotted Alan. 
Question: Who was walking through the woods? 



18-3 Expressing the Idea of "During the Same Time" 
in Modifying Adverbial Phrases 



(a) While I was walking down the street, / ran into an old friend. 

(b) While walking down the street, / ran into an old friend. 

(c) Walking down the street, / ran into an old friend. 



Sometimes while is omitted, but the -ing phrase at 
the beginning of the sentence gives the same 
meaning (i.e., "during the same time"). 

Examples (a), (b), and (c) have the same meaning. 



Reduction of Adverb Clauses to Modifying Adverbial Phrases 389 



18-4 Expressing Cause and Effect in Modifying 
Adverbial Phrases 



(a) Because she needed some money to buy a book, 
Sue cashed a check. 

(b) Needing some money to buy a book, Sue cashed a 
check. 

(c) Because he lacked [be necessary qualifications, he 
was not considered for the job. 

(d) Lacking [he necessary qualifications, he was not 
considered for the job. 



Often an -ing phrase at the beginning of a sentence gives 

the meaning of "because." 

Examples (a) and (b) have the same meaning. 

Because is not included in a modifying phrase. It is 
omitted, but the resulting phrase expresses a cause-and- 
effect relationship, as in (b) and (d). 



(e) Having seen that movie before, / don 't want to go 
again. 

(f ) Having seen that movie before, / didn't want to go 
again. 



Having + past participle gives the meaning not only of 
"because" but also of "before." 



(g) Because she was unable to afford a car, she bought 
a bicycle. 

(h) Being unable to afford a car, she bought a bicycle. 

(i ) Unable to afford a car, she bought a bicycle. 



A form of be in the adverb clause may be changed to 
being. The use of being makes the cause-and-effect 
relationship clear. 

Examples (g), (h), and (i) have the same meaning. 



□ Exercise 6. Looking at grammar. (Charts 18-3 and 18-4) 

Underline the modifying adverbial phrases and discuss their meanings. Which ones give the 
meaning of "because"? Which ones give the meaning of "while"? Do some of the sentences 
give the idea of both? 

1 . Driving to my g ran dparents' house last night , I saw a young woman who was selling 
flowers. I stopped so that I could buy some for my grandmother. (Meaning = "while") 

2. Being a widow with three children 3 Mrs. Romero has no choice but to work. 

3. Sitting on the airplane and watching the clouds pass beneath me, I let my thoughts wander 
to the new experiences that were in store for me during the next two years of living abroad. 

4. Having guessed at the answers for most of the test 3 1 did not expect to get a high score. 

5. Realizing that I had made a dreadful mistake when I introduced him as George Johnson 3 1 
walked over to him and apologized. I know his name is John George. 

6. Tapping his fingers loudly on the airline counter 3 Todd made his impatience known. 

7. Having broken her arm in a fall 3 Elena had to learn to write with her left hand. 

8. Lying on her bed in peace and quiet 3 Lisa soon forgot her troubles. 



□ Exercise 7. Looking at grammar. (Chart 18-4) 

Change the adverb clauses to modifying adverbial phrases. 

1 . Because Sam didn't want to hurt her feelings 3 he didn't tell her the bad news. 
—> Not wanting to hurt her feelings, Sain didn't tell her the bad nezvs. 

2. Because the little boy believed no one loved him 3 he ran away from home. 

3. Because I had forgotten to bring a pencil to the examination 1 had to borrow one. 

4. Because Chelsea is a vegetarian 3 she does not eat meat. 



J Exercise 8. Looking at grammar. (Charts 18-2 > 18-4) 

Choose aU the possible answers for each sentence. 

1 . Before to you, 1 had never understood that formula. 

a. talked (b?) talking (c?) I talked 

2. After the chapter four times, I finally understood the author's theory. 

a. I read b. read c. reading 

3. Since his bachelor's degree, he has had three jobs, each one better than the last. 

a. he completed b. completing c. completed 

4. across Canada, I could not help being impressed by the great differences in terrain. 

a. Traveling b. While I was traveling c. While traveling 

5. national fame, the union leader had been an electrician in a small town. 

a. Before gaining b. Gaining c. Before he gained 

6. in an airplane before, the little girl was surprised and a little frightened when her 

ears popped. 

a. Had never flown b. Having never flown c. Because she had never flown 

7. Before vice-president of marketing and sales, Peter McKay worked as a sales 

representative. 

a. became b. becoming c. he became 

8. the cool evening breeze and listening to the sounds of nature, we lost track of time. 

a. Because enjoying b. Enjoying c. We were enjoying 

9. to spend any more money this month, Jim decided against going to a restaurant for 

lunch. He made himself a sandwich instead. 

a. Not wanting b. Because he didn't want c. Because not wanting 

□ Exercise 9. Looking at grammar. (Charts 18-3 and 1 8-4) 

If possible, combine each pair of sentences by making a modifying phrase out of the first 
sentence. 

1 . The children had nothing to do. They were bored. 

> Having nothing to do, the children zuere bored. 

2. The children were bored. I offered to play a game with them, {no change) 

3. Anna kept one hand on the steering wheel. She paid the bridge toll with her free hand. 

4. Anna kept one hand on the steering wheel. Bob put the money for the bridge toll in her 
free hand. 

5. I heard that Nadia was in the hospital. I called her family to find out what was wrong. 

6. We slowly approached the door to the hospital. The nurse stepped out to help us. 

7. I live a long distance from my work. I have to commute daily by train. 

8. Abdul lives a long distance from his work. His car is essential. 

9. I am a married man. I have many responsibilities. 

10. Martha was picking strawberries in the garden. A bumblebee stung her. 

11. I recognized his face, but I had forgotten his name. I just smiled and said, "Hi." 

12. Ann was convinced that she could never learn to play the piano. She stopped taking lessons. 



Reduction of Adverb Clauses to Modifying Adverbial Phrases 391 



Exercise 10. Game. (Charts 18-3 and 18-4) 

Work in teams. Make sentences by combining the ideas in Column A and Column B. Use the 
idea in Column A as a modifying adverbial phrase. Show logical relationships. The first group 
to combine all the ideas correctly is the winner. 

Example: Having sticky pads on their feet, flies can easily walk on the ceiling. 



Column A 

1 . They have sticky pads on their feet. 

2. She has done very well in her studies. 

3. She was born two months prematurely. 

4. He had done everything he could for 
the patient. 

5. She had never eaten Thai food before. 

6. He had no one to turn to for help. 

7. They are extremely hard and nearly 
indestructible. 

8. They are able to crawl into very small 
places. 



Column B 

a. Marta didn't know what to expect when 
she went to the Thai restaurant for dinner. 

b. Mice can hide in almost any part of a 
house. 

c. Sayid was forced to work out the problem 
by himself. 

d. The doctor left to attend other people. 

e. Nancy expects to be hired by a top 
company after graduation. 

f. Diamonds are used extensively in industry 
to cut other hard minerals. 

/g. Flies can easily walk on the ceiling, 
h. Monique needed special care for the first 
few days of her life. 



□ Exercise 11. Looking at grammar. (Charts 18-1 > 18-4) 

Check (/) the sentences that are grammatically correct. Rewrite the incorrect sentences. 

1 . S After leaving the theater 3 we stopped at a coffee shop for a late-night snack. 

2. After leaving the theater 3 Tom's car wouldn't start 3 so we had to take a taxi home. 

> After zve left the theater, Tom 's car zvouldn } t start, so zve had to take a taxi home. 
■ > After leaving the theater, we discovered that Tom 's car zvouldn 't start, so zve took a taxi 
home. 

3. Not wanting to interrupt the conversation I stood quietly and listened until I could 

have a chance to talk. 

4. Being too young to understand death 3 my mother gave me a simple explanation of 

where my grandfather had gone. 

5. When asked to explain his mistake 3 the new employee cleared his throat nervously. 

6. While working in my office late last night, someone suddenly knocked loudly at my 

door and nearly scared me to death! 

7. After hurrying to get ready for the picnic, it began to rain just as we were leaving. 

8. While walking across the street at a busy intersection a truck nearly hit me. 



392 CHAPTER 18 



□ Exercise 12. Warm-up. (Chart 18-5) 

Which sentences have the same meaning? 

1 . When Sharon heard the news of her friend's death, she began to cry. 

2. Upon hearing the news of her friend's death, Sharon began to cry. 

3. On hearing the news of her friend's death, Sharon began to cry. 



18-5 Using Uj 




idifying Adverbial Phrases 


(a) Upon reaching the age of 21 , 1 received my 
inheritance. 

(b) When 1 reached the age of 21 , 1 received my 
inheritance. 


Modifying adverbial phrases beginning with upon + -ing usually 
have the same meaning as adverb clauses introduced by when. 

Examples (a) and (b) have the same meaning. 


(c) On reaching the age of 21 , I received my 
inheritance. 


Upon can be shortened to on. 

Examples (a), (b), and (c) all have the same meaning. 



□ Exercise 13. Looking at grammar. (Chart 18-5) 

Make sentences using upon + -ing. 

1 . When Carl saw his wife and child get off the airplane, he broke into a big smile. 

► Upon seeing his zvife and child get off the airplane, Carl broke into a big smile. 

2. When Tina crossed the marathon finish line, she fell in exhaustion. 

3. When I looked in my wallet, I saw I didn't have enough money to pay my restaurant bill. 




4. Sam found that he had made a math error when he re-read the data. 

5. When you finish the examination, bring your paper to the front of the room. 

6. There must have been 300 students in the room on the first day of class. The professor 
slowly read through the list of names. When I heard my name, I raised my hand to identify 
myself. 

7. Captain Cook had been sailing for many weeks with no land in sight. Finally, one of the 
sailors shouted, "Land ho!" When he heard this, Cook grabbed his telescope and searched 
the horizon. 



Reduction of Adverb Clauses to Modifying Adverbial Phrases 393 



Li Exercise 14. Looking at grammar. (Charts 1 8-1 > 18-5) 

Change the adverb clause in each sentence to a modifying adverbial phrase if possible. Change 
punctuation, capitalization, and word order as necessary. 

1 . After it spends some time in a cocoon, a caterpillar will emerge as a butterfly. 

> After spending some time in a cocoon, a caterpillar zvill emerge as a butterfly. 

2. When the movie started, it suddenly got very quiet inside the theater, (no change) 

3. When we entered the theater, we handed the usher our tickets. 

■> Upon entering the theater, zve handed the usher our tickets. 

4. Because I was unprepared for the test, I didn't do well. 

> Being unprepared for the test, I didn't do zvell. OR Unprepared for the test, I didn't do zvell. 

5. Before I left on my trip, I checked to see what shots I would need. 

6. Jane's family hasn't received any news from her since she arrived in Kenya two weeks ago. 

7. Because I hadn't understood the directions, I got lost. 

8. My father reluctantly agreed to let me attend the game after he had talked it over with 
my mother. 

9. When I discovered I had lost my key to the apartment, I called the building 
superintendent. 

10. Because the forest area is so dry this summer, it is prohibited to light campfires. 

1 1 . After we had to wait for more than half an hour, we were finally seated at the restaurant. 

□ Exercise 1 5. Let's talk. (Chapter 1 8) 

Work in small groups. Imagine your friend is traveling to a foreign country and has never been 
abroad before. Give advice by making several suggestions for each item. 

1 . Before leaving on your trip, . . . 
- > you'll need to get a visa. 

> you should find out if you need immunizations, 
give a friend or family member your itinerary. 

> don't forget to have someone pick up your mail. 

2. Upon arriving at the airport, . . . 

3. After getting to your destination, . . . 

4. When talking with the local people, . . . 

5. While visiting tourist sites, . . . 

6. Before leaving for home, . . . 

7. In general, when traveling to a foreign country, . . . 




394 CHAPTER 18 



Exercise 16. Listening. (Chapter 18) 

Listen to each conversation. Choose the sentence (a. or b.) that has the same meaning. 

Example: You will hear: A: William 3 don't forget to pick up some groceries after work. 

B: Oh yeahj thanks. That's the first thing I'll do when I leave 
the office. 

You will choose: (aj) After leaving work 3 William will stop at the grocery store. 

b. Before leaving work 3 William will pick up some groceries. 

1. a. Fearing people will laugh at her if she plays the piano, Rose doesn't want to play at the 

family gathering. 

b. Knowing she plays beautifully 3 Rose is happy to play the piano at the family gathering. 

2. a. Not wanting to upset him 3 Jan isn't going to talk to Thomas this afternoon. 

b. Hoping to change Thomas' work behavior 3 Jan is going to talk to him this afternoon. 

3. a. Upon finding her wedding ring 3 Susan hid it in a box. 
b. On finding her wedding ring 3 Susan felt relieved. 

4. a. Never having voted in an election 3 Sam is taking it very seriously. 

b. Having done a lot of research before choosing a candidate 3 Sam voted in the 
presidential election. 

Exercise 17. Reading and grammar. (Chapter 18) 

Part I. Read the passage and underline the modifying adverbial phrases. 

The First Telephone 

Alexander Graham Bell 3 a teacher of the deaf in Boston 3 invented the first telephone. One 
day in 1875 3 while running a test on his latest attempt to create a machine that could carry 
voices , he accidentally spilled acid on his coat. Naturally 3 he called for his assistant Thomas A. 
Watson 3 who was in another room. Bell said 3 "Mr. Watson 3 come here. I want you." Upon 
hearing words coming from the machine 3 Watson immediately realized that their experiments 
had at last been successful. He rushed excitedly into the other room to tell Bell that he had 
heard his words over the machine. 

After successfully testing the new machine again and again 3 Bell confidently announced his 
invention to the world. For the most part 3 scientists appreciated his accomplishment but the 
general public did not understand the revolutionary nature of Bell's invention. Believing the 
telephone was a toy with little practical application most people paid little attention to Bell's 
announcement. 



Reduction of Adverb Clauses to Modifying Adverbial Phrases 395 



Part II. Read the statements. Circle "T" for true and "F" for false. 

1. Bell was testing a machine when Watson made a discovery. 

2. Watson heard words coming from the machine. 

3. Watson tested the new device again and again. 

4. Bell announced his phone was a toy. 



T F 

T F 

T F 

T F 



□ Exercise 18. Listening. (Chapter 18) 

Part I. Look at the picture of the keyboard while listening to the lecture. 



CD 2 
Track 27 



Shift 



HUB! 



EDED 



QWERTY keyboard 



Part II. Read the statements. Circle "T" for true and "F" for false. 

1 . While working on a typewriter design, Sholes came up up with 

more than one pattern for the keyboard. T F 

2. Upon discovering that the keys hit one another if the letters were 
in alphabetical order, Sholes developed a keyboard called 

"QWERTY." T F 

3. Needing a keyboard that allowed typists to type letters as rapidly 

as possible, Sholes decided his design would be the best choice. T F 

4. Having a long history of successful use, QWERTY is not likely to 

be replaced any time soon. T F 



396 CHAPTER 18 



Chapter 19 



Connectives That Express 
Cause and Effect, Contrast, 
and Condition 




□ Exercise 1. Warm-up. (Chart 19-1) 

Which sentences express the same meaning as the given situation? 

Situation: Monday was a holiday. 
Result: All schools were closed. 

1 . All schools were closed on Monday because it was a holiday. 

2. Because of the holiday, all schools were closed on Monday. 

3. Due to the holiday, all schools were closed on Monday. 

4. Due to the fact that it was a holiday, all schools were closed on Monday. 

5. Because all schools were closed on Monday, it was a holiday. 





(a) Because the weather was cold, we stayed home. 


Because introduces an adverb clause; it is 
followed by a subject and a verb, as in (a). 


(b) Because of the cold weather, we stayed home. 

(c) Due to the cold weather, we stayed home. 


Because of and due to are phrasal prepositions; 
they are followed by a noun object, as in (b) and (c). 


(d) Due to the fact that the weather was cold, we stayed home. 


Sometimes (usually in more formal writing) due to 
is followed by a noun clause introduced by the 
fact that. 


(e) We stayed home because of the cold weather. 
We stayed home due to the cold weather. 
We stayed home due to the fact that the weather was cold. 


Like adverb clauses, these phrases can also 
follow the main clause, as in (e). 



□ Exercise 2. Looking at grammar. (Charts 17-3 and 19-1) 

Identify the cause and effect in each pair of sentences. Then combine the sentences with because. 

1 . Jon is a heavy smoker. Jon has breathing problems. 

2. Martina feels homesick. Martina moved to a new town. 

3. Mr. Jordan's house has no heat. Mr. Jordan lost his job. 

4. Victor has gained weight. Victor is going to eat less. 



397 



□ Exercise 3. Looking at grammar. (Charts 1 7-3 and 19-1) 

Complete the sentences with because or because of. 

1 . We postponed our trip the bad driving conditions. 

2. Sue's eyes were red she had been swimming in a chlorinated pool. 

3. We can't visit the museum tomorrow it isn't open. 

4. Jim had to give up jogging his sprained ankle. 

5. heavy fog at the airport, our plane was delayed for several hours. 

6. the elevator was broken, we had to walk up six flights of stairs. 

7. Thousands of Irish people emigrated to the United States the potato 

famine in Ireland in the mid- 19th century. 

□ Exercise 4. Looking at grammar. (Chart 19-1) 

Complete the sentences with the ideas in parentheses. 

1. (The traffic zuas heavy.) We were late to the meeting due to the heavy traffic 

2. (Bill's zuife is ill.) Bill has to do all of the cooking and cleaning because of 



3. (It zuas noisy in the next apartment.) I couldn't get to sleep last night because of 



4. (Our parents are generous.) Because of 



all of the children in our family have received the best of everything. 
(Circumstances are beyond our control. ) Due to 



., our office is closed today. 



□ Exercise 5. Warm-up. (Chart 19-2) 

Check (/) the sentences that logically complete the idea of the given sentence. 
Nadia likes fresh vegetables. 



1. Therefore, she has a vegetable garden in her yard. 

2. As a result, she doesn't grow her own vegetables. 

3. Therefore, she buys canned vegetables at the store. 

4. As a result, she buys produce from local farmers. 

5. She eats a lot of frozen vegetables, therefore. 

6. Consequently, she eats produce from her garden. 



398 CHAPTER 19 



19-2 Cause and Effect: Using Therefore, Consequently, and So 


(a) Al failed the test because he didn't study. 

(b) Al didn't study. Therefore, he failed the test. 

(c) Al didn't study. Consequently, he failed the test. 


Examples (a), (b), and (c) have the same meaning. 
Therefore and consequently mean "as a result." In 
grammar, they are called transitions (or conjunctive adverbs). 

Transitions connect the ideas between two sentences. They 
are used most commonly in formal written English and rarely 
in spoken English. 


(d) Al didn't study. Therefore, he failed the test. 

(e) Al didn't study. He, therefore, failed the test. 

(f) Al didn't study. He failed the test, therefore. 

POSITIONS OF a transition: 

transition + S + V (+ rest of sentence) 
S + transition + V (+ rest of sentence) 
S + V (+ rest of sentence) + transition 


A transition occurs in the second of two related sentences. 

Notice the patterns and punctuation in the examples. A 
period (not a comma) is used at the end of the first 
sentence.* The transition has several positions in the second 
sentence. The transition is separated from the rest of the 
sentence by commas. 


(g) Al didn't study, so he failed the test. 


In (g): So is used as a conjunction between two independent 
clauses. It has the same meaning as therefore. 

Sn i<? rnmmnn in hnth formal writtpn and ^nnkpn Fnnli^h A 

wi/ 10 uui i ii 1 1 ui i ill uvii i iwiiiiui vviiiidi uiivj ouui\ci i i i ly noi i . n 

comma usually precedes so when it connects two sentences, 
as in (g). 



*A semicolon is also possible in this situation. See the footnote to Chart 19-3. 



□ Exercise 6. Looking at grammar. (Chart 19-2) 

Rewrite the sentence with the given words. Punctuate carefully. 
The children stayed home because a storm zvas approaching. 

1 . therefore 

2. consequently 

3. so 

J Exercise 7. Looking at grammar. (Charts 17-3, 1 9-1, and 19-2) 

Punctuate the sentences. Add capital letters as necessary, note: Two sentences need no 
changes. 



1. 


adverb clause: 


Because it was cold she wore a coat. 


2. 


adverb clause: 


She wore a coat because it was cold. 


3. 


prepositional phrase: 


Because of the cold weather she wore a coat. 


4. 


prepositional phrase: 


She wore a coat because of the cold weather. 


5. 


transition: 


The weather was cold therefore she wore a coat. 


6. 


transition: 


The weather was cold she wore a coat therefore. 


7. 


conjunction: 


The weather was cold so she wore a coat. 



Connectives That Express Cause and Effect, Contrast, and Condition 399 



□ Exercise 8. Looking at grammar. (Charts 1 7-3, 1 9-1, and 19-2) 

Punctuate the sentences. Add capital letters as necessary. 

1. Pat always enjoyed studying sciences in high school therefore she decided to major in 
biology in college. 

2. Due to recent improvements in the economy fewer people are unemployed. 

3. Last night's storm damaged the power lines consequently the town was without electricity. 

4. Due to the snowstorm only five students came to class the teacher therefore canceled the class. 

□ Exercise 9. Warm-up. (Chart 19-3) 

Check (/) the sentences that have the correct punctuation. 

1. Doctors sometimes recommend yoga for their patients. Because it can lower stress. 

2. Because yoga can lower stress doctors sometimes recommend it for their patients. 

3. Yoga can lower stress. Doctors^ therefore^ sometimes recommend it for their patients. 

4. Yoga can lower stress^ so doctors sometimes recommend it for their patients. 



19-3 Summary of Patterns and Punctuation 


Adverb Clauses 


(a) Because it was hot, we went swimming. 

(b) We went swimming because it was hot. 


An adverb clause may precede or follow an 
independent clause. 

punctuation: A comma is used if the adverb 
clause comes first. 


Prepositions 


(c) Because of the hot weather, we went 
swimming. 

(d) We went swimming because of the hot 
weather. 


A preposition is followed by a noun object, not 
by a subject and verb. 

punctuation: A comma is usually used if the 
prepositional phrase precedes the subject and 
verb of the independent clause. 


Transitions 


(e) It was hot. Therefore, we went swimming. 

(f) It was hot. We, therefore, went swimming. 

(g) It was hot. We went swimming, therefore. 


A transition is used with the second sentence of 
a pair. It shows the relationship of the second 
idea to the first idea. A transition is movable 
within the second sentence. 
punctuation: A period is used between the two 
independent clauses.* A comma may not be 
used to separate the clauses. Commas are 
usually used to set the transition off from the 
rest of the sentence. 


Conjunctions 


(h) It was hot, so we went swimming. 


A conjunction comes between two independent 
clauses. 

punctuation: Usually a comma is used 
immediately in front of a conjunction. 



*A semicolon ( ; ) may be used instead of a period between the two independent clauses. 

It zuas hot; therefore, zee went sivhmning. 

It zcas liot; zee, therefore, went swimming. 

It zcas hot; zee went swimming, therefore. 
In general, a semicolon can be used instead of a period between any two sentences that are closely related in meaning: Peanuts are 
not nuts; they are beans. Notice diat a small letter, NOT a capital letter, immediately follows a semicolon. 



400 CHAPTER 19 



□ Exercise 10. Looking at grammar. (Charts 17-3 and 19-3) 

Combine the sentences using the given words. Discuss correct punctuation. 
We postponed our trip. The weather was bad. 

Example: because > We postponed our trip because the zveatJier was bad. 

> Because the zveather zvas bad, we postponed our trip. 

1. therefore 3. so 5. consequently 

2. since 4. because of 6. due to the fact that 

□ Exercise 11. Looking at grammar. (Charts 17-3, 19-2, and 19-3) 

Combine each pair of ideas with the words in parentheses. 

1. My cell phone doesn't work. The battery is dead, {because) 

> My cell phone doesn't zvork because the battery is dead. OR 

► Because the battery is dead, my cell phone doesn't zvork. 

2. Pat doesn't want to return to the Yukon to live. The winters are too severe, (because) 

3. It is important to wear a hat on cold days. We lose sixty percent of our body heat through 
our head, (since) 

4. Bill couldn't pick us up after the concert. His car wouldn't start, (therefore) 

5 . When I was in my teens and twenties, it was easy for me to get into an argument with my 
father. Both of us can be stubborn and opinionated, (because) 

6. A camel can go completely without water for eight to ten days. It is an ideal animal for 
desert areas, (due to the fact that) 

7. Robert emailed the software company for technical support. He got some new business 
software that didn't work, (so) 

8. A tomato is classified as a fruit, but most people consider it a vegetable. It is often eaten in 
salads along with lettuce, onions, cucumbers, and other vegetables, (since) 

9. There is consumer demand for ivory. Many African elephants are being slaughtered 
ruthlessly. Many people who care about saving these animals from extinction refuse to buy 
any item made from ivory, (due to, consequently) 

10. Most 15th-century Europeans believed the world was flat and that a ship could 

conceivably sail off the end of the earth. Many sailors of the time refused to venture 
forth with explorers into unknown waters, (because) 

□ Exercise 12. Warm-up. (Chart 19-4) 

Read about Alan and Lisa. Imagine their reactions as parents and complete the sentences with 
phrases in the list or your own ideas. What do you notice about so/such and the words in blue? 

Situation: Alan and Lisa are the proud parents of triplets. Before their triplets were born, 
however, they were told they were going to have twins. Imagine their surprise when they found 
out they were the parents of three babies. Alan was incredibly happy. Lisa was utterly exhausted. 

began to cry couldn't laugh or cry fell asleep 

called friends danced around the room went into shock 

1. Ed was so happy that he ... . 3. Ed was such a happy dad that he ... . 

2. Lisa was so tired that she .... 4. Lisa was such a tired mom that she .... 



Connectives That Express Cause and Effect, Contrast, and Condition 401 



19-4 Other Ways of Expressing Cause and Effect: 
Such . . . That and So . . . That 


(a) Because the weather was nice, we went to the zoo. 

(b) It was such nice weather that we went to the zoo. 

(c ) The weather was so nice that we went to the zoo. 


Examples (a), (b), and (c) have the same 
meaning. 


(d) It was such good coffee that 1 had another cup. 

(e) It was such a foggy day that we couldn't see the road. 


Such . . . that encloses a modified noun: 
such + adjective + noun + that 


( f ) The coffee is so hot that 1 can't drink it. 

(g) I'm so hungry that 1 could eat a horse. 

(h) She speaks so fast that 1 can't understand her. 

( i ) He walked so quickly that 1 couldn't keep up with him. 


So... that encloses an adjective or adverb: 
(adjective } 
so+ I or > + that 
{ adverb ) 


( j ) She made so many mistakes that she failed the exam. 

( k) He has so few friends that he is always lonely. 

( 1 ) She has so much money that she can buy whatever she wants. 

(m) He had so little trouble with the test that he left twenty minutes early. 


So . . . that is used with many, few, 
much, and little. 


(n) It was such a good book (that) 1 couldn't put it down. 

(o) 1 was so hungry (that) 1 didn't wait for dinner to eat something. 


Sometimes, primarily in speaking, that is 
omitted. 



□ Exercise 13. Looking at grammar. (Chart 19-4) 

Complete the sentences with so or such. 

1. It was euch an enjoyable party that no one wanted to leave. 

2. The party was 50 enjoyable that no one wanted to leave. 

3. We had eo much fun that no one wanted to leave. 

4. Maya is afraid of flying that she travels by train or bus. 

5. You've been kind that I don't know how to thank you. 

6. The article had little current information that it wasn't useful. 

7. The teacher has repeated herself many times that it's becoming a joke. 

8. It was a long trip abroad that I got very homesick. 

9. My elderly aunt has few friends that I am beginning to worry about her. 

□ Exercise 14. Let's talk. (Chart 19 4) 

Work in small groups. Take turns making sentences using solsuch . . . that with the given 
ideas. Try to exaggerate your answers. Share your favorite sentences with the class. 

Example: I'm hungry. In fact 3 I'm .... 

> I'm so hungry. In fact, I'm so hungry (that) I could eat a horse. 

1 . I'm really tired. In fact 3 I'm .... 

2. I didn't expect it! I was really surprised. In fact 3 1 was .... 



402 CHAPTER 19 



3. I took a very slow bus to town. In fact, it was .... 

4. I saw a shark while I was swimming in the ocean. I was frightened. In fact, I was .... 

5. We rented a video. It was a very exciting movie. In fact, it was .... 

6. The weather was really, really hot. In fact, it was .... 

7. My wallet fell out of my pocket and I lost a lot of money. In fact, I lost .... 

8. I ordered an expensive meal at a restaurant. The server brought a small plate with a tiny 
amount of food to your table. In fact, it was .... 



Exercise 15. Looking at grammar. (Chart 19-4) 

Make sentences using so or such by combining the ideas in Column A and Column B. 
Example: The wind was strong. ► The zvind zvas so strong that it blezv my hat off my head. 





Column A 




Column B 


1. 


The wind was strong. 


a. 


It burned my tongue. 


2. 


The radio was too loud. 


b. 


She was fired from her job. 


3. 


Olga did poor work. 


/c. 


It blew my hat off my head. 


4. 


The food was too hot. 


d. 


The teacher postponed the test. 


5. 


There are many leaves on a single tree. 


e. 


It is impossible to count them. 


6. 


The tornado struck with great force. 


f. 


It lifted cars off the ground. 


7. 


Few students showed up for class. 


g- 


I couldn't hear what Michael was 


8. 


Charles used too much paper when he 




saying. 




was writing his report. 


h. 


The wastepaper basket overflowed. 




Exercise 16. Warm-up. (Chart 19-5) 

Check (/) the sentences that correctly complete the given sentence. 

Kay got a new job so that . . . 

1. she could be closer to home. 

2. she is very excited. 

3. her husband is taking her out to dinner to celebrate. 

4. she could earn more money. 



Connectives That Express Cause and Effect, Contrast, and Condition 403 





(a) 1 turned off the TV in order to enable my roommate 
to study in peace and quiet. 

(b) 1 turned off the TV so (that) my roommate could 
study in peace and quiet. 


In order to expresses purpose. (See Chart 1 5-1 , p. 331 .) 

In (a): I turned off the TV for a purpose. The purpose 
was to make it possible for my roommate to study in 
peace and quiet. 


So That + Can or Could 


(c) I'm going to cash a check so that 1 can buy my 

textbooks. 

(d) 1 cashed a check so that 1 could buy my textbooks. 


So that also expresses purpose* It expresses the same 
meaning as in order to. The word "that" is often omitted, 
especially in speaking. 

So that is often used instead of in order to when the 
idea of ability is being expressed. Can is used in the 
adverb clause for a present/future meaning. 

In (c): so that 1 can buy = in order to be able to buy 

Could is used after so that in past sentences, as in (d).** 


So That + Willi Would or Simple Present 


(e) I'll take my umbrella so that 1 won't get wet. 

(f) Yesterday 1 took my umbrella so that 1 wouldn't 

get wet. 

(g) I'll take my umbrella so that 1 don't get wet. 


In (e): so that 1 won't get wet = in order to make sure 
that ) won't get wet 

Would is used in past sentences, as in (f). 

In (g): It is sometimes possible to use the simple present 
after so that in place of will; the simple present 
expresses a future meaning. 



*Note: In order that has the same meaning as so that but is less commonly used. 

Example: / turned off the TV in order that my roommate could study in peace and quiet. 
Both so that and in order that introduce adverb clauses. It is unusual but possible to put these adverb clauses at the beginning 
of a sentence: So that my roommate could study in peace and quiet, I turned off the TV. 



**Also possible but less common: the use of may or might in place of can or could (e.g., / cashed a check so that I might buy 
my textbooks.). 

d Exercise 17. Looking at grammar. (Chart 19-5) 

Combine each set of ideas by using so (that). 

1 . Please turn down the radio. I want to be able to get to sleep. 

> Please turn down the radio so (that) I can get to sleep. 

2. My wife turned down the radio. I wanted to be able to get to sleep. 

> My wife turned dozen the radio so (that) I could get to sleep. 

3. Put the milk in the refrigerator. We want to make sure it won't (or doesn't) spoil. 
-> Put the milk in the refrigerator so (that) it won't (OR doesn't) spoil. 

4. I put the milk in the refrigerator. I wanted to make sure it didn't spoil. 

> I put the milk in the refrigerator so (that) it wouldn't spoil. 

5. Please be quiet. I want to be able to hear what Sharon is saying. 

6. I asked the children to be quiet. I wanted to be able to hear what Sharon was saying. 

7. I'm going to cash a check. I want to make sure that I have enough money to go to 
the store. 

8. I cashed a check yesterday. I wanted to make sure that I had enough money to go to 
the store. 



404 CHAPTER 19 



9. Ann and Larry have a six-year-old child. Tonight they're going to hire a babysitter. They 
want to be able to go out with some friends. 

10. Last week Ann and Larry hired a babysitter. They wanted to be able to go to a dinner 
party at the home of Larry's boss. 

11. Be sure to put the meat in the oven at 5:00. You want to be sure that it will be (or is) 
ready to eat by 6:30. 

12. Yesterday I put the meat in the oven at 5:00. I wanted it to be ready to eat by 6:30. 

13. I'm going to leave the party early. I want to be able to get a good night's sleep tonight. 

14. When it started to rain, Harry opened his umbrella. He wanted to be sure he didn't 
get wet. 

15. The little boy pretended to be sick. He wanted to stay home from school. 

j Exercise 18. Looking at grammar. (Charts 19-2 and 19-5) 

Add that to the sentence if so means in order that. If so means therefore, add a comma. 

that 

1 . I borrowed some money so A I could pay my rent. 

2. I didn't have enough money for a movie, so I went home and watched TV. 

3. I need a visa so I can travel overseas. 

4. I needed a visa so I went to the embassy to apply for one. 

5. Marta is trying to improve her English so she can become a tour guide. 

6. Olga wants to improve her English so she has hired a tutor. 

7. Tarek borrowed money from his parents so he could start his own business. 

8. I turned off the TV so I could concentrate on my paperwork. 

J Exercise 19. Warm-up. (Chart 19-6) 

Usually when someone breaks an arm, he/she goes to a doctor. That is expected behavior. 
Answer the same question about expected behavior for each statement. Circle yes or no. 



EXPECTED 
BEHAVIOR? 



1 . Ron broke his arm, but he didn't go to the doctor. 

2. Joe went to the doctor because he broke his arm. 

3. Sue broke her arm, so she went to the doctor. 

4. Amy broke her arm; nevertheless, she didn't go to the doctor. 

5. Despite having a broken arm. Rick didn't go to the doctor. 

6. Eva was in so much pain from her broken arm that she went to 



yes 



yes 



yes 



yes 



yes 



no 



no 



no 



no 



no 



the doctor. 



yes 



no 



7. Jeff broke his arm; therefore, he went to the doctor. 



yes 



no 



Connectives That Express Cause and Effect, Contrast, and Condition 405 



19-6 Showing Contrast (Unexpected Result) 



All of these sentences have the same meaning. The idea of cold weather is contrasted with the idea of going 
swimming. Usually if the weather is cold, one does not go swimming, so going swimming in cold weather is an 
"unexpected result." It is surprising that the speaker went swimming in cold weather. 



Adverb Clauses 


even though 

aiiiiuuyii 

though 


(a) Even though it was cold, 1 went swimming. 

( Y}\ AltHniinH it m/oc nnlri 1 u/Pnt c\A/imminn 
\*J ) /aiiiiuuyii it We/o ou/u, i wci 1 1 own i n i ill iu . 

( c) Though it was cold, 1 went swimming. 


Conjunctions 


but . . . anyway 

hi it ctill 

UUl . . . btlll 

yet . . . still 


( d) It was cold, but 1 went swimming anyway. 

( &\ It u/ac r*nlH Hi it 1 cf/// w/pnt c\A/imminn 
^ c j ii vvcto ouiu , uul i oi/ff wci 1 1 own i ii i in ly . 

( f ) It was cold, yet 1 sf/7/went swimming. 


Transitions 


nevertheless 
nonetheless 
however . . . still 


(g) It was cold. Nevertheless, 1 went swimming. 

( h) It was cold; nonetheless, 1 went swimming. 

( i ) It was cold. However, 1 still went swimming. 


Prepositions 


despite 

in spite of 

despite the fact that 

in spite of the fact that 


( j ) 1 went swimming despite the cold weather. 

( k) 1 went swimming in spite of the cold weather. 

(1)1 went swimming despite the fact that the weather was cold. 

(m) 1 went swimming in spite of the fact that the weather was cold. 



□ Exercise 20. Looking at grammar. (Charts 19-2 and 19-6) 

Complete the sentences with inside or outside to make logical statements. 

1. It rained, but we still had our wedding . 

2. It rained, so we had our wedding 

3. It rained; nevertheless, we had our wedding . 

4. Though it rained, we had our wedding . 

5. Even though it rained, we had our wedding 

6. Although it rained, we had our wedding . 

7. Despite the fact that it rained, we had our wedding 

8. It rained; therefore, we had our wedding 

□ Exercise 21. Looking at grammar. (Chart 19-6) 

Complete the sentences with am or am not to make logical statements. 

1 . The roads are icy; nevertheless, I going shopping. 

2. Though the roads are icy, I staying home. 

3. Even though the roads are icy, I going shopping. 

4. I going shopping although the roads are icy. 

5. The roads are icy, yet I going shopping anyway. 

6. Despite the fact that the roads are icy, I staying home. 

7. In spite of the icy roads, I going shopping. 

406 CHAPTER 19 



j Exercise 22. Looking at grammar. (Chart 19-6) 

Complete the sentences with the given words. Notice the use of punctuation and 
capitalization. 

Part I. Complete the sentences with but, even though, or nevertheless. 



1. 


Bob ate a large dinner. 


, he is still hungry. 


2. 


Bob ate a large dinner, 


he is still hungry 


3. 


Bob is still hungry 


he ate a large dinner. 


4. 


I had a lot of studying to do, 


T went to a movie anyway 


5. 


T had a lot of studying to do. 


, T went to a movie. 


u. 


T had a lot of studying to do, I went to a movie. 


7. 


I finished all of my work 


T was very sleepy. 


8. 


I was very sleepy, 


T finished all of my work anyway. 


9. 


I was very sleepy. 


3 1 finished all of my work. 



Part II. Complete the sentences with yet, although, or however. 

10. I washed my hands. , they still looked dirty. 

11. I washed my hands, they still looked dirty. 

12. I washed my hands, they still looked dirty. 

13. Diana didn't know how to swim, she jumped into the pool. 

14. Diana didn't know how to swim, she jumped into the pool. 

15. Diana didn't know how to swim. , she jumped into the pool. 



□ Exercise 23. Looking at grammar. (Chart 19-6) 

Add commas, periods, and capital letters as necessary. Do not add, omit, or change any words. 

1. Anna's father gave her some good advice nevertheless she did not follow it. 

► Anna's father gave her some good advice. Nevertheless, she did not follow it. 

2. Anna's father gave her some good advice but she didn't follow it. 

3. Even though Anna's father gave her some good advice she didn't follow it. 

4. Anna's father gave her some good advice she did not follow it however. 

5. Thomas was thirsty I offered him some water he refused it. 

6. Thomas refused the water although he was thirsty. 

7. Thomas was thirsty nevertheless he refused the glass of water I brought him. 

8. Thomas was thirsty yet he refused to drink the water that I offered him. 



Connectives That Express Cause and Effect, Contrast, and Condition 407 



□ Exercise 24. Looking at grammar. (Chart 19-6) 

Combine the sentences using the given words. Discuss correct punctuation. Use the negative 
if necessary to make a logical statement. 

His grades were low. He was admitted to the university. 

1. even though 4. nonetheless 

2. but . . . anyway 5. despite 

3. yet . . . still 6. because of 



□ Exercise 25. Warm-up. (Chart 19-7) 

Read the question and the answers that follow. Which answers express "direct contrast," i.e., 
the idea that "this" is the opposite of "that"? 




What is the difference between hurricanes and tornadoes? 

1. Hurricanes develop over warm oceans while tornadoes form over land. 

2. Hurricanes develop while they are traveling over warm ocean water. 

3. Hurricanes develop over warm oceans, but tornadoes form over land. 

4. Hurricanes develop over warm oceans, however, tornadoes form over land. 

5. Hurricanes develop over warm oceans; on the other hand, tornadoes form over land. 



1 9-7 Showing Direct Contrast 



All of the sentences have the same meaning: "This" is the opposite of "that." 



Adverb Clauses 


while 


(a) Mary is rich, while John is poor* 

(b) John is poor, while Mary is rich. 


Conjunctions 


but 


(c) Mary is rich, but John is poor. 

(d) John is poor, but Mary is rich. 


Transitions 


however 

on the other hand 


(e) Mary is rich; however, John is poor. 

(f) John is poor; Mary is rich, however. 

(g) Mary is rich. John, on the other hand, is poor. 

(h) John is poor. Mary on the other hand, is rich. 



*Sometimes a comma precedes a zvhile-clause that shows direct contrast. A comma helps clarify that zvhile is being used to express 
contrast rather than time. The use of a comma in this instance is a stylistic choice by the writer. 



408 CHAPTER 19 



□ Exercise 26. Looking at grammar. (Chart 19-7) 

Make two sentences with the same meaning as the given sentence. Use however or on the 
other hand. Punctuate carefully. 

1. Florida has a warm climate 3 while Alaska has a cold climate. 

2. While Fred is a good student 3 his brother is lazy. 

3. Elderly people in my country usually live with their children, but the elderly in the United 
States often live by themselves. 



J Exercise 27. Looking at grammar. (Chart 19-7) 

Complete the sentences with your own words. 

1. Some people really enjoy swimming 3 while others . . . are afraid of zuater. 

2. In the United States 3 people drive on the right-hand side of the road. However 3 people 
in ... . 

3. While my desk always seems to be a mess 3 my .... 

4. My oldest son is shy 3 while my youngest son .... 



Exercise 28. Let's talk or write. (Chart 19 7) 

Part I. Read the information below about extroverts and introverts. Make several sentences 
with the words in the list 3 either orally or in writing using the words but, however, on the 
other hand, or while. 

General Characteristics of Extroverts and Introverts 



Extroverts . . . 

like to be the center of attention. 

like to talk more than listen. 

enjoy meeting people. 

prefer being active. 

like to work in groups. 

don't always think before speaking. 

don't mind noise. 

like crowds. 

are energized by being with others. 



Introverts . . . 

are uncomfortable being the center of attention. 

like to listen more than talk. 

are reserved when meeting people. 

like to spend time alone. 

don't like to work in groups. 

think carefully before speaking. 

prefer the quiet. 

avoid crowds. 

can find it tiring to spend time with others. 



Examples: 

> Extroverts like to talk more than listen, while introverts like to listen more than talk. 

> Introverts like to listen more than talk. Extroverts, however, like to talk more than listen. 

Part II. Are you an extrovert or introvert? Compare yourself to someone you know who is 
different from you. Make several sentences. 



□ Exercise 29. Let's talk. (Chart 19 7) 

Think of two different countries you are familiar with. How are they different? Use while, 
however, on the other hand, and but. Work in pairs 3 in small groups 3 or as a class. 



1 . size 

2. population 

3. food 

4. time of meals 



5. economic system 

6. educational system 

7. role of women 

8. language 



9. educational costs 

10. medical care 

1 1 . public transportation 

12. dating customs 



Connectives That Express Cause and Effect, Contrast, and Condition 409 



□ Exercise 30. Warm-up. (Chart 19-8) 

Choose the logical verb for each sentence: can or can't. 
Situation: Sarah drinks coffee every morning. It wakes her up. 

1. If Sarah drinks coffee in the mornings she can I can't wake up quickly. 

2. Unless Sarah drinks coffee in the morningj she can I can't wake up quickly. 

3. Sarah drinks coffee every morning; otherwise, she can I can't wake up quickly. 

4. Sarah drinks coffee in the morning, or else she can I can't wake up quickly. 



19-8 Expressing Conditions: Using Otherwise and Or (Else) 



Adverb Clauses 


(a) If 1 don 't eat breakfast, 1 get hungry. 

(b) You'll be late if you don't hurry. 

(c) You'll get wet unless you take your umbrella. 


If and unless state conditions that produce 
certain results. (See Charts 17-6 and 17-10, 
pp. 377 and 382.) 


Transitions 


(d) 1 always eat breakfast. Otherwise, 1 get 
hungry during class. 

(e) You'd better hurry. Otherwise, you'll be late. 

(f) Take your umbrella. Otherwise, you'll get wet. 


Otherwise expresses the idea "if the 
opposite is true, then there will be a certain 
result." 

In (d): otherwise = if 1 don't eat breakfast 


Conjunctions 


(g) 1 always eat breakfast, or (else) 1 get hungry 
during class. 

(h) You'd better hurry, or (else) you'll be late. 

(i) Take your umbrella, or (else) you'll get wet. 


Or else and otherwise have the same 
meaning. 



□ Exercise 31. Looking at grammar. (Chart 19-8) 

Make sentences with the same meaning as the given sentence. Use otherwise. 

1 . If I don't call my mother, she'll start worrying about me. 

> I am going to I should I had better I have to I must call my mother. Othenvise, she'll start 
worrying about me. 

2. If you don't leave now, you'll be late for class. 

3. Unless you have a ticket, you can't get into the theater. 

4. You can't enter that country unless you have a passport. 

5. If Tom doesn't get a job soon, his family won't have enough money for food. 

6. Only if you speak both Japanese and Chinese fluently will you be considered for that job.* 

7. Mary can go to school only if she gets a scholarship. 

8. If I don't wash my clothes tonight, I won't have any clean clothes to wear tomorrow. 



*Notice that the subject and verb in the main clause are inverted because the sentence begins with only if. See Chart 17-11, 
p. 383. 



410 CHAPTER 19 



19-9 Summary of Connectives: Cause and Effect, Contrast, 
nd Conditio 



_ 



Hi 





Adverb Clause Words 


Transitions 


Conjunctions 


Prepositions 


Cause and 
Effect 


because 
since 
now that 


so (that) 


therefore 
consequently 


so 


because of 
due to 


Contrast 


even though 

although 

though 


while 


however 

nevertheless 

nonetheless 

on the other hand 


but ( . . . anyway) 
yet ( . . . still) 


despite 
in spite of 


Condition 


if 

unless 
only if 
even if 

whether or not 


in case 


otherwise 


or (else) 





□ Exercise 32. Looking at grammar. (Chart 19-9) 

Using the two ideas of "to study" and "to pass or fail the exam," complete the sentences. 
Punctuate and capitalize as necessary. 

1. Because I did not study % / failed the exam, 

2. I failed the exam because 

Although I studied 



3 

4. I did not study therefore 

5. I did not study however . 

6. I studied nevertheless 



Even though I did not study 
I did not study so 



9. Since I did not study 



10. If I study for the exam 



1 1 . Unless I study for the exam 

12. I must study otherwise 

13. Even if I study 



14. I did not study consequently 

15. I did not study nonetheless _ 



Connectives That Express Cause and Effect, Contrast, and Condition 41 1 



16. I will probably fail the exam whether 

17. Only if I study 

18. I studied hard yet 

19. You'd better study or else 

□ Exercise 33. Listening. (Chart 19 9) 




Listen to each sentence and choose the logical completion (a. or b.). 



2 Example: You will hear: I was exhausted when I got home, but . . . 

28 r 

You will choose: (a?) I didn't take a nap. b. I took a nap. 



1. 


a. 


my back gets sore. 


b. 


my back doesn't get sore. 


2. 


a. 


my old one works fine. 


b. 


my old one doesn't work. 


3. 


a. 


I hurry. 


b. 


I don't hurry. 


4. 


a. 


I hurried. 


b. 


I didn't hurry. 


5. 


a. 


our offices are hot. 


b. 


our offices aren't hot. 


6. 


a. 


the noise bothers me. 


b. 


the noise doesn't bother me. 


7. 


a. 


I fell asleep during dinner. 


b. 


I didn't fall asleep during dinner. 



□ Exercise 34. Game. (Charts 17-2, 19-4, and 19-9) 

Work in teams. Combine these two ideas using the words below the example. The time is 
now, so use present and future tenses. The team that correctly combines the most sentences 
wins. 

to go (or not to go) to the beach \ hot, cold, nice weather 

Example: because 

► Because the weather is cold, we aren't going to go to the beach. 

> We're going to go to the beach because the weather is hot. 



1. 


so . . . that 


8. 


because of 


15. 


therefore 


2. 


so 


9. 


consequently 


16. 


only if 


3. 


nevertheless 


10. 


as soon as 


17. 


nonetheless 


4. 


despite 


11. 


such . . . that 


18. 


in spite of 


5. 


now that 


12. 


since 


19. 


even if 


6. 


once 


13. 


but . . . anyway 


20. 


yet . . . still 


7. 


although 


14. 


unless 


21. 


whether ... or not 



412 CHAPTER 19 



Exercise 35. Reading. (Chart 19 9) 

Part I. Read the passage comparing optimists and pessimists. 

Optimists vs. Pessimists 

Have you ever heard the expression that a glass is half full or half empty? 
If not, imagine that you are looking at a glass that is filled exactly halfway 
with liquid. Now, is the glass half full or half empty to you? People who say 
it is half full are called optimists, while people who say it is half empty are 
called pessimists. In simple terms, optimists see the best in the world, while 
pessimists see the worst. 

One of the clearest ways to see the differences between the two is to look at the way 
optimists and pessimists explain events. When something bad happens, optimists tend to see 
the event as a single event which does not affect other areas of their lives. For example, Sarah is 
an optimistic person. When she gets a low grade on a test, she will say something like this to 
herself: "Oh well, that was one test I didn't do well on. I wasn't feeling well that day. I have 
another test in a few weeks. I'll do better on that one." 

Pessimists, on the other hand, will feel that an event is just one of a string of bad events 
affecting their lives, and that they're somehow the cause of it. Let's take a look at Susan. She is 
a pessimist. When she gets a low grade on a test, she might say: "I failed again. I never do well 
on tests. I'm stupid. I should just quit trying." And when something does go well for Susan, 
she often attributes her success to luck. She may say, "I was just lucky that time," and she 
doesn't expect to do well again. While optimists don't see themselves as failures, pessimists do. 

Research has shown that optimism can be a learned trait and that, despite their upbringing, 
people can train themselves to respond to events in more positive terms. For example, Paul has 
a tendency to react negatively to events. The first thing he has to do is become conscious of that 
behavior. Once he identifies how he is reacting, he can reframe his thoughts in more positive 
terms, as Sarah did when she failed the test. As Paul begins to do more of this, he forms new 
patterns of response, and over time these responses become more automatic. Gradually he can 
develop a more positive outlook on life. 

What about you? How do you see life? Is the glass half full or half empty? 

Part II. Complete the sentences with information from the reading. 

1 . Optimists think positively about life, while .... 

2. An optimist may do poorly on a test; nevertheless, .... 

3. Things sometimes go well for a pessimist; however, .... 

4. Pessimists see themselves as failures; on the other hand, .... 

5. Optimists don't see a single event affecting other areas of their lives; consequently, .... 

6. Optimists see the best in the world; therefore, .... 

7. Optimists see the best in the world; however, .... 

8. Although people may have been raised as pessimists, .... 

9. If a pessimist wants to change how he reacts, .... 




Connectives That Express Cause and Effect, Contrast, and Condition 41 3 



□ Exercise 36. Listening. (Chapters 17 > 19) 

f)) Part I. Answer these questions. Then listen to the lecture with your book closed. 



CD 2 
Track 29 



1 . What makes you yawn? 

2. Do you yawn when others around you yawn? 

Part II. Open your book and read the statements. Circle "T" for true 
and "F" for false. 

1 . Yawning is so contagious that when one person 
yawns, others nearby may yawn as well. T 

2. According to the speaker, people are not necessarily 

tired even though they may yawn. T 

3. According to the speaker, people yawn 

only if others around them yawn. T 

4. It's been proven that unless people yawn, 

they can't stay awake. T 

5. It's possible that at some point in history, people 
yawned so that they could stay awake and keep others 

awake in times of danger. T 

6. According to the speaker, if you are talking to people 
and they begin yawning, you can be certain that they 

have become bored by you. T 




Exercise 37. Check your knowledge. (Chapters l > 19) 

These sentences are taken from student writing. You are the editor for these students. Rewrite 
the sentences, correcting errors, combining ideas, and making whatever revisions in phrasing or 
vocabulary you feel will help the writers say what they intended to say. 

Example: My idea of the most important thing in life. It is to be healthy. Because a person 
can't enjoy life without health. 
► In my opinion, the most important thing in life is good health because a person cannot 
enjoy life fully zvithout it. 

1. We went shopping after ate dinner. But the stores were closed. We had to go back home 
even we hadn't found what were we looking for. 

2. I want explain that I know a lot of grammars but is my problem I haven't enough 
vocabularies. 

3. When I got lost in the bus station a kind man helped me, he explained how to read the 
huge bus schedule on the wall. Took me to the window to buy a ticket and showed me 
where was my bus, I will always appreciate his kindness. 



414 CHAPTER 19 



4. I had never understand the important of know English language. Until I worked at a large 
international company. 

5. Since I was young my father found an American woman to teach me and my brothers 
English^ but when we move to other town my father wasn't able to find other teacher for 
other five years. 

6. I was surprised to see the room that I was given at the dormitory. Because there aren't any 
furniture, and dirty. 

7. When I meet Mr. Lee for the first time,, we played video games at the student center even 
though we can't communicate very well, but we had a good time. 

8. Because the United States is a large and also big country. It means that they're various 
kinds of people live there and it has a diverse population. 

9. My grammar class was start at 10:35. When the teacher was coming to class, she returned 
the last quiz to my classmates and I. After we have had another quiz. 

10. If a wife has a work, her husband should share the houseworks with her. If both of them 
help, the houseworks can be finish much faster. 

11. The first time I went skiing. I was afraid to go down the hill. But then I think to myself, 
"Why not? Give it a try. You'll make it!" After stand around for ten minutes without 
moving. Finally, I decided go down that hill. 



passage. Summarize what you heard. Then listen again and revise your writing as necessary. 

Passage 1: Turtles 
Passage 2: Boy or Girl? 



□ Exercise 38. Listening and writing. (Chapter 19) 




Then work together in pairs or small groups to write out the 



Connectives That Express Cause and Effect, Contrast, and Condition 41 5 



Chapter 20 



Conditional Sentences 
and Wishes 




□ Exercise 1. Warm-up. (Chart 20 -1) 

Each sentence talks about a "condition" and the "result" of this condition. Underline the 
result clause in each sentence. Notice the verbs in blue. In which sentence does a past verb 
refer to present or future time? 

1 . If I have extra money 3 1 usually buy computer equipment with it . 

2. I will buy a new laptop computer next month if I have some extra money. 

3. If I had some extra money 3 1 would buy a new laptop today or tomorrow. 

4. I would have bought a new laptop last month if I had had some extra money. 



20 -1 Overview of Basic Verb Forms Used in 
Conditional Sentences 


Situation 


If- clause 


Result clause 


Examples 


True in the 
Present/ Future 


simple present 


iv/7/ + simple form 


If 1 have enough time, 1 watch TV every 
evening. 

If 1 have enough time, 1 will watchlV later 1 
on tonight. 


Untrue in the 
Present/Future 


simple past 


would + simple foim 


If 1 had enough time, 1 would watch TV 
now or later on. 


Untrue in the Past 


past perfect 


would have + past participle 


1 

If 1 had had enough time, 1 would have 
watched TV yesterday. 



□ Exercise 2. Looking at grammar. (Chart 20 -l) 

Complete the sentences with the verbs in parentheses. 

1. I usually send my parents an email every week. That is a true fact. In other words: 

If I (have) have enough time 3 1 (send) eend my parents an email 

every week. 

2. I may have enough time to send my parents an email later tonight. I want to send them an 
email tonight. Both of those things are true. In other words: 

If I (have) enough time 3 1 (send) my 

parents an email later tonight. 



416 



3. I don't have enough time right now, so I won't send my parents an email. I'll try to do it 
later. I want to email them, but the truth is that I just don't have enough time right now. 
In other words: 

If I {have) enough time right now, I {send) my 

parents an email. 

4. I won't have enough time tonight, so I won't send my parents an email. I'll try to do it 
tomorrow. I want to email them, but the truth is that I just won't have enough time. In 
other words: 

If I {have) enough time later tonight, I {send) my 

parents an email. 

5. I wanted to send my parents an email last night, but I didn't have enough time. In other 
words: 

If I {have) enough time, I {send) my 

parents an email last night. 

□ Exercise 3. Warm-up. (Chart 20 2) 

Discuss the differences in meaning, if any, in each pair of sentences. 

1 . a. If it rains, the streets get wet. 

b. If it rains tomorrow, the streets will get wet. 

2. a. If you heat water, it boils. 

b. If you heat water, it will boil. 

3. a. If it should rain tomorrow, we'll cancel the picnic, 
b. If it rains tomorrow, we'll cancel the picnic. 



20-2 True in the Present or Future 



(a) If 1 don't eat breakfast, 1 always get hungry during 
class. 

(b) Water freezes or will freeze if the temperature 
reaches 32°F/0°C. 

(c) If 1 don't eat breakfast tomorrow morning, 1 will get 
hungry during class. 

(d) If it rains, we should stay home. 

If it rains, 1 might decide to stay home. 

If it rains, we can't go. 

If it rains, we're going to stay home. 

(e) If anyone calls, please take a message. 


In conditional sentences that express true, factual ideas in 
the present/future, the simple present (not the simple 
future) is used in the //-clause. 

The result clause has various possible verb forms. A 
result clause verb can be: 

• the simple present, to express a habitual activity or 
situation, as in (a). 

• either the simple present or the simple future, to 
express an established, predictable fact or general 
truth, as in (b). 

• the simple future, to express a particular activity or 
situation in the future, as in (c). 

• modals and phrasal modals such as should, might, 
can, be going to, as in (d).* 

• an imperative verb, as in (e). 


(f) If anyone should call, please take a message. 


Sometimes should is used in an //-clause. It indicates a 
little more uncertainty than the use of the simple present, 
but basically the meaning of examples (e) and (f) is the 
same. 



*See Chart 9-1, p. 157, for a list of modals and phrasal modals. 



Conditional Sentences and Wishes 41 7 



□ Exercise 4. Let's talk. (Chart 20 2) 

Answer the questions. Work in pairs, in small groups, or as a class. 

1 . If it's cold tomorrow, what are you going to wear to class? 

2. If it's cold, what do you usually wear? 

3. Fish can't live out of water. If you take a fish out of water, what will happen/what happens? 

4. If I want to learn English faster, what should I do? 

5. Tell me what to do, where to go, and what to expect if I visit your hometown as a tourist. 

□ Exercise 5. Looking at grammar. (Chart 20-2) 

Choose the correct verb for the result clauses. In some cases, both answers are correct. 

1 . If I find out the answer, I zuill let I let you know. 

2. If I have extra time, I tutor I am going to tutor students in math. 

3. If it snows, the roads are I zvill be closed. 

4. If you run up a hill, your heart beats I zuill beat fast. 

5. If it should rain tomorrow, we might change I zuill change our plans. 

6. If my cell phone battery goes dead, I zuill recharge I zuould recharge it. 



CD 2 



Exercise 6. Listening. (Chart 20-2) 

If + pronoun can be difficult to hear at the beginning of sentences because these words are 
generally unstressed. Additionally, if at the beginning of a sentence is often reduced to Ifl. 
Listen to the sentences spoken in casual, relaxed English. Complete the sentences with the 
non-reduced forms of the words you hear. 

Example: You will hear: If I hear anything, I'll tell you. 

You will write: If I hear anything, I'll tell you. 

1. too fast, please tell me. 

2. married, everyone will be shocked. 

3. okay, I'll ask for some advice. 

4. to quit, I hope he lets us know soon. 

5. , we'll need to try something else. 

6. harder, I'm sure she'll succeed. 

7. the job, I'll call you right away 



□ Exercise 7. Warm-up. (Chart 20-3) 

Choose the correct completions. 

1 . If Tom were a teacher, he would teach law. 

a. Tom is I isn't a teacher. 

b. Tom teaches I doesn't teach law. 



2. If it were 5:00, we could leave. 

a. It is I isn't 5:00. 

b. We can I can't leave now. 



41 8 CHAPTER 20 



20-3 Untrue (Contrary to Fact) in the Present or Future 




(a) If 1 taught Ms class, 1 wouldn't give tests. 

(b) If he were here right now, he would help us. 

(c) If 1 were you, 1 would accept their invitation. 


In (a): In truth, 1 don't teach this class. 
In (b): In truth, he is not here right now. 
In (c): In truth, 1 am not you. 

note: Were is used for both singular and plural subjects. Was 
(with /, he, she, it) is sometimes used in informal speech: If 1 was 
you, I'd accept their invitation. 


compare: 

(d) If 1 had enough money, 1 would buy a car. 

(e) If 1 had enough money, 1 could buy a car. 


In (d): The speaker wants a car but doesn't have enough money. 
Would expresses desired or predictable results. 

In (e): The speaker is expressing one possible result. 
could = would be able to; could expresses possible options. 



□ Exercise 8. Looking at grammar. (Charts 20 -2 and 20-3) 

Complete the sentences with the verbs in parentheses. 

1 . If I have enough apples, I (bake) will bake an apple pie this afternoon. 

2. If I had enough apples, I (bake) would bake J could bake an apple pie. 

3. I will fix your bicycle if I (have) a screwdriver of the proper size. 

4. I would fix your bicycle if I (have) a screwdriver of the proper size. 

5. I (go) to a movie tonight if I don't have any homework to do. 

6. I (go) to a movie tonight if I didn't have any homework to do. 

7. Sally always answers the phone if she (be) in her office. 

8. Sally would answer the phone if she (be) in her office right now. 

J Exercise 9. Let's talk. (Chart 20 3) 

Discuss the questions. Work in small groups or as a class. 

Under zvhat conditio)is, if any, would you . . . 

1. exceed the speed limit while driving? 4. steal food? 

2. lie to your best friend? 5. carry a friend on your back? 

3. disobey an order from your boss? 6. not pay your rent? 

□ Exercise 10. Looking at grammar. (Charts 20 -2 and 20 3) 

Complete the sentences with the verbs in parentheses. Work in pairs or small groups. 

1. I (be, not) a student in this class if English (be) my 

native language. 

2. Most people know that oil floats on water. If you pour oil on water, it (float) 



Conditional Sentences and Wishes 41 9 



3. 



If there (be) 



no oxygen on earth, life as we know it (exist, not) 



4. My evening newspaper has been late every day this week. If the paper (arrive, not) 
on time today, I'm going to cancel my subscription. 

5. If I (be) a bird, I (want, not) 

to live my whole life in a cage. 

6. How long (human beings, live) 

if all diseases in the world were 

completely eradicated? 

7. If you boil water, it (disappear) 

into the atmosphere as vapor. 

8. If people (have) paws instead of hands with fingers and opposable 

thumbs, the machines we use in everyday life (have to) 

be constructed very differently We (be, not) 

able to turn knobs, push small buttons, or hold tools and utensils securely. 




□ Exercise 1 1 . Let's talk: interview. (Chart 20-3) 

Find a partner to interview. Give him/her a fact. Ask your partner to make an unreal "if" 
statement. Change roles after item 3. Share some of the statements with the class. 

Example: Ocean water is salty. 

► If ocean water weren't salty, people could drink it and there would be enough water 
for everyone in the world. 

Facts: 

1. There is gravity on the earth. 4. Children don't get everything they want. 

2. People don't have wings. 5. Guns exist. 

3. Cars can't fly. 6. There isn't enough food on the earth for everyone. 



□ Exercise 12. Warm-up. (Chart 20 4) 

Check (/) the sentences that have a past meaning. 

1 . If Ann were available, she would help us. 

2. If Ann had been available, she would have helped us. 

3. If Ann is available, she will help us. 

4. If Ann had been available, she could have helped us. 



420 CHAPTER 20 





(a) If you had told me about the problem, 1 would have 
helped you. 

(b) If they had studied, they would have passed the 
exam. 

(c) If 1 hadn't slipped on the stairs, 1 wouldn't have 
broken my arm. 


In (a): In truth, you did not tell me about it. 

In (b): In truth, they did not study. Therefore, they failed 
the exam. 

In (c): In truth, 1 slipped on the stairs. 1 broke my arm. 

note: The auxiliary verbs are often reduced in speech. 
"If you'd told me, 1 would've helped you (or l-duv helped 
you)."* 


compare: 

(d) If 1 had had enough money, 1 would have bought a car. 

(e) If 1 had had enough money, 1 could have bought a car. 


In (d): would expresses a desired or predictable result. 

In (e): could expresses a possible option. 

could have bought - would have been able to buy 



*In casual, informal speech, some native speakers sometimes use would have in an //"-clause: If you would've told me about the 
problem, I ivould've helped you. This verb form usage is generally considered to be grammatically incorrect in standard English, but it 
occurs fairly commonly. 



□ Exercise 13. Looking at grammar. (Chart 20-4) 

Complete the sentences with a factual or truthful statement. 

1 . If I had worn a jacket, I wouldn't have been so cold at the park, but the truth is ... . 

> / didn 't wear a jacket. 

2. If Martin hadn't become a soccer player, he would have been a soccer coach, but the 
truth is ... . 

3. If I hadn't answered my cell phone while I was driving, I wouldn't have caused the 
accident, but the truth is ... . 

4. If Professor Stevens had given a fair test, more students would have passed, but the 
truth is ... . 

□ Exercise 14. Looking at grammar. (Charts 20 -l > 20-4) 

Underline the clause that expresses a condition. Write "T" if the condition is a true condition 
(i.e., a condition that exists in fact). Write "U" if the condition is untrue (i.e., a condition that 
does not exist in fact). Then decide if the sentence refers to present/future or past time. 



1. I If the weather is warm , we'll eat outdoors. C^re^nt/f\ature) past 

2. U If the weather were warm, we would eat outdoors. (^prcsent/futurc) past 

3. If the weather had been warm, we would have 

eaten outdoors. present/future past 

4. If I had more money, I would work less. present/future past 

5. If I had had more money, I would have worked less. present/future past 

6. If I take time off from work, I feel more relaxed. present/future past 

7. If I hadn't had to work, I could have seen you. present/future past 

8. If I didn't have to work, I could see you. present/future past 



Conditional Sentences and Wishes 421 



□ Exercise 15. Looking at grammar. (Charts 20-1 -> 20-4) 

Complete each sentence with would do } will do, or would have done. 

1. Rita believes in hard work and wants her children to work hard. She always tells them, 
"If you work hard every day, you well." 

2. Scott is smart, but he doesn't work very hard. As a result, he is not very successful at 
his job. His co-workers often tell him, "If you worked hard every day, you 
well." 

3. Mark planned to study hard for a test yesterday, but some friends called, and he decided to 
go out with them. He didn't do well on his test the next day. His teacher told him, "If you 
had worked hard yesterday, you well on the test." 



□ Exercise 16. Looking at grammar. (Charts 20 -1 

Complete the sentences with the verbs in parentheses. 



20-4) 



1 . If I (have) enough money, I will go with you. 

2. If I (have) enough money, I would go with you. 

3. If I (have) enough money, I would have gone with you. 

4. If the weather is nice tomorrow, we (go) to the zoo. 



5. If the weather were nice today, we (go) 



to the zoo. 



6. If the weather had been nice yesterday, we (go) 

7. If Sally (be) at home tomorrow, I am going to visit her. 



to the zoo. 



Jim isn't home right now. If he (be) 
right now, I (visit) 



at home 



him. 



9. Linda wasn't at home yesterday. If she (be) 

at home yesterday, I (visit) 

her. 

10. Last night Alex ruined his sweater when he washed it. 

If he (read) the label, he (zvash, not) 

, it in hot water. 




422 CHAPTER 20 



Exercise 17. Looking at grammar. (Charts 20-1 > 20-4) 

Answer the questions with yes or no. 

1 . If the weather had been good yesterday, we would not have canceled the picnic. 

a. Was the picnic canceled? yee 

b. Was the weather good? no 

2. If I had an envelope and a stamp, I would mail this letter today. 

a. Do I have an envelope and a stamp right now? 

b. Do I want to mail this letter today? 

c. Am I going to mail this letter today? 

3. Ann would have made it to class on time this morning if the bus hadn't been late. 

a. Did Ann try to make it to class on time? 

b. Did Ann make it to class on time? 

c. Was the bus late? 

4. If I didn't have any friends, I would be lonely. 

a. Am I lonely? 

b. Do I have friends? 



Exercise 18. Let's talk. (Chart 20 4) 

Work with a partner. Speaker A gives the cue. Speaker B begins the response with But if I 
had known. 

Example: 

Speaker A {book open): There was a test yesterday. You didn't know that, so you didn't study. 
Speaker B {book closed): But if I had known (that there was a test yesterday), I would have 

studied. 

1. Your friend was in the hospital. You didn't know that, so you didn't visit her. 

2. I've never met your friend. You didn't know that, so you didn't introduce me. 

3. There was a meeting last night. You didn't know that, so you didn't go. 

4. Your friend's parents are in town. You didn't know that, so you didn't invite them to 
dinner. 

Change roles. 

5. I wanted to go to the soccer game. You didn't know that, so you didn't buy a ticket for me. 

6. I was at home last night. You didn't know that, so you didn't visit me. 

7. Your sister wanted a gold necklace for her birthday. You didn't know that, so you didn't 
buy her one. 

8. I had a problem. You didn't know that, so you didn't offer to help. 



Conditional Sentences and Wishes 423 



□ Exercise 19. Let's listen and talk. (Chart 20-4) 

jfj} Part I. Answer this question: Why do you think dinosaurs became extinct? Then close your 

$® book and listen to the short talk on dinosaurs. 

CD 2 
Track 32 




Part II. Open your book and read the statements. Circle "T" for true and "F" for false. 

1 . According to one theory, if an asteroid had collided with the earth, 

several disastrous changes in the earth's climate would have taken place. T F 

2. This theory suggests that if an asteroid had not collided with the earth, 

dinosaurs would still exist. T F 

Part III. Discuss these questions. 

1 . If dinosaurs still existed, what do you think the world would be like? 

2. Would it be possible for dinosaurs and human beings to coexist on the same planet? 



□ Exercise 20. Listening. (Charts 20 -l -> 20-4) 

jfjj In conditional sentences, Ihl is often dropped in the auxiliary verbs have and had. Listen to 

0» the sentences spoken in casual, relaxed English. Complete the sentences with the non-reduced 

Track 33 forms of the words you hear. 

Situation: Jon told several good friends a lie, and they recently found out. Here are their 
reactions: 

Example: You will hear: If he had been truthful, he wouldn't have lost my trust. 



You will write: If he had been truthful, he wouldn't have lost my trust. 

1 . the truth sooner, differently. 

2. him, so foolish. 

3. me what a great guy Jon was, 

him so easily. 

4. another person, so shocked. 

5. , more respect for him. 



424 CHAPTER 20 



Exercise 21. Looking at grammar. (Charts 20-1 

Complete the sentences with the verbs in parentheses. 



20-4) 



1. You should tell your father exactly what happened. If I (be) _ 
him the truth as soon as possible. 



you, I (tell) 



2. If I (have) 



my camera with me yesterday, I (take) 
a picture of Alex standing on his head. 



I'm almost ready to plant my garden. I have a lot of seeds. Maybe I have more than I 
need. If I (have) more seeds than I need, I (give) 



some to my neighbor. 

George has only two pairs of socks. If he (have) 
socks, he (have to, not) 



more than two pairs of 



wash his socks so often. 



The cowboy pulled his gun to shoot at the rattlesnake, but 

he was too late. If he (be) quicker to 

pull the trigger, the snake (bite, not) 



him on the foot. It's a good 



thing he was wearing heavy leather boots. 
What (we, use) 



to look at 



ourselves when we comb our hair if we (have, not) 
mirrors? 

It's been a long drought. It hasn't rained for over a month. If it (rain, not) 
soon, a lot of crops (die) 




If the 



crops (die) 
winter. 



, many people (go) 



hungry this coming 



A: Shhh! Your father is taking a nap. Uh-oh. You woke him up. 

B: Gee, I'm sorry, Mom. If I (realize) 

(make, not) 



he was sleeping, I 



so much noise when I came in. 



A: Since I broke my foot, I haven't been able to get to the basement to wash my clothes. 

B: Why didn't you say something? I (come) over and 

(zvash) them for you if you (tell) me. 



A: I know you (come) 



right away if I (call) 



you. I guess I didn't want to bother you. 



B: Nonsense! What are good neighbors for? 



Conditional Sentences and Wishes 425 



□ Exercise 22. Listening. (Charts 20-1 > 20-4) 




Listen to the statements and answer the questions. 



, CD k 2 4 Example: You will hear: If Bob had asked me to keep the news about his marriage a secret, I 

wouldn't have told anybody. I know how to keep a secret. 
You will answer: a. Did I tell anybody the news? yes 

b. Did Bob ask me to keep it a secret? no 

1 . a. Am I going to go to the art museum? 

b. Do I have enough time? 

2. a. Did Mrs. Jones receive immediate medical attention? 

b. Did she die? 

3. a. Am I a carpenter? 

b. Do I want to build my own house? 

c. Am I going to build my own house? 

4. a. Was the hotel built to withstand an earthquake? 

b. Did the hotel collapse? 

□ Exercise 23. Looking at grammar. (Charts 20 -l > 20 -4) 

Complete each sentence with an appropriate auxiliary verb. 

1. I don't have a pen, but if I did , I would lend it to you. 

2. He is busy right now, but if he weren't , he would help us. 

3. I didn't vote in the election, but if I had , I would have voted for Senator Todd. 

4. I don't have enough money, but if I , I would buy that book. 

5. The weather is cold today, but if it , I'd go swimming. 

6. She didn't come, but if she , she would have met my brother. 

7. I'm not a good cook, but if I , I would make all of my own meals. 

8. He didn't go to a doctor, but if he , the cut on his hand wouldn't have 

gotten infected. 

9. I always pay my bills. If I , I'd get in a lot of trouble. 

10. Helium is lighter than air. If it , a helium-filled balloon wouldn't float 

upward. 

11. I called my husband to tell him I would be late. If I , he would have gotten 

worried about me. 



426 CHAPTER 20 



□ Exercise 24. Let's talk: pairwork. (Charts 20-1 > 20-4) 

Work with a partner. Speaker A asks the questions. Speaker B begins the answers with 
No, but. 



Example: 

Speaker A (book open): Do you have a dollar? 

Speaker B (book closed): No, but if I did (No, but if I had a dollar), I would lend it to you. 







Change roles. 


1. 


Are you rich? 


7. 


Are you at home right now? 


2. 


Do you have a car? 


8. 


Do you speak (another language)} 


3. 


Are you a bird? 


9. 


Did you forget to bring your grammar 


4. 


Did you forget to bring a pen to 




book to class today? 




class today? 


10. 


Is the weather hot/cold today? 


5. 


Do you have your own airplane? 


11. 


Do you live in (a different city)? 


6. 


Are you the teacher of this class? 


12. 


Are you hungry? 



□ Exercise 25. Warm-up. (Chart 20-5) 

Match the true or factual sentences in Column A to the conditional sentences in Column B. 



Column A 

1 . I was painting my apartment when 
you asked me to go to a movie. 

2. I am painting my apartment right now. 



Column B 

a. If I weren't painting my apartment, 
I would go to a movie with you. 

b. If I hadn't been painting my apartment, 
I would have gone to a movie with you. 



20-5 Using Progressive Verb Forms in Conditional Sentences 




Notice the use of progressive verb forms in these examples. Even in conditional sentences, progressive verb forms are 
used in progressive situations. (See Chart 1-2, p. 3, for a discussion of progressive verbs.) 



(a) 


True: 


It is raining right now, so I will not go for a walk. 


(b) 


Conditional: 


If it were not raining right now, I would go for a walk. 


(c) 


True: 


It was raining yesterday afternoon, so I did not go for a walk. 


(d) 


Conditional: 


If it had not been raining, I would have gone for a walk. 



u Exercise 26. Looking at grammar. (Chart 20-5) 

Change the statements to conditional sentences. 

1. You weren't listening, so you didn't understand the directions. But .... 

> if you had been listening, you zvould have understood the directions. 

2. You aren't wearing a coat, so you're cold. But .... 

3. Joe got a ticket because he was driving too fast. But .... 

4. I'm enjoying myself, so I won't leave. But .... 

5. You were sleeping, so I didn't tell you the news as soon as I heard it. But 



Conditional Sentences and Wishes 427 



Exercise 27. Looking at grammar. (Chart 20-5) 

Complete each sentence with the correct form of the verb in parentheses. Make untrue or 
contrary-to-fact statements. 



1 . It's snowing. We can't go to the park. 
If it {snow) weren't snowing 



we could go to the park. 



It wasn't snowing. We went to the park. 
If it {snozv) had been snowing 



we wouldn't have gone to the park. 

Elena just got out of the shower. She's 
drying her hair with a hair dryer, so she can't 
hear the phone ring. 

If Elena {dry) 




her hair, she could hear the phone ring. 

Elena was waiting for a phone call fromTom 3 but as it happened, she was drying her hair 
when he called and couldn't hear the phone ring. 



If Elena {dry) 



her hair when Tom called, she could have 



heard the phone ring. 

Max is at a party at his friend's apartment, but he's not having any fun. He wants to leave. 
Max wouldn't want to leave early if he {have) fun. 

Mrs. Chang was talking on her cell phone while she was driving and wasn't paying enough 
attention to traffic. When the car in front of her stopped, she crashed into it. 



If Mrs. Chang {talk) 

wouldn't have gotten into an accident. 



on her cell phone, she probably 



□ Exercise 28. Warm-up. (Chart 20-6) 

Choose the correct time words. 

1. If I had done my homework {now I earlier), I would know the answers {nozv I earlier). 

2. Anita wouldn't be sick {now I earlier) if she had followed the doctor's orders {now I earlier). 



20 -6 Using "Mixed Time 55 in Conditional Sentences 



Frequently the time in the /'/-clause and the time in the result clause are different: one clause may be in the present and I 
the other in the past. Notice that past and present times are mixed in these sentences. 



(a) 


True: 


1 did not eat breakfast several hours ago, so 1 am hungry now. 


(b) 


Conditional: 


If 1 had eaten breakfast several hours ago, 1 would not be hungry now. 






(past) (present) 


(c) 


True: 


He is not a good student. He did not study tor the test yesterday 


(d) 


Conditional: 


If he were a good student, he would have studied tor the test yesterday. 






(present) (past) 



428 CHAPTER 20 



J Exercise 29. Looking at grammar. (Chart 20-6) 

Change the statements to conditional sentences. Begin each one with But. 

1 . I'm hungry now because I didn't eat dinner. 

► But if I'd eaten dinner, I wouldn't be hungry now. 

2. The room is full of flies because you left the door open. 

3. You are tired this morning because you didn't go to bed at a reasonable hour last night. 

4. I didn't finish my report yesterday, so I can't begin a new project today. 

5. I'm not you, so I didn't tell him the truth. 

6. I don't know anything about plumbing, so I didn't fix the leak in the sink myself. 

7. Anita got sick because she didn't follow the doctor's orders. 

J Exercise 30. Warm-up. (Chart 20 7) 

The following sentences are correct. Make sentences with the same meaning using if. Notice 
the order of the words in blue. 

1 . Were I the teacher, I would give fewer tests. 

2. Had I known about your problem, I would have helped you. 

3. Should anyone come, please tell them I'm asleep. 



20-7 Omitting If 




(a) Were / you, 1 wouldn't do that. 

(b) Had 1 known, 1 would have told you. 

(c) Should anyone call, please take a message. 


With were, had (past perfect), and should, sometimes if \s 
omitted and the subject and verb are inverted. 

In (a): Were 1 you = if 1 were you 

In (b): Had 1 known = if 1 had known 

In (c): Should anyone call = if anyone should call 



□ Exercise 31. Looking at grammar. (Chart 20-7) 

Make sentences with the same meaning by omitting if. 

1. If you should need more money, go to the bank before six o'clock. 

> Should you need more money, go to the bank before six o'clock. 

2. If I were you, I wouldn't do that. 

3. If they had realized the danger, they would have done it differently. 

4. If I were your teacher, I would insist you do better work. 

5. If you should change your mind, please let me know immediately. 

6. She would have gotten the job if she had been better prepared. 

7. Your boss sounds like a real tyrant. If I were you, I would look for another job. 

8. I'll be out of the office until June 12th. If you should need to reach me, I'll be at our 
company headquarters in Seoul. 

9. The artists and creative thinkers throughout the history of the world have changed all 
of our lives. If they had not dared to be different, the history of civilization would have 
to be rewritten. 

10. If there should be a global nuclear war, life on earth as we know it would end forever. 



Conditional Sentences and Wishes 429 



□ Exercise 32. Listening. (Chart 20-7) 




Choose the sentence that best expresses the meaning of the sentence you hear. 



CD 2 Example: You will hear: Should you need help, I'll be in the room next door. 

"rack 35 

You will choose: a. I'll be helping others in the room, 
(b) I'm available to help you. 

c. You shouldn't ask me for help. 

d. Do you need help from me? 



1 

1 . 


a. 


I get a lot of speeding tickets. 


4. 


a. 


I took the fastest way to the theater. 




D. 


I was driving too fast. 




D. 


I didn't take the fastest way. 




c. 


I like to drive fast. 




C. 


The theater was too far away. 




A 

a. 


I didn't get a ticket. 




A 
U. 


I took several different routes. 


2. 


a. 


You shouldn't call me on my cell. 


5. 


a. 


We stayed home. 




b. 


Did you have questions? 




b. 


We didn't stay home. 




c. 


Call me soon. 




c. 


Someone warned us. 




d. 


Call me if you have questions. 




d. 


Several people warned us. 


3. 


a. 


We're glad you told us. 


6. 


a. 


Are we rich? 




b. 


We were happy to help you. 




b. 


Rich people live in houses overlooking 




c. 


We needed to know earlier. 






the ocean. 




d. 


Why did you tell us so soon? 




c. 


We aren't rich. 



d. We live in a house overlooking the ocean. 



□ Exercise 33. Warm-up. (Chart 20-8) 

Read the paragraph. Check (/) the sentences that are true. 

One night a fire started in Janet's apartment. A blanket on the sofa got too close to an 
electric heater. Janet was in a deep sleep and wasn't aware of the fire. Fortunately, her 
neighbors saw smoke coming out of the window and threw rocks at her bedroom window to 
wake her up. Janet was very grateful that she wasn't killed or injured in the fire. 

1 . Janet would have kept sleeping, but the neighbors woke her up. 

2. Janet would have awakened without her neighbors' help. 

3. Janet was awakened by her neighbors; otherwise, she wouldn't have woken up. 



20-8 Implied Conditions 




(a) 1 would have gone with you, but 1 had to study. 

(b) 1 never would have succeeded without your help. 


Often the //-clause is implied, not stated. Conditional 
verbs are still used in the result clause. 

In (a): the implied condition = if 1 hadn't had to study 
In (b): the implied condition = if you hadn't helped me 


(c) She ran; otherwise, she would have missed her bus. 


Conditional verbs are frequently used following 
otherwise. 

In (c), the implied //-clause = if she had not run 



430 CHAPTER 20 



Exercise 34. Looking at grammar. (Chart 20-8) 

Identify the implied conditions by making sentences using //-clauses. 



1 . I would have visited you, but I didn't know that you were at home. 

> / would have visited you if I had known you were at home. 

2. It wouldn't have been a good meeting without Rosa. 

■■> It wouldn't have been a good meeting if Rosa hadn't been there. 

3. I would have answered the phone, but I didn't hear it ring. 

4. I couldn't have finished the work without your help. 

5. I like to travel. I would have gone to Nepal last summer, but I didn't have enough money. 

6. I stepped on the brakes. Otherwise, I would have hit the child on the bicycle. 

7. Olga turned down the volume on the CD player. Otherwise, the neighbors probably 
would have called to complain about the noise. 

8. Tarek would have finished his education, but he had to quit school and find a job in order 
to support his family. 

J Exercise 35. Listening. (Chart 20-8) 

/Tjj Choose the statement (a. or b.) that is true for each sentence you hear. In some cases both 
answers are correct. 



CD 2 
Track 36 



Example: You will hear: I canceled your dentist appointment for Tuesday. Otherwise, you 

would have had two appointments in one day. 
You will choose: a. I thought you needed two appointments. 

(b) I didn't think you wanted two appointments. 

1 . a. If I had had your number, I would have called. 

b. I didn't have your number; otherwise, I would have called. 

2. a. If my parents hadn't helped me, I wouldn't have gone to college, 
b. If I hadn't gone to college, my parents wouldn't have helped me. 

3. a. I picked up your clothes. 

b. I wasn't able to pick up your clothes. 

4. a. If someone had told us about the party, we would have come, 
b. We came to the party even though you didn't tell us about it. 

5. a. If I'd had your advice, I would have known what to do. 
b. Because of your advice, I knew what to do. 

□ Exercise 36. Looking at grammar. (Charts 20-1 20 -8) 

Complete each sentence with the verb in parentheses. Some of the verbs are passive. 

1. If I could speak Japanese, I (spend) next year 

studying in Japan. 

2. Had I known Mr. Jung was in the hospital, I (send) him a 

note and some flowers. 

3. We will move into our new house next month if it (complete) 

by then. 



Conditional Sentences and Wishes 431 



4. It's too bad that it's snowing. If it (snozv, not) 
for a drive. 

5. I was very tired. Otherwise^ I (go) 

last night. 



we could go 



to the party with you 



I'm glad I have so many friends and such a wonderful family. Life without friends or 
family (be) lonely for me. 

If you (sleeps not) last night when we arrived^ I would have 



asked you to go with us 3 but I didn't want to wake you up. 

Bill has such a bad memory that he (forget) 

(be, not) attached to his body. 

A: What would you be doing right now if you (be, not) 

in class? 

B: I (sleep) . 



his head if it 



10. A: Boy 3 is it ever hot today! 
B: You said it! If there (be) 



only a breeze 3 it (be, not) 



quite so unbearable. 



11. A: Hi. Sorry I'm late. 
B: That's okay. 
A: I (be) 



here sooner, but I had car trouble. 



12. A: Want to ride on the roller coaster? 
B: No way! I (ride, not) 



on the roller coaster even if you paid me a 
million dollars! 

13. A: Are you coming to the party? 

B: I don't think so 3 but if I change my mind 3 1 (tell) 




you. 



□ Exercise 37. In your own words. (Charts 20 -1 > 20-8) 

Complete the sentences with your own words 3 either orally or in writing. If written^ add 
commas as necessary. 

1 . If it hadn't rained .... 

2. If it weren't raining .... 

3. You would have passed the test had .... 

4. It's a good thing we took a map with us. Otherwise .... 



432 CHAPTER 20 



5. Without electricity modern life .... 

6. If you hadn't reminded me about the meeting tonight .... 

7. Should you need any help .... 

8. If I could choose any profession I wanted .... 

9. If I were at home right now .... 

10. Without your help yesterday .... 

11. Were I you 

12. What would you do if ... . 

13. If I had the chance to live my childhood over again .... 

14. Had I known .... 

15. Can you imagine what life would be like if ... . 

□ Exercise 38. Let's talk. (Charts 20-1 ► 20-8) 

Explain what you would do in these circumstances. Work in pairs or small groups. 
Example: 

Speaker A {book open): Suppose the student sitting next to you drops her pen. 

What would you do? 
Speaker B {book closed): I would pick it up for her. 

1 . Suppose/pretend there is a fire in this building right now. What would you do? 

2. Suppose there is a fire in your room or apartment or house. You have time to save only 
one thing. What would you save? 

3. Suppose you go to the bank to cash a check for (twenty dollars). The bank teller cashes 
your check and you leave, but when you count the money, you find she gave you (thirty 
dollars) instead of (twenty). What would you do? 

4. Same situation, but she gave you only (fifteen dollars) instead of (twenty). 

5. John was cheating during an examination. Suppose you were the teacher and you saw 
him. What would you have done? 

6. You are at a party. A man starts talking to you, but he is speaking so fast that you can't 
catch what he is saying. What would you do? 

7. Late at night you're driving your car down a deserted street. You're all alone. In an 
attempt to avoid a dog in the road, you swerve and hit a parked car. You know that no one 
saw you. What would you do? 

8. Ricardo goes to a friend's house for dinner. His friend serves a dish that he can't 
stand/doesn't like at all. What if you were Ricardo? 

9. Suppose you go to another city to visit a friend. You have never been there before. Your 
friend said he would meet you at the airport, but he's not there. You wait a long time, but 
he never shows up. You try to call him, but nobody answers the phone. Now what? 

□ Exercise 39. Warm-up. (Chart 20-9) 

Which sentences are true for you? Circle yes or no. What do you notice about the words 
in blue? 

1 . I wish I were someplace else right now. yes no 

2. I wish I could travel all around the world next year. yes no 

3. I wish I had learned English when I was a child. yes no 



Conditional Sentences and Wishes 433 



20-9 Verb Forms Following Wish 



Wish is used when the speaker wants reality to be different, to be exactly the opposite. 




A Wish 
about the 
Future 



A Wish 
about the 
Present 



A Wish 
about the 
Past 



"True" Statement 



Verb Form Following Wish 



(a) She will not tell me. 

(b) He isn't going to be here. 

(c) She can 't come tomorrow. 



I wish (that) she would tell me. 
I wish he were going to be here. 
I wish she could come tomorrow. 



(d) I don 't know French. 

(e) It is raining right now. 

(f) I can 't speak Japanese. 



I wish I knew French. 

I wish it weren 't raining right now. 

I wish I could speak Japanese. 



(g) John didn't come. 

(h) Mary couldn't come. 



I wish John had come* 

I wish Mary could have come. 



Wish is followed by a noun 
clause. (See Chart 12-5, 
p. 253.) Past verb forms, 
similar to those in conditional 
sentences, are used in the 
noun clause. 

For example, in (a): would, 
the past form of will, is used to 
make a wish about the future. 

In (d): the simple past {knew) 
is used to make a wish about 
the present. 

In (g): the past perfect (had 
come) is used to make a wish 
about the past. 



*Sometimes in very informal speaking: / wish John would have come. 

□ Exercise 40. Looking at grammar. (Chart 20-9) 

Complete the sentences with an appropriate verb form. 



had 



1 . Our classroom doesn't have any windows. I wish our classroom _ 

2. The sun isn't shining. I wish the sun right now. 

3. I didn't go shopping. I wish I shopping. 



windows. 



I don't know how to dance. I wish I 



It's cold today. I'm not wearing a coat. I wish I 



I don't have enough money to buy that book. I wish I 
I can't go with you tomorrow^ but I wish I 



how to dance. 

a coat. 

' enough money. 



8. My friend won't ever lend me his car. I wish he 

my date tomorrow night. 

9. Mrs.Takasawa isn't coming to dinner with us tonight. I wish she 
to dinner with us. 

10. The teacher is going to give an exam tomorrow. I wish he 

us an exam tomorrow. 



me his car for 



1 1 . You can't meet my parents. I wish you 



12. Khalid didn't come to the meeting. I wish he 

13. I'm not lying on a sunny beach. I wish I 



them 3 but they're out of town. 
to the meeting. 



on a sunny beach. 



434 CHAPTER 20 



□ Exercise 41. Let's talk: interview. (Chart 20-9) 

Ask two classmates each question. Share some of their answers with the class. 

1. What is something you can't do but you wish you could do? 

2. What do you wish you were doing right now? 

3. What is something you don't have but wish you had? 

4. What is something that didn't happen yesterday but that you wish had happened? 

5. What is something you don't know but wish you knew? 

6. What is something that has never happened in your life but that you wish would happen? 

7. What is something that happened in your life but that you wish had not happened? 

8. What is something you have to do but wish you didn't have to do? 

9. What is something that will not happen tomorrow but that you wish would happen? 
10. What is something you were unable to do yesterday but you wish you could have done? 

J Exercise 42. Looking at grammar. (Chart 20-9) 

Complete the sentences with an appropriate auxiliary verb. 

1. I'm not at home, but I wish I were . 

2. I don't know her, but I wish I did . 

3. I can't sing well, but I wish I could 

4. I didn't go, but I wish I had . 

5. He won't talk about it, but I wish he would 

6. I didn't read that book, but I wish I 

7. I want to go, but I can't. I wish I . 

8. I don't have a bicycle, but I wish I 

9. He didn't buy a ticket to the game, but he wishes he 

10. It probably won't happen, but I wish it 

11. He isn't old enough to drive a car, but he wishes he 

12. They didn't go to the movie, but they wish they . 

13. I don't have a driver's license, but I wish I 

14. I'm not living in an apartment, but I wish I 

□ Exercise 43. Warm-up. (Chart 20 -10) 

Choose the correct time word for each sentence. What do you notice about the verbs in blue 
and the tenses? 

1. Jim's neighbors play loud music. He wishes they were quieter {now I soon). 

2. Jim's neighbors are going to move. He wishes they would move {soon I last week). 



Conditional Sentences and Wishes 435 





(a) It is raining. 1 wish it would stop. 
(1 want it to stop raining.) 

(b) I'm expecting a call. 1 wish the phone would ring. 
(1 want the phone to ring.) 


Would is usually used to indicate that the speaker wants 
something to happen or someone other than the speaker 
to do something in the future. The wish may or may not 
come true (be realized). 


(c) It's going to be a good party. 1 wish you would come. 

(d) We're going to be late. 1 wish you would hurry. 


In (c) and (d): / wish you would ... is often used to 
make a request. 



□ Exercise 44. Looking at grammar. (Charts 20-9 and 20-10) 

Use the given information to answer each pair of questions. Use wish + would. 

Example: 

Tom: Why are you watching the telephone? 

Sue: I'm waiting to hear from Sam. I want him to call me. I need to talk to him right now. 
We had an argument. I need to make sure everything's okay. 

(a) What does Sue want to happen in the near future? 

> She wishes the phone would ring. 

(b) What else does Sue wish? 

> She wishes Sam would call her. She wisJies she could talk to Sa?)i right noio. 
She probably zuislies sJie and Sam hadn't had an argument. 

Anna: Can't you come to the concert? Please change your mind. I'd really like you 
to come. 

Yoko: No, I can't. I have to work. 

(a) What does Anna want Yoko to do? 

(b) What else does Anna wish? 

Helen is a neat and orderly person. Judy, her roommate, is messy. Judy never picks up 
after herself. She leaves dirty dishes in the sink. She drops her clothes all over the 
apartment. She never makes her bed. Helen nags Judy to pick up after herself. 

(a) What does Helen want Judy to do? 

(b) What does Judy probably wish? 

□ Exercise 45. Listening. (Charts 20-9 and 20-10) 




Listen to the sentences spoken in casual, relaxed English. Complete the sentences with the 
non-reduced forms of the words you hear. 



CD 2 



Example: You will hear: I wish I didn't need so much sleep. I could get so much more done 

in a day! 

You will write: I wish I didn't need so much sleep. 

1. Alice doesn't like her job as a nurse. She wishes 

to nursing school. 

2. A: I wish go to work today. 

B: So do I. I wish a holiday. 



436 CHAPTER 20 



3. 



We had a good time in the mountains over vacation. I wish 



with us. If 



with us, 



a good time. 



4. 



5. 



I know that something's bothering you. I wish 
me what it is. Maybe I can help. 

A: My feet are killing me! I wish 

B: Yeah, me too. I wish 



more comfortable shoes. 



that we were going to have 



to walk this much. 
Exercise 46. Let's talk. (Charts 20-9 and 20- 10) 

Answer the questions. Use wish. Work in pairs, in small groups, or as a class. 

1 . Where do you wish you were right now? What do you wish you were doing? 

2. Are you pleased with the weather today, or do you wish it were different? 

3. Look around this room. What do you wish were different? 

4. Is there anything you wish were different about the place you are living? 

5. What do you wish were different about this city/town? 

6. What do you wish were different about this country? 

7. What do you wish were different about a student's life? about a worker's life? 

8. Your friend gave you his phone number, but you didn't write it down because you thought 
you would remember it. Now you have forgotten the number. What do you wish? 

9. You didn't eat breakfast/lunch/dinner before you came to class. Now you are hungry. 
What do you wish? 

10. ( ) stayed up very late last night. Today she is tired and sleepy. What does she 

probably wish? 

Exercise 47. Let's talk or write. (Chapter 20) 

Answer the questions, either orally or in writing. If orally, work in pairs, in small groups, or as 
a class. 

1 . If you could have free service for the rest of your life from a chauffeur, cook, housekeeper, 
or gardener, which would you choose? Why? 

2. If you had to leave your country and build a new life, where would you go? Why? 

3. If you had control of all medical research in the world and, by concentrating funds and 
efforts, could find the cure for only one disease in the next 25 years, which disease would 
you select? Why? 

4. You have promised to spend an evening with your best friend. Then you discover you have 
the chance to spend the evening with {name of a famous person) . Your friend is not invited. 
What would you do? Why? 

5. Assume that you have a good job. If your boss told you to do something that you think is 
wrong, would you do it? Why or why not? (You understand that if you don't do it, you 
will lose your job.) 

6. If you had to choose among perfect health, a loving family, and wealth (and you could have 
only one of the three during the rest of your life), which would you choose? Why? 



Conditional Sentences and Wishes 437 



Appendix 

Supplementary 
Grammar Charts 




UNIT A: Basic Grammar Terminology 





S V 

(a) 'Birds 1 Uy7 
(noun) (verb) 

S V 

(b) The 'baby' 'cried.' 

(noun) (verb) 

S V 0 

(c) The 'student' 'needs' a 'pen'. 

(noun) (verb) (noun) 

S V 0 

(d) My 'friend' 'enjoyed' the 'party'. 

(noun) (verb) (noun) 


Almost all English sentences contain a subject (S) and a verb (V). The verb 
may or may not be followed by an object (0). 


verbs: Verbs that are not followed by an object, as in (a) and (b), are called 
"intransitive verbs." 

Common intransitive verbs: agree, arrive, come, cry, exist, go, happen, live, 
occur, rain, rise, sleep, stay, walk. 

Verbs that are followed by an object, as in (c) and (d), are called "transitive 
verbs." 

Common transitive verbs: build, cut, find, like, make, need, send, use, want. 

Some verbs can be either intransitive or transitive. 
Intransitive: A student studies. 
Transitive: A student studies books. 


subjects and objects: The subjects and objects of verbs are nouns (or 
pronouns). 

Examples of nouns: person, place, thing, John, Asia, pen, information, 
appearance, amusement. 



A- 2 Adj ectives 


(a) Ann is an intelligent student. 

(adjective) (noun) 

(b) The hungry child ate fruit. 

(adjective) (noun) 


Adjectives describe nouns. In grammar, we say that adjectives modify nouns. 
The word modify means "change a little." Adjectives give a little different 
meaning to a noun: intelligent student, lazy student, good student. 

Examples of adjectives: young, old, rich, beautiful, brown, French, modern. 


(c) 1 saw some beautiful pictures. 
incorrect: beautiful s pictures 


An adjective is neither singular nor plural. A final -s is never added to an 
adjective. 



439 



A- 3 Adverbs 




(a) He walks quickly. 

(adverb) 

(b) She opened the door quietly. 


Adverbs modify verbs. Often they answer the question "How?" 

In (a): How does he walk? Answer: Quickly. 

Adverbs are often formed by adding -/yto an adjective. 
Adjective: quick 
Adverb: quickly 


(c) 1 am extremely happy. 

(adverb) (adjective) 


Adverbs are also used to modify adjectives, i.e., to give information about 
adjectives, as in (c). 


(d) Ann will come tomorrow. 

(adverb) 


Adverbs are also used to express time or frequency. Examples: tomorrow, 
today, yesterday, soon, never, usually, always, yet. 


MIDSENTENCE ADVERBS: 

(e) Ann always comes on time. 

(f ) Ann is always on time. 

(g) Ann has always come on time. 

(h) Does she always come on time? 


Some adverbs may occur in the middle of a sentence. Midsentence adverbs 
have usual positions; they 

• come in front of simple present and simple past verbs (except be), as 
in (e); 

• follow be (simple present and simple past), as in (f); 

• come between a helping verb and a main verb, as in (g). 

In a question, a midsentence adverb comes directly after the subject, as in (h). 



Common midsentence adverbs 



ever usually generally seldom never already 

always often sometimes rarely not ever finally 

frequently occasionally hardly ever just 

probably 



as and Prepositional Phrases 



Common prepositions 



about 


at 


beyond 


into 


since 


up 


above 


before 


by 


like 


through 


upon 


across 


behind 


despite 


near 


throughout 


with 


after 


below 


down 


of 


till 


within 


against 


beneath 


during 


off 


to 


without 


along 


beside 


for 


on 


toward(s) 




among 


besides 


from 


out 


under 




around 


between 


in 


over 


until 





S V PREP Oof PREP 

(a) The 'student"studies" in ' the 'library.' 

(noun) 

S V 0 PREP Oof PREP 

(b) 'We' 'enjoyed' the 'party' ' at ' your ' house. 1 

(noun) 


An important element of English sentences is the prepositional 
phrase. It consists of a preposition (prep) and its object (o). The 
object of a preposition is a noun or pronoun. 

In (a): In the library is a prepositional phrase. 


(c) We went to the zoo in the afternoon. 

(Place) (Time) 

(d) In the afternoon, we went to the zoo. 


In (c): In most English sentences, "place" comes before "time." 

In (d): Sometimes a prepositional phrase comes at the beginning 
of a sentence. 









(a) John is a student. 

(be) (noun) 

(b) John is intelligent. 

(be) (adjective) 

(c) John was at the library. 

(be) (prep, phrase) 


A sentence with be as the main verb has three basic patterns: 
In (a): be + a noun 
In (b): be + an adjective 
In (c): be + a prepositional phrase 


(d) Mary is writing a letter. 

(e) They were listening to some music. 

(f) That letter was written by Alice. 


Be is also used as an auxiliary verb in progressive verb tenses and in the 
passive. 

In (d): is = auxiliary; writing = main verb 


Tense Forms of Be 


SIMPLE PRESENT SIMPLE PAST PRESENT PERFECT 

/ am 1 was 1 have been 
Singular you are you were you have been 

he, she, it is he, she, it was he, she, it has been 

Plural we, you, they are we, you, they were we, you, they have been 



A- 6 Linking Verbs 




(a) The soup smells good. 

(linking verb) (adjective) 

(b) This food tastes delicious. 

(c) The children feel happy. 

(d) The weather became cold. 


Other verbs like be that may be followed immediately by an adjective are called 
"linking verbs." An adjective following a linking verb describes the subject of a 
sentence.* 

Common verbs that may be followed by an adjective: 

• feel, look, smell, sound, taste 

• appear, seem 

• become (and get, turn, grow when they mean "become") 



*Compare: 

(1) The man looks angry. — > An adjective (angry) follows look. The adjective describes the subject (the man). Look has the 
meaning of "appear." 

(2) The man looked at me angrily. —> An adverb (angrily) follows look at. The adverb describes the action of the verb. Look 
at has the meaning of "regard, watch." 




Ann is at the laitdroniat. 
She looks very busy. 



Supplementary Grammar Charts 441 



UNIT B: 



Questions 



B-l Forms of Yes /No and Information Questions 



A yes/no question = a question that may be answered by yes or no 
A: Does he live in Chicago? 
B: Yes, he does, or No, he doesn't. 




An information question - a question that asks for information by using a question word 

A: Where does he live? 
B: In Chicago. 



Question word order = (Question word) + helping verb + subject + main verb 



Notice that the same subject-verb order is used in both yes/no and information questions. 



(Question 
Word) 


Helping 
Verb 


Subject 


Main 
Verb 


(Rest of 
Sentence) 




(a) 

(b) Where 
(c) 

(d) Where 
(e) 

[ i ) vvnere 


Does 
does 

Do 
do 

Did 

riiri 

□ la 


she 
she 

they 
they 

he 

ho 

ne 


live 
live? 

live 
live? 

live 

live ( 


there? 
there? 
there? 


If the verb is in the simple present, use does 
(with he, she, it) or do (with /, you, we, they) 
in the question. If the verb is simple past, use 
did. 

Notice: The main verb in the question is in its 
simple form; there is no final -s or -ed. 


(g) 

(h) Where 
(i) 

( j ) Where 
(k) 

( 1 ) Where 


Is 

is 

Have 
have 

Can 
can 


he 
he 

they 
they 

Mary 
Mary 


living 
living? 

lived 
lived? 

live 
live? 


there? 
there? 
there? 


If the verb has an auxiliary (a helping verb), 
the same auxiliary is used in the question. 
There is no change in the form of the main 
verb. 

If the verb has more than one auxiliary, only 
the first auxiliary precedes the subject, as in 
(m) and (n). 


(m) 

(n) Where 


Will 
will 


he 
he 


be living 
be living? 


there? 




(o) Who 
(p) Who 


0 

can 


0 
0 


lives 
come? 


there? 


If the question word is the subject, usual 
question-word order is not used; does, do, 
and did are not used. The verb is in the same 
form in a question as it is in a statement. 

Statement: Tom came. 

Question: Who came? 


(q) 

( r ) Where 
(s) 

( t ) Where 


Are 

are 

Was 
was 


they 
they? 

Jim 
Jim? 


0 
0 

0 
0 


there? 
there? 


Main verb be in the simple present (am, is, 
are) and simple past (was, were) precedes 
the subject. It has the same position as a 
helping verb. 



442 APPENDIX 



B-2 Question Words 





Question 


Answer 




When 


(a) When did they arrive? 
When will you come? 


Yesterday. 
Next Monday. 


When is used to ask questions about 
time. 


Where 


(b) Where is she? 

Where can 1 find a pen? 


At home. 

In that drawer. 


Where is used to ask questions about 
place. 


Why 


(c) Why did he leave early? 

Why aren't you coming with us? 


Because he's ill. 
I'm tired. 


Why is used to ask questions about 
reason. 


How 


(d) How did you come to school? 
Wow does he drive? 


By bus. 
Carefully. 


How generally asks about manner. 


(e) How much money does it cost? 
How many people came? 


Ten dollars. 
Fifteen. 


How is used with much and many. 


(f) How old are you? 
How cold is it? 

How soon can you get here? 
How fast were you driving? 

(g) How long has he been here? 
How often do you write home? 
How far is it to Miami from here? 


Twelve. 

Ten below zero. 
In ten minutes. 
50 miles an hour. 

Two years. 
Every week. 
500 miles. 


How is also used with adjectives and 
adverbs. 

How long asks about length of time. 
How often asks about frequency. 
How far asks about distance. 


Who 


(h) Who can answer that question? 
Who came to visit you? 


1 can. 

Jane and Eric. 


Who is used as the subject of a 
question. It refers to people. 


(i) Who is coming to dinner tonight? 
Who wants to come with me? 


Ann, Bob, and Al. 
We do. 


Who is usually followed by a singular 
verb even if the speaker is asking about 
more than one person. 


Whom 


(j) Who(m) did you see? 
Who(m) are you visiting? 

(k) Who(m) should 1 talk to? 

To whom should 1 talk? (formal) 


1 saw George. 
My relatives. 

The secretary. 


Whom is used as the object of a verb or 
preposition. In everyday spoken 
English, whom is rarely used; who is 
used instead. Whom is used only in 
formal questions. 

note: Whom, not who, is used if 
preceded by a preposition. 


vvnose 


(1) Whose book did you borrow? 
Whose key is this? 
(Whose is this?) 


David's. 
It's mine. 


vvnooc asKo qucbiionb duuui 
possession. 



(continued) 



Supplementary Grammar Charts 443 



B-2 Question Words (continued) 





Question 


Answer 




What 


(m) What made you angry? 
What went wrong? 


His rudeness. 
Everything. 


. 

What is used as the subject of a 
question. It refers to things. 


(n) What do you need? 
What did Alice buy? 

(o) What d\d he talk about? 

About what did he talk? (formal) 


1 need a pencil. 
A book. 

His vacation. 


What is also used as an object. 


(p) What kind of soup is that? 
What kind of shoes did he buy? 


It's bean soup. 
Sandals. 


What kind of asks about the particular 
variety or type of something. 


(q) What did you do last night? 
What is Mary doing? 


1 studied. 
Reading a book. 


What + a form of do is used to ask 
questions about activities. 


^ij vvnBi counin&i> uiu yuu vioii: 
What time did she come? 
What color is his hair? 


1 Idly dllvJ opdlll. 

Seven o'clock. 
Dark brown. 


VVllal 1 1 lay dOUUI Iipdliy d IIUUM. 


(s) What is Ed Wee? 

(t ) What is the weather Wee? 


He's kind and 
friendly. 

Hot and humid. 


What + be like asks for a general 
description of qualities. 


(u) What does Ed look like? 

(v) W/7af does her house look like? 


He's tall and has 
dark hair. 

It's a two-story,* red 
brick house. 


What + look like asks for a physical 
description. 


Which 


(w) 1 have two pens. 

Which pen do you want? \ 
Which one do you want? > 
Which do you want? J 

(x) Which book should 1 buy? 


The blue one. 
That one. 


Which is used instead of what when a 
question concerns choosing from a 
definite, known quantity or group. 


(y) Which countries did he visit? 
What countries did he visit? 

(z) Which class are you in? 
What class are you in? 


Peru and Chile. 
This class. 


In some cases, there is little difference 
in meaning between which and what 
when they accompany a noun, as in (y) 
and (z). 



*American English: a nvo-story house. 
British English: a tzvo-storey house. 



444 APPENDIX 



B - 3 Shortened Yes / No Questions 




(a) Going to bed now? = Are you going to bed now? 

(b) Finish your work? = Did you finish your work? 

(c) Want to go to the movie with us? = Do you want to 
go to the movie with us? 


Sometimes in spoken English, the auxiliary and the 
subject you are dropped from a yes/no question, as in 
(a), (b), and (c). 





(a) Doesn 't she live in the dormitory? 

(b) Does she not live in the dormitory? (very formal) 


In a yes/no question in which the verb is negative, usually 
a contraction (e.g., does + not = doesn't) is used, as 
in (a). 

Example (b) is very formal and is usually not used in 
everyday speech. 

Negative questions are used to indicate the speaker's 
idea (i.e., what she/he believes is or is not true) or attitude 
(e.g., surprise, shock, annoyance, anger). 


(c) Bob returns to his dorm room after his nine o'clock 
class. Matt, his roommate, is there. Bob is surprised. 

Bob says, "What are you doing here? Aren't you 
supposed to be in class now?" 

(d) Alice and Mary are at home. Mary is about to leave 
on a trip, and Alice is going to take her to the airport. 

Alice says, "It's already two o'clock. We'd better 

fnr ihc* airnnrt On^Qn'f i/rtur n/ano /ooi/a at 

ICCXVC l\JI 11 IC allfJL/ll. L/KsCOI 1 l yxJLii L/lallU lUaVU al 

three?" 


In (c): Bob believes that Matt is supposed to be in 
class now. 

Expected answer: Yes. 

In (d): Alice believes that Mary's plane leaves at three. 
She is asking the negative question to make sure that her 
information is correct. 

LAL/dOICU CZ//OrVC7/. ICO. 


(e) The teacher is talking to Jim about a test he failed. 
The teacher is surprised that Jim failed the test 
because he usually does very well. 

The teacher says: "What happened? Didn't you 
study?" 


In (e): The teacher believes that Jim did not study. 
Expected answer: No. 


(f ) Barb and Ron are riding in a car. Ron is driving. He 
comes to a corner where there is a stop sign, but he 
does not stop the car. Barb is shocked. 

Barb says, "What's the matter with you? Didn't 
you see that stop sign?" 


In (f): Barb believes that Ron did not see the stop sign. 
Expected answer: No. 



Supplementary Grammar Charts 445 



B - 5 Tag Questions 




(a) Jack can come, can't he? 

(b) Fred can 't come, can he? 


A tag question is a question added at the end of a sentence. 
Speakers use tag questions mainly to make sure their information is 
correct or to seek agreement.* 


AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCE + NEGATIVE TAG AFFIRMATIVE ANSWER EXPECTED 

Mary is here, isn't she? Yes, she is. 
You like tea, don 't you? Yes, 1 do. 
They have left, haven't they? Yes, they have. 


NEGATIVE SENTENCE + AFFIRMATIVE TAG -> NEGATIVE ANSWER EXPECTED 

Mary isn 't here, is she? No, she isn't. 
You don't like tea, do you? No, 1 don't. 
They haven't left, have they? No, they haven't. 


(c) This/That is your book, isn't it? 

These/Those are yours, aren't they? 


The tag pronoun for this/that - it. 

The tag pronoun for these/those = they. 


(d) There is a meeting tonight, isn't there? 


In sentences with there + be, there is used in the tag. 


(e) Everything is okay, isn't it? 

(f ) Everyone took the test, didn't they? 


Personal pronouns are used to refer to indefinite pronouns. They is 
usually used in a tag to refer to everyone, everybody, someone, 
somebody, no one, nobody. 


(g) Nothing is wrong, is it? 

(h) Nobody called on the phone, did they? 

( i ) You 've never been there, have you? 


Sentences with negative words take affirmative tags. 


(j) / am supposed to be here, am 1 not? 
(k) / am supposed to be here, aren't 1? 


In (j): am 1 not? is formal English. 

In (k): aren't 1? is common in spoken English. 



*A tag question may be spoken: 

(1) with a rising intonation if the speaker is truly seeking to ascertain that his/her information, idea, belief is correct (e.g., Ann 
lives in an apartment, doesn't she?); OR 

(2) with a falling intonation if the speaker is expressing an idea with which she/he is almost certain the listener will agree (e.g.. 
It's a nice day today, isn't it?). 




Jim could use some help., couldn't he? 



446 APPENDIX 



UNITC: Contractions 



C Contractions 




in speaking: In everyday spoken English, certain forms of be and auxiliary verbs are usually contracted with pronouns, 
nouns, and question words. 

in writing: (1) In written English, contractions with pronouns are common in informal writing, but they're not generally 
acceptable in formal writing. 
(2) Contractions with nouns and question words are, for the most part, rarely used in writing. A few of 
these contractions may be found in quoted dialogue in stories or in very informal writing, such as a 
chatty letter to a good friend, but most of them are rarely if ever written. 



In the following, quotation marks indicate that the contraction is frequently spoken but rarely, if ever, written. 





With Pronouns 


With Nouns 


With Question Words 


am 


I'm reading a book. 


0 


"What'm"\ supposed to do? 


is 


She's studying. 
It's qoinq to rain. 


My "book's" on the table. 
Mary's at home. 


Where's Sally? 
Who's that man? 


are 


You're working hard. 
They're waitinq for us. 


My "books 're" on the table. 
The " teacher s'r e" a\ a meeting. 


"What're" you doing? 
"Where 're" they going? 


has 


She's been here for a year. 
It's been cold lately. 


My "book's" been stolen! 
Sally's never met him. 


Where's Sally been living? 
What's been going on? 


have 


I've finished my work. 
They've never met you. 


The "books've" been sold. 

The "students've" finished the test. 


'Where Ve" they been? 
"rYoivVe"you been? 


had 


He'd been waiting for us. 
We'd forgotten about it. 


The "books'd" been sold. 
"Ma ry'd" never met him before. 


"Where'd" you been before that? 
"Who'd" been there before you? 


did 


0 


0 


"What'd"you do last night? 
"How'd" you do on the test? 


will 


I'll come later. 
She'll he\p us. 


The "weather'IT'be nice tomorrow. 
"John'H"be coming soon. 


"Who'll" be at the meeting? 
"Where'H" you be at ten? 


would 


He'd like to go there. 
They'd come if they could. 


My "friends'd" come if they could. 
"Mary 'd" like to go there too. 


"Where'd" you like to go? 



Supplementary Grammar Charts 447 



UNIT D: Negatives 



D -1 Using Not and Other Negative Words 



(a) affirmative: The earth is round. 

(b) negative: The earth is not flat. 



Not expresses a negative idea. 



(c) 



AUX 


+ NOT 


+ MAIN VERB 


1 will 


not 


go 


there 


1 have 


not 


gone 


there 


1 am 


not 


going 


there 


1 was 


not 




there 


1 do 


not 


go 


there 


He does 


not 


go 


there 


1 did 


not 


go 


there 



Not immediately follows an auxiliary verb or be. 

note: If there is more than one auxiliary, not comes immediately after the 
first auxiliary: / will not be going there. 

Do or does is used with not to make a simple present verb (except be) 
negative. 

Did is used with not to make a simple past verb (except be) negative. 



Contractions of auxiliary verbs with not 

are not = aren't* 
cannot = can't 
could not = couldn't 
did not = didn't 
does not = doesn't 
do not - don't 



has not = hasn't 
have not = haven't 
had not = hadn't 
is not = isn't 
must not = mustn't 
should not = shouldn't 



was not = wasn't 
were not = weren't 
will not = won't 
would not = wouldn't 



(d) I almost never go there. 

I have hardly ever gone there. 

(e) There's no chalk in the drawer. 



In addition to not, the following are negative adverbs: 
never, rarely, seldom 

hardly (ever), scarcely (ever), barely (ever) 
No also expresses a negative idea. 



compare: not vs. no 

(f ) I do not have any money. 

(g) I have no money. 



Not is used to make a verb negative, as in (f). 

No is used as an adjective in front of a noun (e.g., money), as in (g). 

note: Examples (f) and (g) have the same meaning. 



*Sometimes in spoken English you will hear "ain't." It means "am not," "isn't," or "aren't." Ain't is not considered proper English, 
but many people use ain't regularly, and it is also frequently used for humor. 



D-2 Avoiding 


Double Negative 




(a) incorrect: 1 don't have no money. 

(b) correct: 1 don 't have any money. 
correct: 1 have no money. 


Sentence (a) is an example of a "double negative," i.e., a 
confusing and grammatically incorrect sentence that 
contains two negatives in the same clause. One clause 
should contain only one negative.* 



*Negatives in two different clauses in the same sentence cause no problems; for example: 
A person zvho doesn't have lave can't be truly happy. 
I don't know why he isn't here. 



D - 3 Beginning a Sentence with a Negative Wor< 



(a) Never will I do that again! 

(b) Rarely have I eaten better food. 

(c) Hardly ever does he come to class on time. 



When a negative word begins a sentence, the subject and 
verb are inverted (i.e., question word order is used).* 



^Beginning a sentence with a negative word is relatively uncommon in everyday usage; it is used when the speaker/writer wishes to 
emphasize the negative element of the sentence and be expressive. 



448 APPENDIX 



UNIT E: Preposition Combinations 



E Preposition Combinations with Adjectives and Verbs 



A be absent from 
be accused of 
be accustomed to 
be acquainted with 
be addicted to 
be afraid of 

agree with 
be angry at, with 
be annoyed with, by 

apologize for 

apply to, for 

approve of 

argue with, about 

arrive in, at 
be associated with 
be aware of 

B believe in 
blame for 
be blessed with 
be bored with, by 

C be capable of 

care about, for 

be cluttered with 

be committed to 
compare to, with 
complain about, of 

be composed of 

be concerned about 

be connected to 
consist of 

be content with 
contribute to 

be convinced of 

be coordinated with 
count (up)on 

be covered with 

be crowded with 

D decide (up)on 
be dedicated to 

depend (up)on 
be devoted to 
be disappointed in, with 
be discriminated against 

distinguish from 
be divorced from 
be done with 



dream of, about 
be dressed in 

E be engaged in, to 
be envious of 
be equipped with 
escape from 
excel in, at 
be excited about 

excuse for 
be exhausted from 
be exposed to 

F be faithful to 
be familiar with 

feel like 

fight for 
be filled with 
be finished with 
be fond of 

forget about 

forgive for 
be friendly to, with 
be frightened of, by 
be furnished with 

G be gone from 
be grateful to, for 
be guilty of 

H hide from 
hope for 

I be innocent of 
insist (up)on 

be interested in 
introduce to 

be involved in 

J be jealous of 

K keep from 
be known for 

L be limited to 
be located in 
look forward to 

M be made of, from 
be married to 



O object to 
be opposed to 

P participate in 
be patient with 
be pleased with 
be polite to 

pray for 
be prepared for 

prevent from 

prohibit from 
be protected from 
be proud of 

provide with 

Q be qualified for 

R recover from 
be related to 
be relevant to 

rely (up)on 
be remembered for 

rescue from 

respond to 
be responsible for 

S be satisfied with 
be scared of, by 
stare at 
stop from 
subscribe to 
substitute for 
succeed in 

T take advantage of 
take care of 
talk about, of 

be terrified of, by 
thank for 
think about, of 

be tired of, from 

U be upset with 
be used to 

V vote for 

W be worried about 



Supplementary Grammar Charts 449 



UNIT F: The Subjunctive in Noun Clauses 



F Using the Subjunctive in Noun Clauses 




(a) The teacher demands that we be on time. 

(b) 1 insisted that he pay me the money. 

(c) 1 recommended that she not go to the concert. 

(d) It is important that they be told the truth. 


A subjunctive verb uses the simple form of a verb. It does 
not have present, past, or future forms; it is neither 
singular nor plural. 

Sentences with subjunctive verbs generally stress 
importance or urgency. A subjunctive verb is used in 
fftaf-clauses that follow the verbs and expressions listed 
below. 

In (a): be is a subjunctive verb; its subject is we. 

In (b): pay (not pays, not paid) is a subjunctive verb; it is 
in its simple form, even though its subject (he) is singular. 

Negative: not + simple form, as in (c). 

Passive: simple form of be + past participle, as in (d). 


(e) 1 suggested that she see a doctor. 

( f ) 1 suggested that she should see a doctor. 


Should is also possible after suggest and recommend* 


Common verbs and expressions followed by the subjunctive in a noun clause 

advise (that) propose (that) it is critical (that) it is important (that) 
ask (that) recommend (that) it is essential (that) it is necessary (that) 
demand (that) request (that) it is imperative (that) it is vital (that) 
insist (that) suggest (that) 



*The subjunctive is more common in American English than British English. In British English, should + simple form is more usual 
than the subjunctive: The teacher insists that ice sliould be on time. 



UNITG: Troublesome Verbs 



G Raise I Rise, Set I Sit, Lay 1 Lie 




Transitive 


Intransitive 


Raise, set, and lay are transitive verbs; 
they are followed by an object. 

Rise, sit, and lie are intransitive; they 
are not followed by an object.* 

In (a): raised is followed by the object 
hand. 

In (b): rises is not followed by an 
object. 

note: Lay and lie are troublesome for 
native speakers too and are frequently 
misused. 

lay = put 

lie = recline 


(a) raise, raised, raised 
Tom raised his hand. 


(b) rise, rose, risen 

The sun rises in the east. 


(c) set, set, set 

1 will set the book on the desk. 


(d) sit, sat, sat 

1 sit in the front row. 


(e) lay, laid, laid 

1 am laying the book on the desk. 


(f) lie,** lay, lain 

He is lying on his bed. 



*See Appendix Chart A-l for information about transitive and intransitive verbs. 
**Lie is a regular verb (lie, lied) when it means "not tell the truth": He lied to me about his age. 



450 APPENDIX 




Please note: You may want to pause the audio after each item or in longer passages so that there is enough time to 
complete each task. 



Chapter 1 : Overview of Verb Tenses 

Exercise 4, p. 2. 

1 . I cooked my own dinner last night. 

2. I bought a textbook yesterday. 

3. I get on the internet every day. 

4. I will be home tonight. 

5. I am going to watch a movie this weekend. 



Exercise 6, p. 3. 

1 . At midnight last night, I was sleeping. 

2. Right now I am thinking about grammar. 

3. Tomorrow I will be sitting in class at this time. 

4. Tonight at 9:00, 1 will be watching TV. 

5. Last night at 9:00, 1 was watching TV. 



Exercise 8, p. 4. 

1 . I have done my homework already. 

2. Before I went to bed last night, I had done all my 
homework. 

3. By the time I finish this chapter, I will have done 
several verb exercises. 

4. I have studied all the English verb tenses. 

5. Before I began this class, I had studied all the 
English verb tenses. 



Exercise 15, p. 9. 

1 . Hoped. We hoped to see you last week. Hoped. 

2. Stopped. The rain finally stopped. Stopped. 

3. Waiting. The taxi is waiting. Waiting. 

4. Sitting. He's sitting in a taxi. Sitting. 

5. Started. The movie started late. Started. 

6. Happened. What happened yesterday? Happened. 

7. Planning. We're planning a birthday party. Planning. 

8. Enjoyed. We enjoyed our vacation. Enjoyed. 

9. Worried. We worried about you. Worried. 
10. Studying. I'm studying English. Studying. 



Exercise 18, p. 12. 

1 . We are renting an apartment in the city. 

2. We preferred to rent and see how we liked city life. 

3. The earthquake destroyed the town. 

4. Our children visited their grandparents. 

5. We gained a little weight on our vacation. 

6. I'm planning a short trip this summer. 

7. I'm taking a few weeks off from work. 

8. Right now I am replying to several emails. 

9. I'm done. I replied to all of them. 



Chapter 2: Present and Past; Simple 
and Progressive 

Exercise 5, p. 15. 

1 . Hey, look out the window! It's raining . . . 

2. We get a lot of rain here . . . 

3. Besides the rain, it also snows here a little . . . 

4. Did you hear? We can go skiing this weekend. It's 
snowing in the mountains . . . 

5. We go hiking a lot. We especially like to hike in the 
mountains . . . 

6. Our son is spending some time in the mountains . . . 

Exercise 12, p. 22. 

1 . Did she lose her notebook? 

2. Did she forget her homework? 

3. Did she make a lot of mistakes on the writing test? 

4. Did she write several words incorrectly? 

5. Did she take another student's homework to copy? 

6. Did he do his homework? 

7. Did he understand the homework? 

8. Did he bring his homework to class? 

9. Did he get a good grade on the test? 

10. Did he know all the answers on the test? 

1 1 . Did she begin class on time? 

12. Did she speak clearly? 

13. Did she give a fair test? 

I 14. Did she spend extra time helping her students? 

15. Did she tell her students jokes? 

16. Did she teach her students a song? 

17. Did she sing with her students? 



LISTENING SCRIPT 451 



Exercise 14, p. 23. 

1 . Did they swim in the water? 

2. Did they stand in the waves? 

3. Did they fall down in the waves? 

4. Did they run barefoot on the sand? 

5. Did they lie in the sun? 

6. Did they wear sunscreen? 

7. Did they dig in the sand? 

8. Did they build giant sandcastles? 

9. Did they write their names in the sand? 

10. Did they draw pictures in the sand? 

1 1 . Did they hide their feet in the sand? 

12. Did they sing songs? 

13. Did some bees sting them? 

14. Did they see the sunset? 

Exercise 16, p. 24. 



1. 


Did 


she 


wake up sick? 


2. 


Did 


she 


catch a cold? 


3. 


Did 


her 


head hurt? 


4. 


Did 


she 


take her temperature? 


5. 


Did 


she 


have a fever? 


6. 


Did 


she 


feel bad? 


7. 


Did 


she 


keep her pajamas on? 


8. 


Did 


she 


lie on the couch? 


9. 


Did 


she 


sleep for several hours? 


10. 


Did 


she 


dream about scary things? 


11. 


Did 


she 


eat some chicken soup? 


12. 


Did 


she 


speak to the doctor? 


13. 


Did 


she 


take some medicine? 


14. 


Did 


she 


read the instructions on the label? 



Exercise 18, p. 25. 

1 . Yesterday I felt . . . 

2. Yesterday Mr. Jones taught . . . 

3. Did you fill . . . 

4. The children drew . . . 

5. The man hid . . . 

6. One student withdrew . . . 

7. When I was cooking dinner, I burnt . . . 

8. Did you shrink . . . 

9. The audience wept . . . 
10. The plants grew . . . 

Exercise 19, p. 25. 
Part I. 

A Scary Night 

I had a terrible experience last night. You won't believe 
what happened! A thief burst into my apartment while I 
was asleep. There I was, just sleeping peacefully when 
someone broke the glass in the sliding door! 

The sound woke me up. I heard the sliding door open, 
so I reached for the phone by the bed and called the 
police. My voice shook as I told the operator there was an 
intruder in my home. 

I hid in my bedroom closet while the thief was 
creeping around my office. Soon I heard sirens as the 
police sped to my building. From the crack in the closet 
door, I saw the thief as he ran outside with my computer. 



The police jumped out of their cars and followed the 
thief, but he managed to get away in a car that was 
waiting for him. The police got back in their cars and 
drove after him. Later I learned that they caught the thief 
a few miles from my building. 

I felt really frightened by all this. It really upset me, as 
you can imagine. I think I'll stay at my sister's house 
tonight. 

Part II. 

1 . The thief entered quietly. 

2. He opened a window. 

3. The woman spoke with the intruder. 

4. The woman went into her closet. 

5. The police caught the thief in the woman's 
apartment. 

6. The woman felt relaxed at the end of the story. 



Exercise 20, p. 26. 



1. 


lasted, tried 


6. 


missed, reached 


2. 


helped, stopped 


7. 


saved, smelled 


3. 


described, wanted 


8. 


watched, asked 


4. 


invited, wanted 


9. 


finished, robbed 


5. 


believed, kissed 







Exercise 21, p. 27. 

1. typed 4. replied 7. canceled 

2. closed 5. succeeded 8. finished 

3. rented 6. looked 9. counted 

Exercise 22, p. 27. 

1. Olga blinked (blink/t/), yawned (yawn/d/), and 
stretched (stretch/t/). 

2. Mrs. Olsen mopped (mop/t/) the kitchen floor, 
vacuumed (vacuum/d/) the carpet, and dusted 
(dust/ad/) the furniture. 

3. The meeting started (start/od/) late and ended 
(end/ad/) early. 

4. My friend jumped (jump/t/) up and down and yelled 
(yell/d/) when she got the news. 

5. The airplane departed (depart/ad/) at six and landed 
(land/ad/) at eight. 

6. When I asked (ask/t/) the doctor about some 
medication, he suggested (suggest/ad/) a new one. 

Exercise 29, p. 32. 

First Day of Class 

It was my first day of class. I finally found the right 
room. The room was already full of students. 

On one side of the room, students were talking to each 
other in Japanese or Arabic. On the other side, students 
were speaking in Spanish or Portuguese. It sounded like 
the United Nations. Some of the students, however, were 
sitting quietly by themselves, not talking to anyone. 

I looked for an empty seat in the last row and sat 
down. In a few minutes, the teacher walked into the 
room, and all the multilingual conversation suddenly 
stopped. 



452 LISTENING SCRIPT 



Chapter 2 



Chapter 3: Perfect and Perfect 
Progressive Tenses 

Exercise 2, p. 37. 

1 . I wrote a book. Have you ever . . . 

2. I lost my wallet. Have you ever . . . 

3. I climbed a mountain last year. Have you ever . . . 

4. I gave a speech to a large audience. Have you 
ever . . . 

5. I told a lie. Have you ever . . . 

6. I once sang in public. Have you ever . . . 

7. I rode on a motorcycle once. Have you ever . . . 

8. I drank Turkish coffee. Have you ever . . . 

9. I took a cooking class. Have you ever . . . 

10. I shook hands with a famous person. Have you 
ever . . . 

11. I helped another person with English. Have you 
ever . . . 

12. I slept in a tent. Have you ever . . . 

13. I drove a truck. Have you ever . . . 

14. I had a car accident. Have you ever . . . 

15. I studied biology. Have you ever . . . 

16. I once played a violin. Have you ever . . . 



Exercise 10, p. 41. 

1 . The Browns have decided to grow their own 
vegetables. 

2. It's past midnight. Where have you been? 

3. Laura has offered to help us move into our new 
apartment. 

4. Is Nick in trouble again? What's he done this 
time? 

5. Janet has traveled all over the world. 

6. Her parents have traveled a lot too. 



Exercise 11, p. 42. 

1. My teacher's in the classroom. 

2. Your teacher has already left. 

3. All of the other teachers have already left too. 

4. You're late! Where have you been? 

5. Susan has a guilty look on her face. What's she 
done? 

6. Finally! The mail's come. 

7. My neighbors have lived in the same apartment for 
over thirty years. 

8. Vicky's planning a trip to Brazil. 

9. It's great to see you. How have you been? 

10. India's been an independent country since 1947. 

1 1 . The weather's very nice. 

12. The weather's been warm lately. 

13. The children have finished their drawings. 

14. Ruth has read four novels so far this month. 



Exercise 18, p. 48. 

A: Good to see you! So, what have you been up to lately? 

B: Not too much. I've been taking it easy. 

A: How nice! Glad to hear you haven't been working 

too hard. By the way, how are your parents? I 

haven't seen them for a while. 
B: They're doing great. They're traveling now that 

they're retired. 
A: How long have they been retired? 
B: Gosh, I don't know. It's been a couple of years now. 
A: So, they've been traveling a lot? 
B: Yeah. They've been staying in warm, sunny places in 

the winter and spending summers here. 
A: What a great way to spend retirement! I'm glad to 

hear they're enjoying themselves. 

Exercise 20, p. 49. 

1 . Susan got to the doctor's office at 9:00 A.M. It is now 
9:30, and she's still in the waiting room. 

2. Alexi arrived in this country last month. He bought 
a motorcycle right away and uses it to get around 
town. 

3. Joe will soon make his decision about which job 
to take. 

4. Mika is stuck in rush-hour traffic. She's going to be 
late for her first day of work at a new job. She left 
home at 7:00 and now it's 8:30. 

5. Andrew and Donna are in the middle of a chess 
match. They're getting tired and would like some 
lunch. Their chess match started three hours ago. 

Exercise 25, p. 52. 

1. I'm sorry we missed the meeting. We had forgotten 
about it. 

2. The movie had already begun by the time we got 
there. 

3. I couldn't change my schedule. I had already 
planned my day. 

4. I got home late. My roommate had already gone 
to bed. 

Exercise 26, p. 53. 

1 . We had never seen it. He had never seen it. They had 
never seen it. 

2. We got home late. The children had already fallen 
asleep. 

3. My roommates had finished dinner by the time I got 
home. 

4. My roommates had dinner early. 

5. We couldn't drive across the river. The flood had 
washed away the bridge. 

6. You were at Jim's at 8:00. Where had you been 
before that? 

7. I had never visited there before. I'd like to go again. 
I had a good time. 



Chapter 3 



LISTENING SCRIPT 453 



Exercise 27, p. 53. 

1. You're a new student, aren't you? How long've you 
been in this country? 

2. You must miss your old neighbor. How long had you 
known Mr. Kim before he moved away? 

3. You're looking for Jack? Jack has left. He isn't here. 

4. We were late, and Natasha had left by the time we 
got there. 

5. Unfortunately, I didn't have my cell phone with me 
when we got lost. I'd left it at home. 

6. Since we're teachers, we have the summers off and 
do a lot of traveling. We'd like to travel to Africa 
next. 

7. Talk about long marriages! Can you believe that Mr. 
and Mrs. Cho have been married for 65 years? 

8. Serena's an amazing chef. She's created so many 
new and popular dishes that it's almost impossible 
to get a reservation at her restaurant. 

Exercise 28, p. 54. 

A Pleasant Surprise 

Last night Amy got home from work two hours late. 
Usually she's home by 7:30, but last night she didn't get 
there until almost 9:30. 

When she got home, her husband, Jamal, had already 
eaten dinner and was washing the dishes. With a worried 
tone in his voice, he asked her where she'd been. She told 
him she'd had to work late, and then, on her way home, 
there'd been a big accident that had slowed traffic to a 
crawl. He asked her why she hadn't called. She said she'd 
forgotten to recharge her cell phone, so she couldn't call 
him. 

Jamal smiled warmly and said that he was just glad 
that she was safely home. Then he offered to make her 
dinner — which she gratefully accepted. A home-cooked 
meal sounded wonderful. It'd been a long day! 

Exercise 33, p. 58. 

1. Yoko has recently learned to ski. 

2. Yoko has been learning how to ski. 

3. Mia has worked as an auto mechanic, but she 
prefers other types of work. 

4. Jon has been traveling since he received his job 
promotion a month ago. 

5 . Jon had been working in sales when he became 
vice-president for human resources. 



Chapter 4: Future Time 

Exercise 3, p. 61. 

1 . Let's go to the beach. The children enjoy going 
there. 

2. Yes, I'm sure they'll enjoy it. 

3. The children'll enjoy going to the beach. 

4. We meet at the library every Wednesday night for 
our book club. 

5. We'll meet you in the reference section of the library. 



6. Where'll I find information on organic gardening? 

7. You'll find the information you're looking for in the 
gardening section of our bookstore. 

8. These books have the information you're looking 
for. 

Exercise 5, p. 62. 

1 . You'll need to turn in all your assignments by 
tomorrow. 

2. We'll review for the final exam on Monday. 

3. The test'll have 50 questions. 

4. There'll be 50 questions on the exam. 

5. You'll have the whole hour to complete the test. 

6. It's a long exam. Sorry, but nobody'll finish early. 

7. It'll be a lot of work. Study hard! 

8. The results'll be available in my office the next day. 

Exercise 6, p. 62. 

1 . Next in the news: The United Nations is going to 
vote on the new trade resolution tomorrow 
afternoon. 

2. The election's almost here. I think I'm going to 
(gonna) vote for Carol Johnson. I like her. 

3. Good evening, ladies and gentleman. It is clear that 
our town has a number of problems. What are we 
going to do to make our town a better place to live? 
I'd like to offer a few suggestions this evening. 

4. Oh, no! We're out of gas. We're in the middle of 
nowhere. It's past midnight. Yikes! What're we going 
to (gonna) do? 

Exercise 12, p. 66. 

1 . So, you were talking about your plans for the 
summer. What are you going to do? 

2. Can you help me out? I've got to get this letter in the 
mail by noon. 

3. Tell me again. Why are you leaving work early? 

4. Darn, this flashlight doesn't work. 

5. Here's the broom. What did you want it for? 

Chapter 5: Review of Verb Tenses 

Exercise 4, p. 78. 

A Silly Mistake 

When I got home to my apartment last night, I took out 
my key to open the door as usual. As always, I put it in the 
lock, but the door didn't open. I tried my key again and 
again with no luck. So I knocked on the door for my wife 
to let me in. Finally the door opened, but I didn't see my 
wife on the other side. I saw a stranger. I had been trying 
to get into the wrong apartment! I quickly apologized and 
went to my own. I felt very stupid about what I had done. 

Exercise 8, p. 80. 

1 . Flight 907 landed at 8:06 P.M. 

2. It was evening, and Greg was home alone. He was 
lying on his couch in the living room. He had been 
listening to classical music for almost an hour. 



454 LISTENING SCRIPT 



Chapters 4 and 5 



3. This wet weather is getting very tiresome. It's been 
raining for days. 

4. On the way to the theater, we got stuck in traffic, so 
we were late. The concert was just starting as we 
walked in. 

5. Janice is interested in learning to fly a small plane. 
She's had two lessons so far. 

6. There was a robbery at the bank ten minutes ago, 
and the police still haven't come. By the time they 
get here, the thief '11 be far away. 



Chapter 6: Subject-Verb Agreement 

Exercise 3, p. 85. 

1. ride/z/ 4. rug/z/ 7. wish/sz/ 

2. write/s/ 5. sleep/s/ 8. page/3z/ 

3. rob/z/ 6. lock/s/ 9. month/s/ 

Exercise 5, p. 86. 

1 . Cats sleep eighteen hours a day. 

2. People come in many shapes and sizes. 

3. Maria practices pronunciation by reading sentences 
aloud. 

4. The cafeteria serves good sandwiches. 

5. Our teacher encourages us to speak English outside 
of class. 

6. When Jack has a cold, he coughs and sneezes. 

Exercise 9, p. 88. 

1 . The students . . . 

2. The students in this classroom . . . 

3. Each student . . . 

4. Every student . . . 

5. Every student in Mrs. Walker's classes . . . 

6. The students and teachers . . . 

7. Every student and teacher . . . 

8. Each student and teacher . . . 

Exercise 15, p. 91. 

1. Still hungry? There 're some leftovers in the fridge. 

2. If you want more to eat, there's an apple left over 
from lunch. 

3. Don't leave yet.There're email messages waiting for 
your response. 

4. Excuse me. There's someone on the phone for you. 

5. I need your help. Is there a place we could go to 
talk? 

6. It's very crowded. Are there chairs for us to sit 
down? 

7. I think there're extra chairs in the hallway. 

8. Moving is a lot of work. Is there anything I can do 
to help? 



Chapter 7: Nouns 

Exercise 14, p. 108. 

1 . Joseph and Rob are taxi drivers. 

2. They're drivers. They drive taxis for a living. 

3. Maria and her sister have good jobs. They're office 
managers. 

4. Managers of big offices have a lot of responsibilities. 

5. I don't enjoy traveling in airplanes anymore. The 
seats are getting smaller and smaller. 

6. Airplane seats are getting more and more 
uncomfortable, don't you think? 

7. Schools often offer a lot of after-school activities for 
students. 

8. Anna enjoys school activities such as playing on the 
soccer team and being in the debate club. 

Exercise 23, p. 117. 

1 . My boss has unreasonable expectations. 

2. This is not an easy situation to deal with. 

3. I feel uneasy about this situation. 

4. This is a difficult situation. 

5. My boss has made an unreasonable request. 

6. The speaker presented a complicated problem. 

7. The speaker presented complicated problems. 

8. The presentation was uncomplicated. 

Exercise 30, p. 121. 

Computer Bugs 

When there is a problem with a computer, we often 
say we have a "computer bug." Of course, it's not a real 
insect. It refers to a technical difficulty we are having. 
The expression actually goes back to Thomas Edison, 
who was a famous inventor. When he was working on his 
first phonograph, he had a lot of problems. He attributed 
the problems to an imaginary insect that had hidden 
inside the machine. He is quoted in a newspaper as 
saying there was "a bug" in his phonograph. This was in 
1889, and it is the first recorded use of the word bug in 
such a context. 

Exercise 39, p. 128. 

1. I don't really like much salt on my food. 

2. I have a long plane ride ahead of me. 

3. Mr. Hong arrived in Canada only a few days ago. 
He's never studied English. I think he knows how to 
say "hello," but I haven't heard him say any other 
English words. 

4. Talk to Mr. Hong's daughter. She studied English in 
school before they emigrated. If you speak slowly, 
she'll understand you, and you can have a 
conversation with her. 

5. Linda is in Mexico, but she can't speak Spanish. She 
can't find a job. She's almost out of money. 



Chapters 6 and 7 



LISTENING SCRIPT 455 



6. Billy has loving parents and grandparents. He's 
healthy and happy. He has cousins and friends to 
play with. He's a lucky little boy. 

7. Mr. Perez doesn't know how to be a good boss. He 
has a bad temper and yells at people all the time 
about nothing. 



Chapter 8: Pronouns 



Exercise 10, p. 139. 

1. Where's Kim? 

A: I don't know. I haven't seen him this morning. 
B: I think he's in the restroom. 
C: I'm looking for him too. 
D: Ask his assistant. He'll know. 
E: Have you tried looking in his office? I know he's 
not there much, but maybe he'll surprise you. 

2. The Nelsons are giving their daughter a motorcycle 
for graduation. 

A: Hmmm. Does she like motorcycles that much? 
B: Really? Is she a motorcycle rider? 
C: That's an odd gift. I wonder what they were 
thinking. 

D: That's what the Smiths gave their son. I think 

he's already had an accident. 
E: I'm not a fan of motorcycles. Cars just don't see 

them in traffic. 
F: I think it's a wonderful gift! I've had mine for 

years, and it's been great. 



Exercise 20, p. 146. 

1 . Hey Jon, I see you finally cleaned your apartment. 
How did you find the time to do it . . . 

2. Do you like my dress? I made it . . . 

3. We were going to take a trip with our cousins, but 
the plans got so complicated that we finally decided 
to go by . . . 

4. My brother has an antique car. He restored it . . . 

5. Mr. and Mrs. Peterson are planning to sell their 
house. They are going to put an ad in the paper and 
sell it . . . 

6. My sister-in-law is an architect. She designed her 
office . . . 



Exercise 30, p. 151. 

1 . This coffee is delicious. Could I please have another 
cup? 

2. The coffee isn't in this grocery bag, so I'll look in 
the other one. 

3. There are supposed to be ten chairs in the room, but 
I count only five. Where are the others? 

4. No, let's not use this printer. Let's use the other one. 



5. Bob is a nickname for Robert. Others are Rob and 
Robbie. 

6. The sky is clearing. It's going to be another 
beautiful day. 

Exercise 34, p. 154. 

1 . The teacher asked the students the same question. 
One after another they gave the wrong answer. 

2. Mr. and Mrs. Clark lead such busy lives that they 
see each other only on weekends. 

3. Mr. Perez is doing fine. Susan spoke with him just 
the other day. 

4. A: I have a secret about Danny and me. 
B: Let me guess. You 're engaged! 

A: Yes! But it's a secret. We haven't told anyone 
other than you. 

5. A: Have you sent party invitations yet? 

B: Everyone except Jan knows about the surprise 
party. 

Chapter 9: Modals, Part 1 

Exercise 7, p. 161. 

1 . This is a non-smoking restaurant. Would you mind 
putting out your cigarette? 

2. The music's awfully loud. Would you mind if I 
turned it down? 

3. It's getting cool in here. Would you mind closing the 
window? 

4. I can't reach the salt and pepper. Would you mind 
passing it to me? 

5. I can't talk now. Mind if I called you back? 

Exercise 17, p. 166. 
Situation 1: Class registration 

Here is some important information you need for class 
registration next Monday. If you are a new student, you 
will need to register in person. Bring some form of photo 
ID, such as a passport or driver's license, or you cannot 
register. If you are a returning student, you can register 
online or in person. 

Situation 2: Class changes and tuition 

If you want to change classes next week, you need to 
do so in person. You cannot do this online. Also, it is very 
important that you pay your tuition in full by the second 
week of classes, which is the deadline for payment, or you 
will have to drop your classes. 

Exercise 24, p. 169. 

1 . The key's in the desk drawer, but it's not necessary 
to lock the front door when you leave. 

2. When you apply for a visa, it's very important that 
you show proof of citizenship. 

3. It's a good idea to arrive at the airport early 
tomorrow. The security lines will be long. 

4. Only airline passengers with boarding passes will be 
allowed into the boarding area. 



456 LISTENING SCRIPT 



Chapters 8 and 9 



Exercise 26, p. 170. 

1 . Your sister is broke now because she spent all her 
money carelessly. 

2. Your friends went to Hawaii over vacation. They had 
a good time. You didn't go with them, and now you 
are sorry. 

3. Jack had too much coffee, and now he can't sleep. 

4. The little girl told a lie. She got into a lot of trouble. 



Chapter 1 0: Modals, Part 2 

Exercise 9, p. 184. 

Situation: Tom and his young son, Billy, hear a noise on 
the roof. 

Tom: I wonder what that noise is. 
Billy: It may be a bird. 

Tom: It can't be a bird. It's running across the roof. 

Birds don't run across roofs. 
Billy: Well, some birds do. It could be a big bird that's 

running fast. 

Tom: No, I think it must be some kind of animal. It 

might be a mouse. 
Billy: It sounds much bigger than a mouse. It may be 

a dragon! 

Tom: Son, it couldn't be a dragon. We don't have any 
dragons around here. They exist only in 
storybooks. 

Billy: It could be a little dragon that you don't know 
about. 

Tom: Well, I suppose it might be some kind of lizard. 

Billy: I'll go look. 

Tom: That's a good idea. 

Billy: Guess what, Dad. It's a rat! 

Exercise 21, p. 192. 

What's wrong? Your parents look upset. 

1 . We should ask them. 

2. We shouldn't ask them. 

3. You may have upset them. 

4. You should try to find out. 

5. Maybe you shouldn't have stayed out so late. 

6. You'd better have a good excuse for being late. 

7. You could have told them what you planned to do. 

8. You must have known your behavior would cause 
problems. 

Exercise 31, p. 199. 

1 . The secretary can help you. 

2. My mother can't speak English. 

3. My friend can meet you at the airport. 

4. Mr. Smith can answer your question. 

5. We can't come to the meeting. 

6. Can't you come? 

7. You can take that course. 



8. I can't cook. 

9. I can't drive a stick-shift car. 
10. Our son can count to ten. 

Exercise 33, p. 200. 

An Experiment in Human Behavior 

A researcher in human behavior conducted an 
experiment. First she talked to a group of four-year-olds. 

"How many of you can dance?" All of the children 
raised their hands. 

"How many of you can sing?" All of the hands shot up. 

"And finally, how many of you can draw?" Every 
child's hand was raised. 

Next the researcher went to a college class of twenty- 
five students in their late teens and early twenties. 

"How many of you can dance?" she asked. About a 
third of the students raised their hands. 

"How many of you can sing?" Some hands were 
raised, but fewer than were raised for the first question. 

"How many of you can draw?" Only two hands 
went up. 

Exercise 44, p. 208. 

1. Carlos was planning to come to the party, but he 
didn't show up. It was a great party. There was 
delicious food, and we danced until midnight. 

2. I have a whole lot of material I need to review before 
the exam, but I just don't feel like studying this 
afternoon. 

3. Tony's over an hour late for our meeting. That's not 
like him. I hope nothing bad has happened. 

4. Rick was supposed to be at work early today to train 
his new assistant, but he woke up with a high fever. 
He can't even get out of bed. 

5. The teacher called on Sonya in class yesterday, but 
she kept looking out the window and didn't respond. 



Chapter 1 1 : The Passive 

Exercise 10, p. 216. 

1 . A famous architect has been asked to design the new 
library. 

2. There was a group of noisy kids at the movie 
theater. They had been told several times to leave. 

3. I was ignored by the salesclerk while she spent five 
minutes talking on the phone. 

4. After the speech, the audience will ask the speaker 
follow-up questions. 

5. The staff is planning a retirement party for Dr. 
Wilson. 

6. Since the beginning of the modern industrial age, 
many of the natural habitats of plants and animals 
have been altered or destroyed by human 
development. 



Chapters 10 and 1 1 



LISTENING SCRIPT 457 



Exercise 15, p. 219. 

How Chocolate Is Made 

Chocolate is made from the seeds of roasted cocoa 
beans. After the seeds have been roasted, the inside of the 
seed is pressed into a liquid. This liquid is called 
chocolate liquor. The liquor contains fat, which is 
separated from the liquor. After this has been done, a 
solid is left. This solid, which is known as cocoa cake, is 
ground up and becomes unsweetened cocoa. This is a 
very bitter chocolate. To make it taste better, other 
substances such as cocoa butter and sugar will be added 
later. 

Exercise 22, p. 224. 

The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami 

In 2004, several countries that border the Indian 
Ocean, including Indonesia, Thailand, India, Malaysia, 
and Somalia, were hit by an earthquake and subsequent 
tsunami. (As you may already know, a tsunami is a giant 
ocean wave.) In just a few short hours, millions of lives 
were changed forever. The earthquake was measured at 
9.3 on the Richter scale. It was the fourth largest 
earthquake since 1900 and the second largest that has 
ever been recorded on the Richter scale. 

The quake was followed by four giant waves as high as 
100 feet (or 30 meters). Whole villages were destroyed. 
Thousands of people were swept out to sea, and many 
others died due to lack of medical care. In total, almost 
300,000 people were killed, and 1.3 million people were 
left homeless. Aftershocks from the earthquake continued 
for several days. 

Tragically, the damage could have been lessened if 
there had been a tsunami early-warning system. Such a 
system already exists for the Pacific Ocean, but it doesn't 
reach to the Indian Ocean. Since the tsunami disaster, 
governments have been working together to develop an 
early-warning system so that Southeast Asia will not 
experience such destruction again from a tsunami. 

Exercise 30, p. 230. 

1. Water is composed of hydrogen and oxygen. 

2. I am not acquainted with Dr. William's books. 

3. I'm finally accustomed to living here. 

4. You're so busy. I think you're involved in too many 
activities. 

5. Are you prepared for the next test? 

6. Mr. and Mrs. Miller are devoted to each other. 

7. I'm concerned about my grandfather's health. 

8. Are you satisfied with your progress? 

Exercise 43, p. 237. 

1. Excuse me. Your application form has some missing 
information. 

2. As the owner of her own design business, Carol 
works hard to have satisfied customers. 

3. After the earthquake, frightened residents were 
afraid to sleep indoors for several days. 



4. I think James will be single forever. He's just not the 
marrying type. 

5. The airplane pilot had a few scary moments when 
lightning hit his plane. 

6. The finished product was exactly what the client had 
asked for. 

Exercise 44, p. 238. 

1 . When I ride on a roller coaster, my heart pounds 
with excitement. The ride is . . . 

2. During the ride, I feel . . . 

3. The art museum has an exhibit that people are upset 
about. People who visit the museum are . . . 

4. People say that the exhibit is . . . 

5. My parents enjoy talking with my friend, Maria. 
They find her . . . 

6. Maria gets along well with my parents. She thinks 
they are . . . 

7. Not one of the students could understand Professor 
Steven's explanations. Whenever he explains a math 
problem, the students become more . . . 

8. His explanations are terribly . . . 

Exercise 47, p. 239. 

The Olympic Games 

The Olympic Games began more than 2,000 years ago 
in Olympia, a small town in Greece. The games were 
established for two purposes. One was to showcase the 
physical qualities and athletic performances of its young 
men. At that time, only Greek males were allowed to 
compete. In fact, women were not even permitted to 
watch the games, and the only spectators were men. The 
other goal was to encourage good relationships among 
Greek cities. People of other nationalities were not 
invited to participate. 

The winner of each event was crowned with a wreath 
made of olive leaves. Additionally, his statue could be 
placed in Olympia for all to see. Winning athletes were 
treated as heroes when they returned to their cities 
because with their victory, they brought fame and honor 
to their hometowns. 



Chapter 1 2: Noun Clauses 

Exercise 11, p. 248. 

1 . A: It's a beautiful day. Let's walk over to Lakeside 

Park. It's not far from here, is it? 
B: Gosh, I don't know how far it is. 

2. A: Do you want to walk to the farmers' market with 

me tomorrow morning? They have lots of fresh 
fruits and vegetables. 
B: Gee, I don't know. Maybe. How far is it? 

3. A: That was a terrible movie! 

B: I agree. I don't know why we watched the whole 
thing. 



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Chapter 12 



4. A: I watched an awful movie on TV last night. 
B: Well, if it was awful, why did you watch it? 

5. A: Is Jeannie going to be 49 or 50 this year? 

B: I don't know. I can never remember how old 
she is. 

6. A: Excuse me. I'm still unsure about the 

pronunciation of that word. 
B: Which one? 

A: This one right here. How is this word 
pronounced? 

7. A: You look upset. 

B: I am. I'm very upset. 
A: So, what is the problem? 

Exercise 41, p. 264. 

1 . I'm not going to the personnel meeting because I 
have to finish a report. 

2. I can't lend Marta any money because my wallet is 
in my coat pocket back at home. 

3. Someone in this room is wearing very strong 
perfume. It's giving me a headache. 

4. Hi, Emma. I'll meet you at the coffee shop at 9:00. 
I promise not to be late. 

5. I'm considering looking for a new job. What do you 
think I should do? 

6. We are going to be late for the concert. My wife has 
to attend a business function after work. 



Chapter 1 3: Adjective Clauses 

Exercise 5, p. 271. 
Part I. 

1. He has a friend who'll help him. 

2. He has a friend who's helping him. 

3. He has a friend who's helped him. 

4. He has friends who're helping him. 

5. He has friends who've helped him. 

6. He has a friend who'd helped him. 

7. He has a friend who'd like to help him. 

Part II. 

8. We know a person who'll be great for the job. 

9. We know a person who'd like to apply for the job. 

10. That's the man who's giving the speech at our 
graduation. 

11. I know a nurse who's traveled around the world 
helping people. 

12. Let's talk to the people who're planning the protest 
march. 

13. There are people at the factory who've worked there 
all their adult lives. 

14. The doctor who'd been taking care of my mother 
retired. 



Exercise 19, p. 278. 

1 . I met the man who's going to become the new 
manager of our department. 

2. I know someone who's never flown in an airplane. 

3. I talked to the man whose wife was in the car 
accident on Fifth Street yesterday. She's in the 
hospital, but she's going to be okay. 

4. I forget the name of the woman who's going to call 
you later — Mrs. Green or Mrs. White or something 
like that. 

5. I need to hurry. The neighbor whose bike I 
borrowed is waiting for me to return it. 

6. I got an email from a friend who's studying in 
Malaysia. It was really good to hear from her. 

7. I recently heard from a friend who's been out of the 
country for over two months. He finally sent me an 
email. 

8. I'm thinking about getting a pet. There's a woman at 
work whose dog just had puppies. I might adopt 
one. 

Exercise 21, 279. 

1 . That's the person who's going to help us. 

2. That's the person whose help we need. 

3. I'd like to introduce you to a teacher who's spent 
time in Africa. 

4. I'd like to introduce you to the teacher whose 
husband is from Africa. 

5. The company is looking for a person who's 
bilingual. 

6. The company is looking for a person whose native 
language is Arabic. 

7. The company is looking for a person who's had a lot 
of experience in sales. 

8. They want to hire a person who's familiar with their 
sales territory. 

Exercise 29, p. 281. 

1 . The man who organized the community dinner is a 
friend of mine. 

2. Two people died in the accident that blocked all 
lanes of the highway for two hours. 

3. The small town where I was born is now a large city. 

4. The music teacher who directs the school band 
plays in a rock band on weekends. 

5. The camera that Jack gave me for my birthday takes 
excellent digital pictures. 

6. My neighbor often drops in for a visit about the time 
when we would like to sit down to dinner. 

Exercise 33, p. 284. 

A: Do you see that guy who's wearing the baseball cap? 
B: I see two guys that're wearing baseball caps. Do you 

mean the one whose T-shirt says "Be Happy"? 
A: Yeah, him. Do you remember him from high school? 

He looks a little different now, doesn't he? Isn't he 

the one whose wife joined the circus? 



Chapter 13 



LISTENING SCRIPT 459 



B: Nah, I heard that story too. That was just a rumor. 
When the circus was in town last summer, his wife 
spent a lot of time there, so people started 
wondering why. Some people started saying she was 
working there as a performer. But the truth is that 
she was only visiting a cousin who's a manager for 
the circus. She just wanted to spend time with him 
while he was in town. 

A: Well, you know, it was a story that sounded pretty 
fishy to me. But people sure enjoyed talking about it. 
The last thing that I heard was that she'd learned 
how to eat fire and swallow swords! 

B: Rumors really take on a life of their own, don't they?! 

Exercise 36, p. 286. 

1 . Did you hear about the man who rowed a boat 
across the Atlantic Ocean? 

2. My uncle, who loves boating, rows his boat across 
the lake near his house nearly every day. 

3. Tea, which is a common drink throughout the 
world, is made by pouring boiling water onto the 
dried leaves of certain plants. 

4. Tea which is made from herbs is called herbal tea. 

5. Toys which contain lead paint are unsafe for 
children. 

6. Lead, which can be found in paint and plastics, is 
known to cause brain damage in children. 

Exercise 39, p. 288. 

1 . My mother looked in the fruit basket and threw 
away the apples that were rotten. 

2. My mother looked in the fruit basket and threw 
away the apples, which were rotten. 

3. The students who had done well on the test were 
excused from class early. 

4. The students, who had done well on the test, were 
excused from class early. 

Exercise 52, p. 295. 

1. The fence surrounding our house is made of wood. 

2. The children attending that school receive a good 
education. 

3. Dr. Stanton, the president of the university, will give 
a speech at the commencement ceremonies. 

4. Our solar system is in a galaxy called the Milky Way. 

Exercise 56, p. 297. 

Animals and Earthquakes 

Whether or not animals can predict earthquakes has 
been widely debated for hundreds of years. In fact, as far 
back as 373 B.C. villagers reported that hundreds of 
animals deserted the Greek town of Helice a few days 
before an earthquake destroyed it. There are other 
interesting phenomena that scientists have noted. For 
example, before an earthquake, dogs may begin barking or 
howling for no reason] chickens might stop laying eggs; 
and some pets will go into hiding. 



I In Asia in 2004, many animals that were accustomed to 
being on the beach in the early morning refused to go 
there the morning of the big tsunami. In Thailand, a herd 
of buffalo on a beach noticed or heard something which 
made them run to the top of a hill before the tsunami was 
anywhere in sight. The villagers who followed them were 
saved. 

What causes this strange behavior in animals? One 
theory is that they can sense the earth move before 
people can. There are vibrations deep in the earth that 
begin before an earthquake can be detected. Another 
idea is that the energy in the air changes and that animals 
are disturbed by these changes. 

Some scientists dismiss these ideas, while others believe 
that they are worth researching further. Those scientists 
who have witnessed this strange animal behavior are certain 
that animals are far more sensitive to subde changes in the 
earth than people are and that studying their behavior can 
be useful in die prediction of earthquakes. 

Chapter 14: Gerunds and Infinitives, 
Part 1 

Exercise 6, p. 305. 



1. 


A: 


I'm sorry I'm late. 




B: 


No problem. We have lots of time. 


2. 


A: 


I finished the project early. 




B: 


That's great you got it done so quickly. 


3. 


A: 


I hate to do housework. 




B: 


I know. I do too. It's a lot of work. 


4. 


A: 


You were a big help. Thanks. 




B: 


Sure. I was happy to help out. 


5. 


A: 


Your report isn't finished. What's your excuse? 




B: 


Uh, well, sorry. I don't really have one. 


6. 


A: 


How do you like the food here? 




B: 


It's too spicy. I can't eat much of it. 


7. 


A: 


How was your weekend? Did you go away for the 






holiday? 




B: 


No. I got the flu and spent the whole weekend in 






bed. 



Exercise 13, p. 308. 

1 . A: What should we do tomorrow night? 

B: Let's just stay home and watch a movie. There's 

nothing I like to do better on a weekend. 
A: Sounds good to me. 

2. A: I was really looking forward to the hike up to 

Skyline Ridge to see the mountains, but I guess 
we're not going to get there this mondi. 
B: It doesn't look like it. I don't think there's any 
hope. It's supposed to rain the rest of this week 
and into next week. 

3. A: Do you want to take a break? 

B: No, we have to finish this report by 5:00. We 
don't have time for a break. 

4. A: Let's go into the city this weekend. There's a 

great concert at the park. And it's free! 
B: Great idea! Who's playing? 



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Chapter 14 



5. A: Gosh, I'd really like to go out this eveningj but I 

have all this work to do. I have three papers due, 
and I haven't begun to write any of them. 
B: I know how you feel. I'm way behind in my 
homework too. 

6. A: I just heard that there's an accident on the 

freeway and nothing's moving. I don't want our 

drive home to take hours. 
B: Me neither. Let's not leave the office for another 

couple of hours. We can get caught up on our work. 
A: Good idea. I have so much to do. 

Exercise 17, p. 309. 

Ron 's Busy Saturday 

Ron is an active individual. On his days off, he likes to 
do several activities in one day. His friends can't keep up 
with him. 

Last Saturday, for example, he began by going canoeing 
early in the morning. He finds early mornings on the lake 
very calm and relaxing. He brought a fishing rod with him 
so he could go fishing and perhaps catch something for 
dinner. He saw some friends getting their sailboat ready 
and thought about going sailing with them, but decided 
instead to go swimming. By that time, it was only noon! 

After lunch, he went biking in the hills behind his town. 
He cooked a fish that he had caught for dinner, and it was 
delicious. Later, some friends called to invite him out, so 
he finished the day by going dancing with them. 

Exercise 22, p. 312. 

1 . I have a terrible memory. I can't even remember my 
children's birthdays. 

2. My teenage son tried to hide his report card, but I 
caught him. 

3. I'm in a hurry in the mornings. I always stand at the 
kitchen counter and eat my breakfast. 

4. Foreign languages are hard for me to learn. 

5. I sat in traffic for two hours. It was a waste of time. 

6. We sang songs on the bus trip. It was fun. 

7. I looked all over forTom. He was studying in the 
library. 

8. There was a line to buy movie tickets. I had to wait 
for an hour. 

Exercise 31, p. 318. 

1. Joan remembered to call her husband before she left 
work yesterday. 

2. Rita remembered going to the farmers' market with 
her grandmother. 

3. Roger stopped smoking when the doctor told him he 
had heart disease. 

4. Mr. and Mrs. Olson stopped to eat before the movie. 

5. I regret leaving school before I graduated. 

Chapter 1 5: Gerunds and Infinitives, 
Part 2 

Exercise 14, p. 336. 

1 . That dinner was delicious, Nancy. 



2. Do you leave your daughter home alone when you 
go out? 

3. I think our English is getting a lot better, but 
learning a second language isn't easy. 

4. I used a new laundry detergent on these shirts. How 
did it work? 

5. Mr. Jones is 99 years old. He's too old to drive. 

6. We need 20 big envelopes, but we only have 10. 

Exercise 36, p. 348. 

An Issue in Health Care: Illiteracy 

According to some estimates, well over half of the 
people in the world are functionally illiterate. This means 
that they are unable to perform everyday tasks because 
they can't read, understand, and respond appropriately to 
information. One of the problems this creates in health 
care is that millions of people are not able to read 
directions on medicine bottles or packages. Imagine being 
a parent with a sick child and being unable to read the 
directions on a medicine bottle. We all know that it is 
important for medical directions to be understood clearly. 
One solution is pictures. Many medical professionals are 
working today to solve this problem by using pictures to 
convey health-care information. 

Exercise 39, p. 350. 

Protecting Yourself in a Lightning Storm 

Lightning storms can occur suddenly and without 
warning. It's important to know how to stay safe if you're 
outside when a storm begins. Some people stand under 
trees or in open shelters like picnic areas in order to 
protect themselves. They are surprised to hear that this 
can be a fatal mistake. Tall objects are likely to attract 
lightning, so when you are out in the open, you should 
try to make yourself as small as possible. Crouching 
down or curling up into a ball lessens the chance that a 
lightning bolt will strike you. Finding a depression in the 
ground to hide in, like a hole or a ditch, is even better. 

Being inside a building is safer than being outside, but 
it's not without dangers. Be careful to stay away from 
doors and windows. If you're talking on a phone with a 
cord, hang up. Lightning has been known to travel along 
a phone cord and strike the person holding the phone. 
Even TVs can conduct lightning through the cable or 
antenna, so it's a good idea to stay away from the 
television. It's also inadvisable to take a shower or bath 
since plumbing can conduct electricity from lightning. 
How safe are cars? Surprisingly, the inside of a car is safe 
as long as it has a metal roof, but avoid touching any part 
of the car that leads to the outside. 

There's a 30/30 rule regarding lightning. As soon as 
you see lightning, begin counting the seconds until you 
hear thunder. If you hear thunder before you reach 30, 
this means you need to seek shelter immediately. 
Additionally, even if the storm has passed, you want to 
stay in a protected place for 30 minutes after you hear 
the last sounds of thunder or have seen the last flashes of 
lightning. Many lightning deaths, in fact more than half 
in the United States, occur after a storm has passed. 



Chapter 15 



LISTENING SCRIPT 461 



Chapter 1 6: Coordinating 
Conjunctions 

Exercise 5, p. 354. 

1 . My bedroom has a bed, a desk, and a lamp. 

2. The price of the meal includes a salad, a main dish, 
and dessert. 

3. The price of the meal includes a salad and a main dish. 

4. Elias waited for his son, wife, and daughter. 

5. Elias waited for his son's wife and daughter. 

6. Susan raised her hand, snapped her fingers, and 
asked a question. 

7. Red, yellow, gold, and olive green are the main 
colors in the fabric. 

8. I love films full of action, adventure, and suspense. 

9. I love action and adventure films. 

10. Travel is fatal to prejudice, bigotry, and narrow- 
mindedness. 

Exercise 14, p. 359. 

1 . Ben will call either Mary or Bob. 

2. Both my mother and father talked to my teacher. 

3. Simon saw not only a whale but also a dolphin. 

4. Our neighborhood had neither electricity nor water 
after the storm. 

5. Either Mr. Anderson or Ms. Wiggins is going to 
teach our class today. 

Exercise 16, p. 360. 

Bats 

(1) What do people in your country think of bats? Are 
they mean and scary creatures, or are they symbols of 
both happiness and luck? 

(2) In Western countries, many people have an 
unreasoned fear of bats. According to scientist Dr. 
Sharon Horowitz, bats are not only harmless but also 
beneficial mammals. "When I was a child, I believed that 
a bat would attack me and tangle itself in my hair. Now I 
know better," said Dr. Horowitz. 

(3) Contrary to popular Western myths, bats do not 
attack humans. Although a few bats may have diseases, 
they are not major carriers of rabies or other frightening 
diseases. Bats help natural plant life by pollinating plants, 
spreading seeds, and eating insects. If you get rid of bats 
that eat overripe fruit, then fruit flies can flourish and 
destroy the fruit industry. 

(4) According to Dr. Horowitz, bats are both gentle 
and trainable pets. Not many people, however, own or 
train bats, and bats themselves prefer to avoid people. 

Exercise 19, p. 362. 

1 . Both Jamal and I had many errands to do yesterday. 
Jamal had to go to the post office and the bookstore. 
I had to go to the post office, the travel agency, and 
the bank. 

2. Roberto slapped his hand on his desk in frustration. 
He had failed another examination and had ruined 
his chances for a passing grade in the course. 



3. When Alex got home, he took off his coat and tie, 
threw his briefcase on the kitchen table, and opened 
the refrigerator looking for something to eat. Ann 
found him sitting at the kitchen table when she got 
home. 

4. WhenTara went downtown yesterday, she bought 
birthday presents for her children, shopped for 
clothes, and saw a movie at the theater. It was a busy 
day, but she felt fine because it ended on a relaxing 
note. 

5. It was a wonderful picnic. The children waded in the 
stream, collected rocks and insects, and flew kites. 
The teenagers played an enthusiastic game of 
baseball. The adults busied themselves preparing the 
food, supervising the children, and playing some 
volleyball. 

Exercise 21, p. 363. 

Butte) flies 

A butterfly is a marvel. It begins as an ugly caterpillar 
and turns into a work of art. The sight of a butterfly 
floating from flower to flower on a warm, sunny day 
brightens anyone's heart. A butterfly is a charming and 
gentle creature. Caterpillars eat plants and cause damage 
to some crops, but adult butterflies feed principally on 
nectar from flowers and do not cause any harm. When 
cold weather comes, some butterflies travel great 
distances to reach tropical climates. They can be found 
on every continent except Antarctica. Because they are so 
colorful and beautiful, butterflies are admired throughout 
the world. 



Chapter 1 7: Adverb Clauses 

Exercise 11, p. 372. 

Cultural Misunderstandings 

Since Marco and Anya came to this country, they've 
had some memorable misunderstandings due to language 
and culture. The first time Marco met someone at a 
party, he was asked "How's it going?" Marco thought 
that the person was asking him about leaving, and that 
seemed very strange. 

Once, Anya walked into class, and a native speaker 
said, "Hi. How are you?" When Anya started to give a 
long answer, the native speaker looked at her rather 
oddly. This happened several times until Anya learned 
she was just supposed to say something like "Okay" or 
"Fine, thanks. And you?" 

Another time, Marco was at a restaurant and wanted 
to get the server's attention. He snapped his fingers. The 
server was not pleased. 

Since coming here, Marco and Anya have learned that 
cultural misunderstandings are a normal part of learning 
another language. They can be valuable and even 
entertaining learning experiences. Marco and Anya just 
I smile at these misunderstandings now. 



462 LISTENING SCRIPT 



Chapters 16 and 17 



Chapter 1 8: Reduction of Adverb 
Clauses to Modifying 
Adverbial Phrases 

Exercise 16, p. 395. 

1 . A: I don't want to play the piano at the family 

gathering. I don't play well enough. People will 
laugh at me. 
B: Oh, Rose, don't be silly. You play beautifully. 
Everyone will love hearing you. 

2. A: Jan, are you going to tell Thomas that he needs 

to do more work on the project? He hasn't done 
his share. He's being really lazy. 
B: Well, he'll probably get upset, but I'm going to 
talk with him about it this afternoon. 

3. A: I'm so relieved that I found my wedding ring. It'd 

been missing for a month. The next time I take it 
off, I'm going to put it in a box on top of my 
dresser drawer. 
B: That sounds like a wise thing to do, Susan. It'd 
be terrible to lose your wedding ring again. 

4. A: This is the first year I'm eligible to vote in the 

presidential election. I'm going to research all the 
candidates extensively. 
B: They have very different positions, Sam. It's 
good to get as much information as you can. 

Exercise 18, p. 396 

The QWERTY Keyboard 

Do you know why the letters on an English language 
keyboard are placed where they are? Take a minute and 
look at the second row on the keyboard in the picture. 
Notice that Q-W-E-R-T-Y are the first six letters 
beginning on the left. In fact, the keyboard is called 
"QWERTY." As you look at all the letters on the 
keyboard, does it seem to make any sense to you? Many 
people have wondered about this rather strange 
placement of keys, but as it turns out, there is a logical 
reason for the design. 

A man named Christopher Sholes, the inventor of the 
typewriter, came up with this keyboard in the 1860s. 
Wanting to create a logical design, Sholes first placed the 
letters in alphabetical order on his typewriter. He put two 
rows from A to Z on the keyboard. 

But Sholes found there was a problem. The letters were 
on typebars — typebars, by the way, are also called keys 
— and some of these keys crashed into one another. This 
happened when letters that often occur together in words, 
like "s" and "1," were near each other on the keyboard. 
The keys tended to hit each other and get stuck, and the 
typist would have to stop and pull them apart. 

Trying to figure out a way to keep the keys from 
hitting one another, Sholes made a list of letters 
commonly used together in English, like the pair I 
already mentioned, "s" and "1," or, for example, "q" and 
"u." He then rearranged these letters so they would be on 



opposite sides of the keyboard. If you look at a keyboard, 
"q" is on the left side and "u" is on the right side. He put 
the keys that were most likely to be hit one after the other 
on opposite sides of the keyboard. This keyboard became 
known as QWERTY. 

Nowadays, with computers, we don't have to worry 
about keys crashing into one another, so QWERTY is 
not necessarily the fastest and most efficient keyboard. 
Other people have come up with alternative keyboard 
patterns, but so far, none has gained much popularity. 
Having survived since the 1860s, QWERTY has 
demonstrated its longevity. It does not appear that it is 
going to be replaced any time soon by a faster, more 
efficient keyboard. 



Chapter 1 9: Connectives That Express 
Cause and Effect, 
Contrast, and Condition 

Exercise 33, p. 412. 

1 . Because I lift heavy boxes at work, . . . 

2. I bought a new TV even though . . . 

3. Even if I'm late for work, . . . 

4. I was late for work this morning; nevertheless, . . . 

5. The air-conditioning has been broken; therefore, . . . 

6. Although I live in a noisy city, . . . 

7. I was so tired last night that . . . 

Exercise 36, p. 414. 

Why We Yaivn 

Have you ever noticed that when a person near you 
yawns, you may start yawning too? This is called 
contagious yawning. Contagious in this sense means that 
the behavior spreads: when one person does something 
like yawn, it can cause others to do the same thing. 

There are various theories about why people yawn. 
One popular idea is that yawning brings more oxygen 
into the brain to wake people up. Is that what you have 
thought? But in 2007, researchers at a university in New 
York came up with a new idea: yawning helps cool the 
brain. 

Scientists found that people yawned more frequently 
in situations where their brains were warmer. The idea is 
that yawning cools the brain by increasing blood flow and 
bringing cooler air into the body. Cooler brains work 
better than warmer ones. 

This may also help explain why yawning is contagious. 
People are more awake when their brains are cooler. As 
people evolved over time, contagious yawning helped 
people stay awake. This was important in times of 
danger. It's very possible that the person yawning could 
have been signaling to others to stay awake. 

The next time you are talking to someone and that 
person yawns, you can tell yourself that he or she actually 
wants to stay awake, not go to sleep. 



Chapters 18 and 19 



LISTENING SCRIPT 463 



Exercise 38, p. 415. 
Passage 1: Turtles 

Turtles have survived on earth for more than 200 
million years, but now many species face extinction. 
People in many parts of the world use them for food and 
for traditional medicine, so the demand for them is high. 
In spite of international trade laws that protect them, 
illegal traffic in turtles is increasing. 

Passage 2: Boy or Girl? 

Research shows that many parents prefer to have a boy 
rather than a girl because boys are expected to become 
better economic providers for their parents in their old 
age. In developed countries, however, more women than 
men go to a university. It's possible that in some places 
more women than men will be prepared for the high- 
paying jobs of the 21st century. 



Chapter 20: Conditional Sentences 
and Wishes 



Exercise 6, p. 418. 

1. If I'm talking too fast, please tell me. 

2. If we get married, everyone will be shocked. 

3. If it's okay, I'll ask for some advice. 

4. If he's planning to quit, I hope he lets us know soon. 

5. If it's not working, we'll need to try something else. 

6. If she works harder, I'm sure she'll succeed. 

7. If I should get the job, I'll call you right away. 

Exercise 19, p. 424. 

The Extinction of Dinosaurs 

There are several scientific theories as to why 
dinosaurs became extinct. One theory has to do with 
asteroids. Asteroids, as you may know, are rocky objects 
that orbit the sun. According to this theory, an asteroid 
collided with the earth millions of years ago, causing 
disastrous changes in the earth's climate, such as 
tsunamis, high winds, and dust in the atmosphere that 
blocked the sun. As a result, dinosaurs could no longer 
survive. Some scientists believe that if this asteroid had 
not collided with the earth, dinosaurs would not have 
become extinct. 

Exercise 20, p. 424. 

1 . If I had known the truth sooner, I would have acted 
differently. 

2. If we hadn't believed him, we wouldn't have felt so 
foolish. 

3. If you hadn't told me what a great guy Jon was, I 
wouldn't have believed him so easily. 



4. If it had been another person, I wouldn't have been 
so shocked. 

5. If he hadn't lied, I would have had more respect for 
him. 

Exercise 22, p. 426. 

1. If I had enough time, I'd go to the art museum this 
afternoon. I love going to art museums. 

2. Mrs. Jones is really lucky. If she hadn't received 
immediate medical attention, she would have died. 

3. If I were a carpenter, I'd build my own house. I'd 
really enjoy that. 

4. So many people died unnecessarily in the 
earthquake. If the hotel had been built to withstand 
an earthquake, it wouldn't have collapsed. 

Exercise 32, p. 430. 

1 . If I hadn't been driving so fast, I wouldn't have 
gotten a speeding ticket. 

2. Should you have questions, give me a call on my 
cell. 

3. Had you told us sooner, we could have helped you. 

4. If there had been a faster way to get to the theater, 
I would have taken it. 

5. Had anyone warned us about the situation, we 
would have stayed home. 

6. Were we rich, we would live in a house overlooking 
the ocean. 

Exercise 35, p. 431. 

1 . I would have called, but I left your number at home. 

2. I couldn't have gone to college without my parents' 
financial help. 

3. I ran out of time. Otherwise, I would have picked up 
your clothes from the cleaners. 

4. We would have come to the party, but no one told us 
about it. 

5. Without your advice, I wouldn't have known what 
to do. 

Exercise 45, p. 436. 

1. Alice doesn't like her job as a nurse. She wishes she 
hadn't gone to nursing school. 

2. A: I wish we didn't have to go to work today. 
B: So do 1. 1 wish it were a holiday. 

3. We had a good time in the mountains over vacation. 
I wish you had c